Introduction to Greenhouse Diseases Seminar for ProGreen2009

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Information about Introduction to Greenhouse Diseases Seminar for ProGreen2009
Education

Published on January 14, 2009

Author: bedmunds

Source: slideshare.net

Plant Disease Certified Greenhouse Grower Brooke Edmunds Colorado State University Extension

Definition of Disease? Abnormal growth or dysfunction of a plant Caused by: Abiotic non-living factors = environmentally induced disease Biotic living organisms=pathogens, etc.

Abnormal growth or dysfunction of a plant

Caused by:

Abiotic

non-living factors = environmentally induced disease

Biotic

living organisms=pathogens, etc.

Biotic disease Pathogen types Fungi* Bacteria* Viruses* Phytoplasmas Nematodes Parasitic plants

Pathogen types

Fungi*

Bacteria*

Viruses*

Phytoplasmas

Nematodes

Parasitic plants

Plant Disease Triangle Susceptible plant Suitable Environment Pathogen DISEASE

Steps to Diagnose Plant Disease Identify the plant Examine the plant What are the common diseases affecting this plant? 90% of the time the common problems will be mine too Become familiar with the symptoms and signs of the common diseases Examine the environment What factors influence the common diseases?

Identify the plant

Examine the plant

What are the common diseases affecting this plant?

90% of the time the common problems will be mine too

Become familiar with the symptoms and signs of the common diseases

Examine the environment

What factors influence the common diseases?

What else can be done to ID disease on-site? What’s been happening recently on this crop and in other areas/other growers? diagnosingplantdiseases.blogspot.com/ Narrow down by looking at pictures: Trade articles University/Extension newsletters If you get stuck: submit to Adams County Plant Clinic

What’s been happening recently on this crop and in other areas/other growers?

diagnosingplantdiseases.blogspot.com/

Narrow down by looking at pictures:

Trade articles

University/Extension newsletters

If you get stuck: submit to Adams County Plant Clinic

Symptom vs Sign ( effect vs cause) Symptom = The plants response to stress Sign= The reproductive or vegetative structure of the pathogen

Symptom = The plants response to stress

Sign= The reproductive or vegetative structure of the pathogen

A. Greenhouse Tomato

B. Pumpkin Transplant

C. Powdery Mildew seen through a hand lens

D. Rotted base of hydroponic lettuce

Biotic diseases Pathogen types Fungi Bacteria Virus Phytoplasma Nematodes Parasitic plants

Pathogen types

Fungi

Bacteria

Virus

Phytoplasma

Nematodes

Parasitic plants

Fungi Filamentous or thread-like body called hyphae (plural). A mass of hyphae is called mycellium.

Fungi - reproduce by spores

Fungi Parasite or Saprophyte Move in plant parts, water, soil, air currents, on tools, and help of insects. Enter plant through wounds, natural openings, or on their own Use enzymes to break down plant cells and absorb nutrients

Parasite or Saprophyte

Move in plant parts, water, soil, air currents, on tools, and help of insects.

Enter plant through wounds, natural openings, or on their own

Use enzymes to break down plant cells and absorb nutrients

Where do fungi commonly attack? Foliage Root/Crown Vascular system

Foliar Fungal Diseases Leaf spots with margins (smooth or feathery), or concentric rings Blights

Leaf spots with margins (smooth or feathery), or concentric rings

Blights

Powdery Mildew 100’s of hosts Spores spread in air White talcum powder spores Purple lesions Favored by High relative humidity DRY leaf surface Plant stress

100’s of hosts

Spores spread in air

White talcum powder spores

Purple lesions

Favored by

High relative humidity

DRY leaf surface

Plant stress

Powdery Mildew Management Sanitation both inside and outside of Ghse Lower relative humidity (increase air circulation) Avoid plant stress Proper lighting Proper fertility Fungicides Chlorothalonil (Daconil) Copper sulfate Sulfur Myclobuntanil (Systhane) Piperalin (Pipron) Thiophanate methyl (3336) Triadimefon (Strike) Triflumizole (Terraguard) ALWAYS CHECK LABEL!

Sanitation both inside and outside of Ghse

Lower relative humidity (increase air circulation)

Avoid plant stress

Proper lighting

Proper fertility

Fungicides

Chlorothalonil (Daconil)

Copper sulfate

Sulfur

Myclobuntanil (Systhane)

Piperalin (Pipron)

Thiophanate methyl (3336)

Triadimefon (Strike)

Triflumizole (Terraguard)

ALWAYS CHECK LABEL!

Downy Mildew Less common than powdery mildew Red, purple or yellow angular areas on leaves. Gray/brown spores on leaf underside Requires WET leaf surface Potential hosts: Snapdragon Rose Potentilla

Less common than powdery mildew

Red, purple or yellow angular areas on leaves.

Gray/brown spores on leaf underside

Requires WET leaf surface

Potential hosts:

Snapdragon

Rose

Potentilla

Downy Mildew Management Remove infected plants Avoid: Prolonged leaf wetness High relative humidity Use sanitation Weed control No standing water No plant debris Fungicides Mancozeb (Dithane/Manzate) Fosetyl al (Chipco Aliette) Mefanoxam (Subdue Maxx) ALWAYS READ THE LABEL!

Remove infected plants

Avoid:

Prolonged leaf wetness

High relative humidity

Use sanitation

Weed control

No standing water

No plant debris

Fungicides

Mancozeb (Dithane/Manzate)

Fosetyl al (Chipco Aliette)

Mefanoxam (Subdue Maxx)

ALWAYS READ THE LABEL!

Botrytis Diagnosis via presence of “signs” Many hosts ‘ Grey Mold’ 1 0 or 2 0 Likes wounds Favored by High relative humidity Cool temps (< 60 F) Water on leaf surface Spores travel in air currents Signs

Diagnosis via presence of “signs”

Many hosts

‘ Grey Mold’

1 0 or 2 0

Likes wounds

Favored by

High relative humidity

Cool temps (< 60 F)

Water on leaf surface

Spores travel in air currents

Botrytis Management Increase air circulation Decrease relative humidity Vent + heat Fans Space plants farther apart Eliminate debris and standing water Fungicides Iprodione (26GT) Chlorothalonil (Daconil) Mancozeb (Dithane) Vinclozalin (Ornalin) Fenahexamid (Decree) Copper (Phyton 27) ALWAYS READ THE LABEL!

Increase air circulation

Decrease relative humidity

Vent + heat

Fans

Space plants farther apart

Eliminate debris and standing water

Fungicides

Iprodione (26GT)

Chlorothalonil (Daconil)

Mancozeb (Dithane)

Vinclozalin (Ornalin)

Fenahexamid (Decree)

Copper (Phyton 27)

ALWAYS READ THE LABEL!

Thielaviopsis root rot of petunia Photos: Kansas State Univ. Pythium on Geraniums Fungal Root & Crown Rots

Rotted roots Healthy roots

Pythium on watermelon transplants

The Fungi involved Rhizoctonia Pythium & Phytophthora Thielaviopsis The only way to identify which fungus is involved is under the microscope. Thielaviopsis spores in root tissue Rhizoctonia mycelium in root tissue

Rhizoctonia

Pythium & Phytophthora

Thielaviopsis

The only way to identify which fungus is involved is under the microscope.

Root & Crown Rot Management Reduce plant stress Proper water and temperature Sanitation/Disinfection Pots Benches Hoses Other equipment Rogue diseased plants

Reduce plant stress

Proper water and temperature

Sanitation/Disinfection

Pots

Benches

Hoses

Other equipment

Rogue diseased plants

Management of Root & Crown Rots: Fungicides Rhizoctonia Heritage (Azoxystrobin) 26GT (Iprodione) Medallion (Fludioxinil) Contrast (Flutolanil) 3336 (Thiophanate methyl) Banrot (Etridiazole + thiophanate methyl) Pythium Aliette (Fosetyl-Al) Sudbdue Maxx (Mefanoxam) Heritage Truban (Thiadiazole) Thielaviopsis Banrot 3336 Domain Terraguard Always read the label!

Rhizoctonia

Heritage (Azoxystrobin)

26GT (Iprodione)

Medallion (Fludioxinil)

Contrast (Flutolanil)

3336 (Thiophanate methyl)

Banrot (Etridiazole + thiophanate methyl)

Pythium

Aliette (Fosetyl-Al)

Sudbdue Maxx (Mefanoxam)

Heritage

Truban (Thiadiazole)

Thielaviopsis

Banrot

3336

Domain

Terraguard

Fusarium Wilt on Cyclamen (very common) Vascular Wilt caused by Fungi Botrytis mycelium

Fusarium Wilt on Cyclamen (very common)

Management of Vascular Wilt Sanitation and disinfection Rogue = throw away Clean planting media Soil pasteurization (kill bad guys, leave many good guys) Heat soil to 140 – 160 F for 30 min. Chemical fumigation Clean up debris from floors and benches Weed control Don’t overwater Good air circulation Use clean stock/seed

Sanitation and disinfection

Rogue = throw away

Clean planting media

Soil pasteurization (kill bad guys, leave many good guys)

Heat soil to 140 – 160 F for 30 min.

Chemical fumigation

Clean up debris from floors and benches

Weed control

Don’t overwater

Good air circulation

Use clean stock/seed

Bacteria Single celled Parasite or Saprophyte Don’t produce spores Require wet & humid conditions to cause infection Enter plants through wounds or natural openings

Single celled

Parasite or Saprophyte

Don’t produce spores

Require wet & humid conditions to cause infection

Enter plants through wounds or natural openings

Symptoms of Bacterial Disease Galls, Vascular Wilts, Cankers, Fruit Rots, Leaf Spots Crown Gall

Galls, Vascular Wilts, Cankers, Fruit Rots, Leaf Spots

Symptoms of Bacterial Disease Leaf spots – angular or round, water-soaked (‘wet’), often do not cross major leaf veins.

Leaf spots – angular or round, water-soaked (‘wet’), often do not cross major leaf veins.

Diagnosis of Bacterial Disease In the Greenhouse: Look for ooze or bacterial streaming Photo: Penn State Univ.

In the Greenhouse:

Look for ooze or bacterial streaming

Diagnosis of Bacterial Diseases In the lab: Bacterial streaming or ooze under microscope Immunoassays Culture

In the lab:

Bacterial streaming or ooze under microscope

Immunoassays

Culture

Erwinia soft rot Common on cyclamen Symptoms similar to Fusarium wilt Mushy, rotten tissue-smells bad Control through sanitation and disinfection Poinsettia

Common on cyclamen

Symptoms similar to Fusarium wilt

Mushy, rotten tissue-smells bad

Control through sanitation and disinfection

Xanthomonas Geranium X. campestris pv. pelargonii (XCP) Hedera Ivy X. campetris pv hedera

Geranium

X. campestris pv. pelargonii (XCP)

Hedera Ivy

X. campetris pv hedera

Pseudomonas Causes leaf spots and stem cankers Common on impatiens, pothos & tomato Control with copper-based chemicals

Causes leaf spots and stem cankers

Common on impatiens, pothos & tomato

Control with copper-based chemicals

Ralstonia Vascular wilt Hosts: Geranium Tomato Potato

Vascular wilt

Hosts:

Geranium

Tomato

Potato

Management of Bacterial Diseases Remove symptomatic plants and debris Clean tools and hands Improve air circulation/decrease relative humidity Avoid overwatering and leaf wetness Sprays of copper?

Remove symptomatic plants and debris

Clean tools and hands

Improve air circulation/decrease relative humidity

Avoid overwatering and leaf wetness

Sprays of copper?

Viruses Obligate parasites Systemic in plants Vectored by insects, people, nematodes INSV & TSWV are most important to greenhouses

Obligate parasites

Systemic in plants

Vectored by insects, people, nematodes

INSV & TSWV are most important to greenhouses

Impatiens Necrotic Spot Virus (INSV) Vectored by Western Flower Thrips 100’s of hosts Diverse symptoms Ring spots Stunting Leaf spots Necrosis Line patterns

Vectored by Western Flower Thrips

100’s of hosts

Diverse symptoms

Ring spots

Stunting

Leaf spots

Necrosis

Line patterns

Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV) Transmitted by several species of thrips More common on vegetables and dahlias

Transmitted by several species of thrips

More common on vegetables and dahlias

Diagnosis of INSV/TSWV In the greenhouse: Is/was the vector present? Leaf tissue is still supple? Fungus – leaf tissue often dries up/becomes crispy Immunoassay strip test In the lab: Confirmed via Immunoassay test Serology (ELISA) Sap transmission

In the greenhouse:

Is/was the vector present?

Leaf tissue is still supple?

Fungus – leaf tissue often dries up/becomes crispy

Immunoassay strip test

In the lab:

Confirmed via

Immunoassay test

Serology (ELISA)

Sap transmission

Management of Virus Diseases Remove entire plant and destroy Monitor and control vector i.e. Thrips control to prevent INSV/TSWV Preventive Purchase symptom-free plants Quarantine or separate newly arriving stock

Remove entire plant and destroy

Monitor and control vector

i.e. Thrips control to prevent INSV/TSWV

Preventive

Purchase symptom-free plants

Quarantine or separate newly arriving stock

Abiotic Diseases Environmentally induced, non-living Temperature extremes Moisture extremes Soil properties Culture of plant Planting techniques Fertility Pesticide misuse (phytotoxicity)

Environmentally induced, non-living

Temperature extremes

Moisture extremes

Soil properties

Culture of plant

Planting techniques

Fertility

Pesticide misuse (phytotoxicity)

Common Abiotic Diseases/Disorders Edema

Common Abiotic Diseases/Disorders Leaf Scorch

Blossom End of Tomato Common Abiotic Diseases/Disorders

diagnosingplantdiseases.blogspot.com/

diagnosingplantdiseases.blogspot.com/

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