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Introduction to Embedded System

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Information about Introduction to Embedded System
Technology

Published on March 5, 2014

Author: EmertxeSlides

Source: slideshare.net

Description

An introductory presentation to Embedded Systems. Ideal for beginners to get started with Embedded fundamentals.
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Introduction to Embedded System (IES) Team Embedded Emertxe Information Technologies

Pass on the ball 1. Let us get the ball rolling  2. Introduce yourself 3. Expectations from this program

Course span-out

Introduction to Embedded System

Let us ponder… • What do you understand as Embedded System? • Name few examples of Embedded System from our daily usage • How different they are from a general purpose system (GPS)? • What difference can be there between multiple Embedded Systems? “Any Hardware System which is intended to do a specific task can be called as an Embedded System”

ES - Examples Examples – Automotive, Satellite communication, Consumer electronics, Medical, Imaging, Robotics etc..

ES - Classifications ü Embedded systems can be classified into four different categories: • • Real time Embedded System – Provides real time guarantee in terms of response and predictability • Network appliances – High focus on packet processing • ü Stand alone Embedded System – Performs a single and specific functionality Mobile devices – Hand held devices Embedded systems – “Choice-points” • Embedded Systems type and expectations drastically vary • In order to meet customer needs specific “Choice-points” to be decided • These are popularly known as “Design parameters”

ES – Choice points ü Let us take an example of Mobile Vs. Automotive Embedded device ü Try to compare various choice points ü For each choice made corresponding compromise factor to be considered ü Optimizing every other parameter is not a possible option

ES – Design metrics ü Time to Prototype ü Power ü Performance & Correctness ü Size ü NRE ü Maintainability & Flexibility ü Safety ü Unit Cost ü Time to Market

ES - Challenges ü Efficient Inputs/Outputs ü Embedding an OS    ü Code optimization ü Testing and debugging

Embedded System - Components

ES - Components

CPU – μC | μP ü The “Brain” of the system ü Implementation can be: • • ü ü Digital Signal Processors (DSP) • ü Universal System On a Chip (SoC) “On-the board” v/s “On-the-chip” ASIC/SoC tape-out process provides lot of advantages than using Universal processors However it requires huge up-front investment (in terms of millions!)

Memory ü Various types of memory exist with specific characteristics ü Based on Volatility, Write-ability, Cost and Speed - Parameters to compare ü Higher level group/category is provided as follows:

Memory- compare!

Memory - Space

Components… FPGA and ASIC – Taping out custom chips for optimization purpose

HW - Processors and Controllers

Evolution of processors

Micro processor v/s Micro controller ü ü ü All separate components More flexible More design complexity ü ü ü All components in a single chip Less flexible Less design complexity

Choosing a Microprocessor: Choice points: Classifications: ü Application ü Bit-depth ü Performance ü Architecture ü Price ü Use based: • ü Availability ü Availability of Tools ü Special Capabilities GPP – Proper & Micro controllers • ASP – DSP & ASIC

Von Neumann & Harvard Architecture Shared signals and memory for code and data Physically separate signals and storage for code and data

RISC v/s CISC RISC: CISC: Advantages: Advantages: ü Moved complexity from HW to SW ü Moved complexity from SW to HW ü Provided a single-chip solution ü Compact code ü Better usage of chip area ü Ease of compiler design ü Better speed ü Easier to debug ü Feasibility of pipe-lining ü Increased design errors ü Longer design time • Single cycle execution stages • Uniform Instruction format Disadvantages: ü Greater burden on SW Disadvantages: ü Performance tuning unsuccessful ü High complexity ü Time to market increases

Interfacing ü ü ü Processor has to interface with memory and various I/O devices Bus protocols are used for communication Consisting of: • Address bus • Data bus • Control lines: • CS • RD • WR

Peripheral Interfacing ü ü ü Processor has to interface with memory and various I/O devices Bus protocols are used for communication Consisting of: • Address bus • Data bus • Control lines: • CS • RD • WR

HW Architecture HW board with interfacing

SW – Development, Architecture, Environment

SW development In Embedded Systems, SW and HW development happens in a combined manner. SW development details and life cycle are covered in SDLC topic in detail.

Architectures ü Super loop ü Interrupt controlled ü Co-operative multi tasking ü Pre-emptive multi-tasking ü Micro and Monolithic Kernel

Dev Environment ü ü ü Embedded development environment is quite different and relatively complex than application development The simple reason the embedded software developed in a ‘host’ machine and executed on a ‘target’ which makes the compilation and debugging process quite challenging Popularly known as Integrated Development Environment (IDE), this environment consist of the following key candidates: ü Editor – For scripting Embedded program ü Configuration ü Tool chain – Cross compiler, linker and associated tools ü Target download and debug environment – Installation and test

IDE – Pictorially…

Interrupts

Interrupt - Basics ü An interrupt is a communication process set up in a microprocessor or microcontroller in which: ü ü The MPU acknowledges the request ü Attends to the request ü ü An internal or external device requests the MPU to stop the processing Goes back to processing where it was interrupted Interrupt sources ü ü Timers ü ü External Peripherals Interrupt v/s Polling ü Loss of Events ü Response ü Power Management

Interrupts - Classification

Interrupts - Handling

Interrupt Service Routine ü Similar to a subroutine ü Attends to the request of an interrupting source ü ü Should save register contents that may be affected by the code in the ISR ü ü Clears the interrupt flag Must be terminated with the instruction RETFIE When an interrupt occurs, the MPU: ü ü Disables global interrupt enable ü ü Completes the instruction being executed Places the address from the program counter on the stack Return from interrupt

Interrupt Latency ü Latency is determined by: ü Instruction time (how long is the longest) ü How much of the context must be saved ü How much of the context must be restored ü The effort to implement priority scheme ü Time spend executing protected code

THANK YOU

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