Introduction to CVS

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Published on March 16, 2014

Author: maulikmpatel56

Source: authorstream.com

PowerPoint Presentation: CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM PowerPoint Presentation: Cardiac Arrhythmia Hypertension Heart Failure Coronary syndrome ( angina and Myocardial Infarction) PowerPoint Presentation: Cardiac Arrhythmia Classification of Antiarrhythmic Agents: Classification of Antiarrhythmic Agents I Na channel blockers (Quinidine, Lidocaine ) II Beta-adrenergic blockers ( Esmolol , ppnl ) III K channel blockers ( ibutilide , Amiodarone ) IV Calcium channel blockers( vpl , diltiazam ) V Miscellaneous (Adenosine , Digoxin) PowerPoint Presentation: Hypertension JNC VII Classification: 8 JNC VII Classification Hypertension stage 1 >140/90 and Stage 2 > 160 /100 Hypertension-First Line Drugs: Hypertension-First Line Drugs Thiazide Diuretics (hydrochlorothiazide) ACE inhibitors ( Enalapril )- dry cough Angiotensin II receptor blockers (Losartan) Beta blockers ( Metoprolol , atenolol) if tachycardia Calcium channel blockers (Amlodipine) Heart Failure: Heart Failure Angina and Myocardial Infarction: Angina and Myocardial Infarction What is Angina and Why Does it Happen?: 17 Oxygen demand depends on heart work Coronary artery partial obstruction (due to atherosclerosis) limits blood supply to part of the myocardium Ischaemia (O 2 deficiency) causes pain: “angina” What is Angina and Why Does it Happen? Drug Treatment of Angina: Limiting Heart Work: 18 Dilate resistance vessels Nitrates( GTN) Ca 2+ channel blockers ( nifedipine , felodipine , amlodipine ) Reduce heart rate and contractility  adrenoceptor blockers( Metoprolol ) Ca 2+ channel blockers (verapamil and diltiazem ) Drug Treatment of Angina: Limiting Heart Work Nitrates: 19 Nitrates Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) Isosorbide (di)nitrate PowerPoint Presentation: 20 GTN NO 2 - OrganicNitrate Ester Reductase R-SH R-SH NO Nitrosothiols (R-SNO) Guanylate Cyclase + GTP cGMP Protein Kinase G RELAXATION Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell PowerPoint Presentation: Myocardial Infarction Emergency Department Aspirin (160–325-mg tablet ) is essential in the management of patients with suspected STEMI and is effective across the entire spectrum of acute coronary syndromes. This measure should be followed by daily oral administration of aspirin in a dose of 75–162 mg . O 2 should be administered by nasal prongs or face mask (2–4 L/min) for the first 6–12 h after infarction PowerPoint Presentation: Sublingual nitroglycerin to most patients with STEMI . Up to three doses of 0.4 mg should be administered at about 5-min intervals. than use intravenous nitroglycerin Morphine ( effective analgesic) Morphine is routinely administered by repetitive (every 5 min) intravenous injection of small doses (2–4 mg). Intravenous beta blockers diminishing myocardial O 2 demand and hence ischemia. Oral beta-blocker therapy should be initiated in the first 24 h for patients. Control of Discomfort PowerPoint Presentation: I deally be initiated within 30 min of presentation ( i.e., door-to-needle time 30 min ). The principal goal is prompt restoration of full coronary arterial patency . act by promoting the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin , which subsequently lyses fibrin thrombi . Fibrinolysis by tissue plasminogen activator ( tPA ), streptokinase, tenecteplase , and reteplase PowerPoint Presentation: The primary goal of treatment with antiplatelet (aspirin/ clopidogrel ) and anticoagulant ( Heparin) is to maintain patency of the infarct-related artery, in conjunction with reperfusion strategies(Fibrinolysis) . PowerPoint Presentation: Thank You

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