Introduction To Controlled Vocabularies

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Information about Introduction To Controlled Vocabularies
Technology

Published on November 19, 2008

Author: FredLeise

Source: slideshare.net

Description

A basic introduction to taxonomies/controlled vocabularies, what they are and how they are used. Presented originally at the Society of Indexers conference, July 2008.

Introduction to Controlled Vocabularies Presented by Fred Leise ContextualAnalysis, LLC The Round Table Conference Society of Indexers Sunday, July 13, 2008

Presented by Fred Leise

ContextualAnalysis, LLC

The Round Table Conference

Society of Indexers

Sunday, July 13, 2008

About Fred Leise Co-Founder and Chief Operating Officer, Intuitect (software for website creators) ContextualAnalysis, LLC Specializing in metadata and controlled vocabulary development www.contextualanalysis.com

Co-Founder and Chief Operating Officer, Intuitect (software for website creators)

ContextualAnalysis, LLC

Specializing in metadata and controlled vocabulary development

www.contextualanalysis.com

About Fred Leise Recent Clients Scripps Newspapers Disney Studios Harpo, Inc. (Oprah.com) Dow Corning Abbott Laboratories

Recent Clients

Scripps Newspapers

Disney Studios

Harpo, Inc. (Oprah.com)

Dow Corning

Abbott Laboratories

About Fred Leise Freelance back-of-book indexer since 1995 Scholarly texts in the humanities President, American Society for Indexing

Freelance back-of-book indexer since 1995

Scholarly texts in the humanities

President, American Society for Indexing

Goals for This Presentation Introduce basic concepts and terminology about controlled vocabularies (Feel free to ask questions or contribute examples at any time)

Introduce basic concepts and terminology about controlled vocabularies

(Feel free to ask questions or contribute examples at any time)

Workshop Overview Indexes vs. Controlled Vocabularies (CVs) An Introduction to CVs Using CVs Facets CV Development Methodology Overview CV Governance and Maintenance

Indexes vs. Controlled Vocabularies (CVs)

An Introduction to CVs

Using CVs

Facets

CV Development Methodology Overview

CV Governance and Maintenance

Terminology Problem Taxonomy generally, any kind of controlled vocabulary also a specific type of controlled vocabulary

Taxonomy

generally, any kind of controlled vocabulary

also a specific type of controlled vocabulary

Indexes vs. CVs

Indexes vs. CVs Similarities Concept identification Term selection

Similarities

Concept identification

Term selection

Indexes vs. CVs Differences research reading Methodology months weeks Project time content tagging, website navigation, search enhancement content locator Use term list index End product CVs Indexes Item

Differences

About Controlled Vocabularies

H. Wellisch A list of terms that may be used for indexing, produced by the operation of vocabulary control. What are Controlled Vocabularies?

H. Wellisch

A list of terms that may be used for indexing, produced by the operation of vocabulary control.

F. Leise: A list of terms and term relationships designed to: 1. Collect similar information, 2. Assist content authors in consistently tagging content, and What are Controlled Vocabularies?

F. Leise:

A list of terms and term relationships designed to:

1. Collect similar information,

2. Assist content authors in consistently tagging content, and

F. Leise: 3. Enable users to find the information they need by translating their language into the language of the information store. What are Controlled Vocabularies?

F. Leise:

3. Enable users to find the information they need by translating their language into the language of the information store.

Equivalence (Synonyms) Country = Nation Chief of State = Prime Minister Brunei = Sultanate of Brunei = Negara Brunei Darussalam = سلطنة بروناي = برني دارالسلام

Country = Nation

Chief of State = Prime Minister

Brunei = Sultanate of Brunei = Negara Brunei Darussalam = سلطنة بروناي = برني دارالسلام

Hierarchical Relationships Whole/Part Automobile Air bags Engine Seats Steering Wheels

Whole/Part

Automobile

Air bags

Engine

Seats

Steering

Wheels

Hierarchical Relationships Instances Buildings Great Pyramid of Giza Madison Square Garden Petronas Towers Sears Tower Taipei 101

Instances

Buildings

Great Pyramid of Giza

Madison Square Garden

Petronas Towers

Sears Tower

Taipei 101

Examples operation/agent turning : lathes occupation/person social work : social worker causal dependence friction : wear agent/counteragent pests : pesticides concept/opposite tolerance : prejudice concept/origin water : water wells Associative Relationship

Examples

operation/agent turning : lathes

occupation/person social work : social worker

causal dependence friction : wear

agent/counteragent pests : pesticides

concept/opposite tolerance : prejudice

concept/origin water : water wells

Synonym Ring Words with equivalent meanings (in a given context) pound sterling = pound = quid CD-ROM = CD = disk chips = French fries Houses of Parliament = Palace of Westminster Types of CVs

Synonym Ring

Words with equivalent meanings (in a given context)

pound sterling = pound = quid

CD-ROM = CD = disk

chips = French fries

Houses of Parliament = Palace of Westminster

Authority File Has all the features of a synonym ring, plus preferred terms (approved terms/keywords) for tagging content. Types of CVs

Authority File

Has all the features of a synonym ring, plus preferred terms (approved terms/keywords) for tagging content.

Authority File: Alphabetical community USE neighborhood health and safety UF safety levy USE tax neighborhood UF community parks UF recreation rebate USE refund recreation USE parks refund UF rebate safety USE health and safety tax UF levy

community USE neighborhood

health and safety UF safety

levy USE tax

neighborhood UF community

parks UF recreation

rebate USE refund

recreation USE parks

refund UF rebate

safety USE health and safety

tax UF levy

Authority File: Spreadsheet levy tax rebate refund recreation parks community neighborhood safety health and safety Variant Terms Preferred Term

Taxonomy Also called hierarchy All features of authority files, plus: Broader terms (BT) Narrower terms (NT) Types of CVs

Taxonomy

Also called hierarchy

All features of authority files, plus:

Broader terms (BT)

Narrower terms (NT)

Taxonomy All terms must be part of a hierarchical relationship (no orphan terms). May be presented in indented (hierarchical) or alphabetical format. Types of CVs

Taxonomy

All terms must be part of a hierarchical relationship (no orphan terms).

May be presented in indented (hierarchical) or alphabetical format.

total compensation . compensation . . base salary [salary] . . deferred payments [deferred compensation] . . variable pay . benefits . . 401(k) plan . . health benefits . . . dental plan . . . disability insurance Taxonomy Example (Indented)

total compensation . compensation . . base salary [salary] . . deferred payments [deferred compensation] . . variable pay . benefits . . 401(k) plan . . health benefits . . . dental plan . . . disability insurance

401(k) plan BT benefits base salary BT compensation UF salary benefits BT total compensation NT 401(k) plan; health benefits compensation BT total compensation NT base salary; deferred payments; variable pay deferred compensation USE deferred payments deferred payments BT compensation UF deferred compensation dental plan BT health benefits disability insurance BT health benefits health benefits BT benefits NT dental plan; disability insurance salary USE base salary total compensation NT benefits; compensation variable pay BT compensation Taxonomy Example (Alpha List)

401(k) plan BT benefits

base salary BT compensation UF salary

benefits BT total compensation NT 401(k) plan; health benefits

compensation BT total compensation NT base salary; deferred payments; variable pay

deferred compensation USE deferred payments

deferred payments BT compensation UF deferred compensation

dental plan BT health benefits

disability insurance BT health benefits

health benefits BT benefits NT dental plan; disability insurance

salary USE base salary

total compensation NT benefits; compensation

variable pay BT compensation

Thesaurus (pl. thesauri) All the features of taxonomies, plus the associative relationship of related terms (RT) Types of CVs

Thesaurus (pl. thesauri)

All the features of taxonomies, plus the associative relationship of related terms (RT)

Building Permits BT Permits Business Licenses BT Licenses Business Taxes BT Taxes Fees BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; RT Taxes Licenses BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; NT Business Licenses; RT Permits Operating Permits BT Permits Permits BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; NT Building Permits, Operating Permits; RT Licenses Taxes BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; NT Business Taxes RT Fees Thesaurus: Alphabetical

Building Permits BT Permits

Business Licenses BT Licenses

Business Taxes BT Taxes

Fees BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; RT Taxes

Licenses BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; NT Business Licenses; RT Permits

Operating Permits BT Permits

Permits BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; NT Building Permits, Operating Permits; RT Licenses

Taxes BT Licenses, Permits & Taxes; NT Business Taxes RT Fees

Thesaurus: Indented   Business Taxes . . Fees   Taxes .   Operating Permits . .   Building Permits . . Licenses   Permits .   Business Licenses . . Permits   Licenses . Taxes   Fees .     Licenses, Permits & Taxes Related Terms Vocabulary Terms

Synonym Ring + preferred terms = Authority File + broader/narrower terms = Taxonomy + related terms = Thesaurus Types of CVs—Summary

Synonym Ring

+ preferred terms

= Authority File

+ broader/narrower terms

= Taxonomy

+ related terms

= Thesaurus

International standards ISO 2788:1986 Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Monolingual Thesauri (BS 5723: 1987) ISO 5964:1985 Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Multilingual Thesauri (BS 6723: 1985) www.iso.org ; www.bsi-global.com/en CV Construction Standards

International standards

ISO 2788:1986 Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Monolingual Thesauri (BS 5723: 1987)

ISO 5964:1985 Guidelines for the Establishment and Development of Multilingual Thesauri (BS 6723: 1985)

www.iso.org ; www.bsi-global.com/en

National standards BS 8723-3:2007 Structured vocabularies for information retrieval. Guide. Vocabularies other than thesauri BS 8723-2:2005 Structured vocabularies for information retrieval. Guide. Thesauri www.bsi-global.com/en CV Construction Standards

National standards

BS 8723-3:2007 Structured vocabularies for information retrieval. Guide. Vocabularies other than thesauri

BS 8723-2:2005 Structured vocabularies for information retrieval. Guide. Thesauri

www.bsi-global.com/en

Polyhierarchies Terms live in multiple categories, have multiple parent/child relationships Sultanates Countries Audhali Albania Brunei Brunei Oman China

Terms live in multiple categories, have multiple parent/child relationships

Sultanates Countries

Audhali Albania

Brunei Brunei

Oman China

Using Controlled Vocabularies

Organizes content using CV terms as category labels Represents vocabulary hierarchy by browsing levels Navigation Taxonomy

Organizes content using CV terms as category labels

Represents vocabulary hierarchy by browsing levels

Level 1 Level 2 Level 3

Offers options for expanding or reducing scope of search using broader or narrower terms Differentiates between multiple meanings of terms Search Enhancement

Offers options for expanding or reducing scope of search using broader or narrower terms

Differentiates between multiple meanings of terms

CV Use: Search Results

Synonym Ring During search, when one of the words in a synonym ring is searched for, the search engine returns items containing any of the words in the ring. “biscuit” = “cookies” Search Enhancement

Synonym Ring

During search, when one of the words in a synonym ring is searched for, the search engine returns items containing any of the words in the ring.

“biscuit” = “cookies”

Facets

Facets First introduced by S. J. Ranganathan in the early 1930s. , Personality What is it? ; Matter What is it made of? : Energy What action is it performing? . Space Where is it? ‘ Time When is it?

First introduced by S. J. Ranganathan in the early 1930s.

, Personality What is it?

; Matter What is it made of?

: Energy What action is it performing?

. Space Where is it?

‘ Time When is it?

Facets "research in the cure of tuberculosis of lungs by x-ray conducted in India in 1950" L,45;421:6;253:f.44'N5 Components of this call number Medicine,Lungs;Tuberculosis:Treatment;X-ray:Research.India'1950 P,P;M:E;M:E.S’T

"research in the cure of tuberculosis of lungs by x-ray conducted in India in 1950"

L,45;421:6;253:f.44'N5

Components of this call number

Medicine,Lungs;Tuberculosis:Treatment;X-ray:Research.India'1950

P,P;M:E;M:E.S’T

Fundamental categories by which an object or concept may be described Example: facets describing a ball: size, weight, shape, color, texture, material What are some other possible facets describing this ball? Facets

Fundamental categories by which an object or concept may be described

Example: facets describing a ball:

size, weight, shape, color, texture, material

What are some other possible facets describing this ball?

Used for Browsing Hierarchies Facets allow users to follow the path best matching the way they think. Allows multiple paths to same information. Example: epicurious.com > recipes > browse Facets

Used for Browsing Hierarchies

Facets allow users to follow the path best matching the way they think.

Allows multiple paths to same information.

Example: epicurious.com > recipes > browse

 

pcworld.co.uk Laptop Search

alibris.co.uk Advanced Search

Facets Reference Louise Spiteri, “A Simplified Model for Facet Analysis,” in Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science v23, 1-30 (April-July 1998). Available at: http://iainstitute.org/pg/a_simplified_model_for_facet_analysis.php

Reference

Louise Spiteri, “A Simplified Model for Facet Analysis,” in Canadian Journal of Information and Library Science v23, 1-30 (April-July 1998).

Available at: http://iainstitute.org/pg/a_simplified_model_for_facet_analysis.php

CV Maintenance

CV Maintenance Possible Taxonomy Changes Add/delete facet Modify facet label Reorganize hierarchy Add/delete taxonomy term Revise taxonomy term Add/delete related term relationships

Possible Taxonomy Changes

Add/delete facet

Modify facet label

Reorganize hierarchy

Add/delete taxonomy term

Revise taxonomy term

Add/delete related term relationships

CV Maintenance Change Control Process Submit the changes for approval Decide on changes to be made SME validation? Approve the changes Edit the vocabulary file to make the changes

Change Control Process

Submit the changes for approval

Decide on changes to be made

SME validation?

Approve the changes

Edit the vocabulary file to make the changes

CV Maintenance Process for Submitting New Terms Who submits proposed terms? How are proposed terms submitted? Who receives/processes term submissions? Are provisional terms as part of tagging process allowed?

Process for Submitting New Terms

Who submits proposed terms?

How are proposed terms submitted?

Who receives/processes term submissions?

Are provisional terms as part of tagging process allowed?

Speed of Change Facets Hierarchy Terms Slowest Fastest

Facets

Hierarchy

Terms

Impact of Change Facets Hierarchy Terms Most Least

Facets

Hierarchy

Terms

CV Review Establish regular reviews of all existing taxonomies Frequency Responsibility

Establish regular reviews of all existing taxonomies

Frequency

Responsibility

CV Ownership Department/business unit responsible for taxonomy maintenance Teams/individuals responsible for maintenance

Department/business unit responsible for taxonomy maintenance

Teams/individuals responsible for maintenance

Resources Fast, Karl, Mike Steckel and Fred Leise: series of articles on CVs and facets for BoxesandArrows.com “ Controlled Vocabularies: A Glosso-Thesaurus” available at: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/ archives/controlled_vocabularies_a_ glossothesaurus.php

Fast, Karl, Mike Steckel and Fred Leise: series of articles on CVs and facets for BoxesandArrows.com

“ Controlled Vocabularies: A Glosso-Thesaurus” available at: http://www.boxesandarrows.com/ archives/controlled_vocabularies_a_ glossothesaurus.php

Contact Information Fred Leise 6530 N. Greenview Ave. Chicago, IL 60626 773.791.2849 www.ContextualAnalysis.com www.Intuitect.com [email_address]

Fred Leise

6530 N. Greenview Ave.

Chicago, IL 60626

773.791.2849

www.ContextualAnalysis.com

www.Intuitect.com

[email_address]

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