Introduction to C programming

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Information about Introduction to C programming

Published on March 15, 2014

Author: sabiksabz



This will help you to learn the basics of C programming and it will strengthen your base

 Character Set  Delimiters  Keywords  Identifiers  Constants  Variables  Data types  Initializing variables  Comments

 C uses  Uppercase lettersA to Z  Lowercase letters a to z  Digits: 0 to 9  Special Characters: ▪ + - ! # % ^ & * ? <>;.’|?/”  Special combination  b- backspace  n- New Line  t- horizontal tab  a- print with alert

 Identifiers are the name given to various elements such as variables, functions and array.  Both upper and lower case letters are permitted  May begin with _ (underscore)  Diff b/w - and _

1) It must consist only of letters, digits and underscore. 2) It should not begin with a digit. 3) An identifier defined in the C standard library should not be redefined. 4) It is case sensitive (uppercase is not equal to lowercase letters).

5) Do not include embedded blanks. 6) Do not use any of the C language keywords as identifiers/variables. 7) Do not call your variable/identifier by the same name as other functions.

Invalid declaration 1. 8area 2. Roll number 3. “tax” 4. Student-name 5. 4th valid Declaration 1. area8 2. Roll_number 3. tax 4. student_name Int area8, roll_number, tax;

 In C there are certain reserved word that we cannot declare as variable.  These word is known as keywor  Keywords are reserved words that have a special meaning in a programming language.

double else enum extern float for goto if int long register return short signed sizeof static struct switch typedef union unsigned void volatile while auto break case char const continue default do

 There are 5 basic data types inTurbo C: a) Character (char) – use to hold ASCII characters. b) Integer (int) – use to hold whole number values c) Floating Point (float) – use to hold real numbers d) Double Floating Point (double) - use to hold real numbers e) Void (void) – use to declare a function with no return values, functions with no parameters and to create generic pointers.

TYPE BITWIDTH RANGE char 8 0 to 255 (ASCII) int 16 -32768 to 32767 float 32 3.4E-32 to 3.4 E+38 double 64 1.7E-308 to 1.7 E+308 void 0 valueless

TYPE EXAMPLES char ‘A’ ‘b’ ‘$’ ‘9’ int 1 250 4500 float 3.5 42.56 345.6789 double 3.5647290… 486.145875... void valueless

Examples: char name; int x, y,z; float number; float n1, n2, sum; double counter;

 Giving a value to a variable during the variable’s declaration is called “variable initialization.” Syntax: type variable_name = value; Example: int count = 100; float grade = 3.75; char status = ‘S’;

 First step in c is declaring the variables  Why???  Ans: we need space to store data in memory  int x  Compiler will allots a address to x and Then compiler can store the data in that Memory space.

Programmers insert comments to document programs and improve program readability. Starts with /* and ends with */ Also for one line comment we use // Can be placed anywhere in the program. Comments are ignored by the C compiler.

#include<stdio.h> #include<conio.h> void main() // it is the main function { printf(“Hello world”); //to print hello on screen printf(“nHello world”); //print with new line printf(“tHello world”); printf(“aHello world”); getch(); }

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