Introduction to biological oceanography notes

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Information about Introduction to biological oceanography notes

Published on February 27, 2014

Author: mswilliams


Introduction to Biological Oceanography

Diversity Definition: The degree of variation of life on earth Q: how did diversity of life on earth happen? A: Evolution!

Evolution • Definition: Change over time • Occurs to species, NOT to individuals • 6 Points: – Overproduction – Competition – Genetic variation – Adaptation – Natural selection – Speciation

Causes of Evolution 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Mutation Gene flow Genetic drift Natural selection Non-random mating

Evidence of Evolution 1) Analogous structures 2) Embryology 3) Vestigial Organs 4) Fossils 5) Biochemical

Overproduction • Too many individuals • Too many offspring • Too many gametes

Competition • For food • For mates • For territory

Genetic Variation • Genes • Traits • Individuals

Adaptation • A trait with a current functional role in helping an animal better survive in its environment • Three types: – Behavioral – Physiological – Structural

Natural Selection • Organisms better adapted to their environment get to reproduce and pass their genes on to their offspring

Species A species is a group of animals capable of producing offspring with one another AND the offspring ALSO must be capable of reproducing too Mules aren’t a speciesthey can’t have babies!

Speciation can happen through geographic isolation

Classification • Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species • “King Phillip Came Over For Great Scallops” • We name organisms using their most specific classifications: Genus and Species • We use a Dichotomous Key to help identify organisms • The proper way to write a scientific name is to write the Genus name with a capital, the Species name in lower case, and italicize or underline them both – Morone saxatilis or Morone saxatilis – Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens

How are organisms placed into Kingdoms? • Cell type & complexity • Ability to make food • Number of cells in their body

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