Published on February 27, 2014
Introduction to Biological Oceanography
Diversity Definition: The degree of variation of life on earth Q: how did diversity of life on earth happen? A: Evolution!
Evolution • Definition: Change over time • Occurs to species, NOT to individuals • 6 Points: – Overproduction – Competition – Genetic variation – Adaptation – Natural selection – Speciation
Causes of Evolution 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) Mutation Gene flow Genetic drift Natural selection Non-random mating
Evidence of Evolution 1) Analogous structures 2) Embryology 3) Vestigial Organs 4) Fossils 5) Biochemical
Overproduction • Too many individuals • Too many offspring • Too many gametes
Competition • For food • For mates • For territory
Genetic Variation • Genes • Traits • Individuals
Adaptation • A trait with a current functional role in helping an animal better survive in its environment • Three types: – Behavioral – Physiological – Structural
Natural Selection • Organisms better adapted to their environment get to reproduce and pass their genes on to their offspring
Species A species is a group of animals capable of producing offspring with one another AND the offspring ALSO must be capable of reproducing too Mules aren’t a speciesthey can’t have babies!
Speciation can happen through geographic isolation
Classification • Kingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus Species • “King Phillip Came Over For Great Scallops” • We name organisms using their most specific classifications: Genus and Species • We use a Dichotomous Key to help identify organisms • The proper way to write a scientific name is to write the Genus name with a capital, the Species name in lower case, and italicize or underline them both – Morone saxatilis or Morone saxatilis – Homo sapiens or Homo sapiens
How are organisms placed into Kingdoms? • Cell type & complexity • Ability to make food • Number of cells in their body
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