Introduction Overview

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Information about Introduction Overview

Published on November 2, 2007

Author: Talya


MatE 423 Glass Science & Engineering:  MatE 423 Glass Science & Engineering Lecture 1 Introduction and Overview Brief History of Glass General Concepts of the Glassy State Mat E 423 The Fundamentals:  Mat E 423 The Fundamentals Class Outcomes To be able to use the course syllabus to achieve your academic goals for the course To be able to discuss at least four major events in the history of glass To be able to define the glassy state Introduction and Overview:  Introduction and Overview Semester: Fall 2003 Course: MAT E 423 Course text:“Fundamentals of Inorganic Glasses”, A. Varshneya, Academic Press Course Instructor: Steve W. Martin Office: 2322 Howe Hall Telephone: 294-0745 E-mail: Class Room: 1246 Howe Hall Meeting Times: Lecture:T,R 10:00 AM 1246 Howe hall Lab: T, R 1:00- 4:00 PM 3108 Gilman Hall Office Hours : M 10 – 12 AM and W 2-4 PM and by appointment Course Web Site: Course Details:  Course Details Two lectures/week T, R @10 AM Interactive, Conversational, & Cooperative Outside reading and literature review Power Point Presentations Assignments Two midterms & one final 350 pts. 10 Weekly quizzes 50 pts. 10 Homework Assignments 100 pts. 10 Lab Reports 100 pts. Course total 600 pts. Introduction & Overview:  Introduction & Overview Fundamentals of Glass Introduction 8/26, 28 Fundamentals of the Glassy State 9/2, 4 Conditions for Glass Formation 9/9, 11 Phase Separation in Glass 9/16 The Structure of Glass 9/18, 23, 25, 30 Exam I 100 pts. 10/7 Course Outline:  Course Outline Physical Properties of Glass Density 10/2 Thermal Properties of Glass 10/9,14, 16, 21, 23 Electrical Properties of Glass 10/28, 10/30 Optical Properties of Glass 11/4, 6 Mechanical Properties of Glass 11/11, 13 Field Trip to Guardian Float Glass Plant 11/15 (optional) Chemical Durability 11/18 Exam II (Take home) 11/21 Course Outline:  Course Outline Glass Manufacturing Guest Lecture 11/13 Wes Demmon Guardian Industries, Hot End Glass Manufacturing Thanksgiving break 11/25 – 29 Glass Forming I, II 12/2, 4 Annealing and Strengthening 12/9 Inspection, Quality Control 12/1 Guest Lecture 12/4 Chuck Edge, Edge Technologies, Tin bath and Lehr FINAL EXAM 12/17 9:45 AM Brief History of Glass 5000 – 1000 BC:  Brief History of Glass 5000 – 1000 BC Date Place and Activity 5000 BC Mesopotamia & Egypt, batching sea sands, marine shells, and sea weed ash to create crude glassy materials 1,500 BC Containers, Touthmosis III, sand molds with sand core and removed by scraping 900 BC In Syria, Rhodes, Greece, glass production begins, glass recipes begin to be formulated Brief History of Glass 1000 BC – 0 AD:  Brief History of Glass 1000 BC – 0 AD Date Place and Activity 650 BC 1st Glassmaking handbook, Assyrian Assurbanipal’s Library, 500 BC Venetian glass artists begin to create vases and glass pieces using glass rolls. 50 BC Phoenician glassblowing flourishes to create art glass Brief History of Glass 0 AD – 1000 AD:  Brief History of Glass 0 AD – 1000 AD 25 BC - 400 AD Roman empire enables rapid development and expansion of glass melting, working, and forming technology in the Mediterranean region Roman Empire 100 AD Glass cost rapidly declines and for the first time becomes available to less than the aristocracy 470 to 1000 AD Dark Ages cast an oppressing shadow over all sorts and types of human endeavor and development Roman Empire:  Roman Empire Brief History of Glass:  Brief History of Glass 1,000 AD Venice glass center dominates in glass production, Murano island is established as a major glass center. Venice moves its glass ovens to the island of Murano to remove the danger of fire. The city establishes draconian penalties for any glass maker caught jeopardizing the Venetian monopoly in clear glass by taking production secrets abroad. 1490s Christopher Columbus begins his oceanic explorations which ultimately lead to the discovery of the “New Worlds” Brief History of Glass:  Brief History of Glass 1,590 Glass telescope and microscope lenses are developed in Netherlands and used for the first time 1,600 France established as a major power in the glass industry, Henry IV confers exclusive rights to some Italians to produce glass in selected cities in France 1,609 Galileo Galilei uses telescope to investigate planetary motion Brief History of Glass:  Brief History of Glass 1,610 German astronomer Johannes Kepler establishes two of the cardinal principles of astronomy: planets travel around the sun in elliptical paths, and they do not travel at uniform rates of speed. 1,665 Jean Baptiste Colbert centralized glass making in France and used the Palace of Versailles as a lasting symbol of their art and technology by creating the Hall of Mirrors as a centerpiece of the Palace. 1693 France is a dominate producer of flat glass for mirrors and windows, Saint Gobain factory becomes the “Manufacture Royle des Glaces de France” Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles:  Hall of Mirrors at the Palace of Versailles Brief History of Glass:  Brief History of Glass 1765 “Crystal glass” soda-lead-silicate cut glass production begins 1800 Industrial Revolution dawns a new era in glass manufacturing.“Synthetic”chemicals for glass making are available for the first time. Synthetic glasses with improved properties become available. 1861-65 Civil war in the US 1863 Solvay process dramatically reduces cost of a main ingredient in glass, sodium oxide NaCl +NH3 + CO2 >> NaHCO3 + NH4Cl NH4Cl + CaCO3 >> CaCl2 + NH3 Brief History of Glass:  Brief History of Glass 1867 Siemens brothers, Friederich, Karl, Hans, Werner and Wilhelm patent and develop first regenerative glass furnace in Dresden, Germany 1875 Technical glasses are developed in Germany, Abbe, Schott, and Carl Zeiss. University of Jena, Jena, Germany becomes a major glass science and engineering center. Glass chemistry is in its infancy. 1876 Bausch & Lomb Optical Company founded in Rochester, NY. Makers of lenses and other optical components. Brief History of Glass:  Brief History of Glass 1898 American Ceramic Society is founded in Columbus, OH 1900 Mechanized forming process begin 1906 Ceramic Arts at ISC founded by the IA State Legislature 1914 – 1918 1st World War fought against Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, and Bulgaria 1915 University of Sheffield establishes Department of Glass Technology, now called the Center for Glass Research Brief History of Glass:  Brief History of Glass 1920 Owens-Libbey Suction Blow Machine introduced in the US 1920 Griffith theory of the strength of brittle materials first applied to glass bulbs deliberately weakened by scratches, dramatically improves understanding of and how to improve the strength of glass 1923 Gob Feeder introduced world wide 1925 Individual Section (I.S.) bottle machine invented by Henry Ingle used with the gob feeder to dramatically increase and reduce cost of producing glass containers. Brief History of Glass:  Brief History of Glass 1926 Arthur Wood and David Gray of Corning Glass Works develop the “399” machine, later called the “Ribbon” machine to make light bulbs. Bulbs can be made at speeds of 1000 per minute. 1929 Stock market crash, purportedly the cause of the Great Depression of the 1930s 1932 William Zachariasen publishes the “Random Network Hypothesis” of glass structure and his rules of glass formation in J. Amer. Chem Society Brief History of Glass:  Brief History of Glass 1939-45 World War II causes enormous human sacrifice and tragedy, yet US emerges as military, manufacturing, and technological superpower. 1950-60 Ford Motor Co. establishes major glass research center, glass science becomes a major research discipline 1957 “Sputnik” satellite launched in the then USSR. Causes dramatic surge in US spending on research and development, including glass research Brief History of Glass:  Brief History of Glass 1959 Pilkington Brothers patent the float glass process and introduced in England and will ultimately revolutionize flat glass manufacturing. 1970 1st silica optical fiber produced at Corning Glass Works using chemical vapor deposition techniques to reduce attenuation and improve signal transmission 1970’s Expansion of many university glass research programs across the US at Alfred University, Catholic University, Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., etc. Float Glass Plant:  Float Glass Plant Brief History of Glass:  Brief History of Glass 1984 Marcel & Michel Poulain and Jacques Lucas discover first fluoride glass in Rennes, France Present Day Glass research is now moving beyond oxide glass chemistries and traditional melting processing. Entirely new processes such as sol-gel processing, chemical vapor deposition are being developed. New glass chemistries are being developed all the time, especially non-oxide chemistries such as halide glasses, chalcogenide glasses and chalco-halide glasses Features of the Glassy State:  Features of the Glassy State Glassy materials have many unique features Lack of long range repeatable order, non-crystalline structure Typically produced from the liquid state by continuous cooling Exhibits what is known as the glass transition Can be formed from most liquids, provided cooling rate is sufficiently high Classification of Disordered Materials:  Classification of Disordered Materials Non-Crystalline Solids Amorphous Materials Glasses Amorphous Structure Spontaneously decomposes without softening Most vapor deposited films Lack internal stability to retain supercooled liquid state Supercooled Liquids Vapor deposited phases stable enough to exhibit Tg Gels and sols that exhibit Tg General Features of the Glassy State:  General Features of the Glassy State Definition of the glassy state 1920’s University of Sheffield “Glass is an amorphous, structureless solid” 1938 G.W. Morey “A glass is an inorganic substance in a condition which is continuous with and analogous to the liquid state of that substance, but which as a result of a reversible change in viscosity has attained so high a degree of viscosity as to be for all practical purposes a rigid solid” 1949 ASTM “Glass is a an inorganic product of fusion which has cooled to a rigid condition without crystallization” Definition of the Glassy State:  Definition of the Glassy State 1960 D. R. Secrist and J. D. MacKenzie “Glass is a non-crystalline solid” 1991 J. Zarzycki “Glass is a non-crystalline material that exhibits a glass transition which is the temperature or range of temperatures that define the region where the properties of the material change continuously from those of a solid to those of a liquid”

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