Introduction of biochemistry

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Information about Introduction of biochemistry

Published on February 27, 2014

Author: mohamedomran921677


Helwan University Faculty of Science Chemistry Department Introduction of Biochemistry Dr Mohamed Mostafa Omran 1

Biochemistry is the study of life including cell biology, genetics, immunology, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology. Biochemical processes are controlled genetically. Although it overlaps other disciplines, including cell biology, genetics, immunology, microbiology, pharmacology, and physiology. Four major classes of biomolecules serve as building blocks for larger macromolecules: 1. Carbohydrates: e.g. glucose, fructose, sucrose, mainly used as sources of car energy. 2. Lipids: commonly known as fats - organic compounds that are not very water soluble - used as sources of cellular energy - components of cell membranes 3. Amino Acids: - 20 natural amino acids in total - Used as building blocks for proteins 4. Nucleotides: - 5 in total - Used as building blocks for DNA and RNA precursors 5. Other: - Vitamins: organic compounds necessary for proper growth and development - Heme: Organometallic compound containing iron; important for transporting oxygen in your blood stream. 2

Carbohydrates General Information: 1. Carbohydrates are the most abundant class of organic compounds found in living organisms. 2. They originate as products of photosynthesis, an endothermic reductive condensation of carbon dioxide requiring light energy and the pigment chlorophyll. n H2O + Energy CnH2nOn + n O2 3. The formulas of many carbohydrates can be written as carbon hydrates, Cn (H2O) n, hence their name. 4. The carbohydrates are a major source of metabolic energy, both for plants and for animals that depend on plants for food. 5. Aside from the sugars and starches that meet this vital nutritional role, carbohydrates also serve as a structural material (cellulose), a component of the energy transport compound ATP, recognition sites on cell surfaces, and one of three essential components of DNA and RNA. 6. Carbohydrates are called saccharides or, if they are relatively small, sugars. A- Simple Sugars 1 Contain the elements carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. 2 The name carbohydrate literally means water compounds of carbon. 3 The general formula for simple sugars is Cn(H2O)n. 4 This class of compounds is better described as Polyhydroxy aldehydes and ketones. 5 The simplest carbohydrates are glyceraldehyde and dihydroxyacetone. 3

O H C C H O O H H C C CH O O 2 2 H H CH O 2 H glyceraldehyde dihydroxyacetone A - Methods of Classification: Several methods are used to classify carbohydrates. 1-One method of classification is based on whether the carbohydrate can be broken down into smaller units. Monosaccharides: simple sugars cannot be broken down into smaller units by hydrolysis. 1. Disaccharides: can be broken down into two monosaccharide units. 2. Oligosaccharides: can be broken into three to six monosaccharide units. 3. Polysaccharides: composed of 7 or more monosaccharide units. 2-Another method is based on the number of carbons found in a simple sugar. If it has 3 carbons it is called a triose. If it has 4 carbons it is called a tetrose. If it has 5 carbons it is called a pentose. If it has 6 carbons it is called a hexose. 3-Another method uses the kind of carbonyl group. A- Aldose: A monosaccharide with an aldehyde group. 4

O HC H C OH H C OH CH2OH erythrose B- Ketose: A monosaccharide with a ketone group. CH2OH C O HO C H H C OH H C OH CH2OH fructose Usually combine the carbonyl classification and the number classification together. H O C CH2OH H O C H C OH CH2OH glyceraldehyde aldotriose OH HO H C C H H C H C C O HO C H OH H C OH OH H C OH CH2OH glucose aldohexose CH2OH fructose ketohexose B-Stereoconfigurations of simple sugars Carbohydrates contain many stereocenters. If the OH group is found on the right side of the carbon chain, the sugar is designated as a D sugar 5

(i.e., the -OH at C5 of D-glucose is on the right in a Fischer projection). If the OH group is found on the left side of the chain of carbons, the sugar is designated as an L sugar (The L sugars are the mirror images of their D counterparts). Sugars that differ only by the configuration around one C atom are known as epimers of one another. e.g, D-glucose and D-mannose are epimers with respect to C2. The most common ketoses are those with their ketone function at C2. The position of their carbonyl group gives ketoses one less asymmetric center than their isomeric aldoses, so a ketohexose has only 23 = 8 possible stereoisomers (4 D sugars and 4 L sugars). H H C C O H OH HO CH 2OH C C O H CH 2OH D-glyceraldehyde L-glyceraldehyde D-aldotriose L-aldotriose 6

B- Stereoconfigurations of simple sugars CHO H C OH CH2OH D-glyceraldehyde CHO CHO H C OH HO C H H C OH H C OH CH2OH CH2OH D-erythrose D-threose CHO HO C H CHO CHO CHO H C OH H C OH HO C H H C OH H C OH HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH D-arabinose D-ribose CH2OH D-lyxose CHO HO C H HO C H CHO CHO D-xylose CHO H C OH H C OH HO C H H C OH H C OH HO C H HO C H HO C H HO C H H C OH HO C H HO C H CHO CHO HO C H CHO HO C H H C OH HO C H CHO H C OH H C OH HO C H H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH H C OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH CH2OH D-allose D-tallose D-galactose D-mannose D-glucose D-altrose 7 D-idose D-gulose

C H2O H C O C H2O H d ih y d r o x y a c e t o n e C H2O H C O C H OH C H2O H D -e r y th r u l o s e C H2O H C HO H C H2O H O C O C H H C OH OH H C OH C C H2O H D - r ib u lo s e C H2O H D - x y lu lo s e C H2O H C HO O C H HO C H H C OH C H2O H D -ta g a to s e H C C H2O H C H2O H C C H2O H C O HO OH C C O H H C OH C OH C OH O HO C H H C OH H H C OH H C OH H C H2O H D -fr u c to s e C H2O H D -s o r b o s e C H2O H D - p s ic o s e Cyclic Structures: Five membered sugar rings are known as furanose rings. H C O H C OH HO CH2 H H C OH H C OH CH2OH D-ribose H O H H OH -D-ribofuranose 8 H + OH OH HO CH2 OH O H H H OH OH -D-ribofuranose

Six membered sugar rings are known as pyranose rings. H C O HO CH2 H OH OH H H C OH HO C H H C OH HO H C OH CH2OH + OH H OH -D-glucopyranose D-glucose Carbohydrate Anomers: HO CH2 H O OH OH H HO H H OH -D-glucopyranose Formation of either of the cyclic form has created a new stereocenter. These stereoisomeric ring forms of carbohydrates are called Anomers. Anomers: Anomers are carbohydrates that differ by the stereo-configuration of the carbon involved in ring formation. (the carbonyl carbon, called the anomeric carbon, becomes a chiral center with two possible configurations.). The greek letters α and β are used to describe these configurations about the ring forming carbon. The α anomer always has the OH group oriented in a downward fashion on the anomeric carbon of a Dsugar. The β anomer always has the OH group oriented in an upward fashion on the anomeric carbon of a D-sugar. The two anomers of D-sugar have slightly different physical and chemical properties, including different optical rotations The anomers freely interconvert in aqueous solution, so at equilibrium, D-glucose is a mixture of the β anomer (63.6%) and the α anomer (36.4%). The linear form is normally present in only minute amounts. 9

Important Carbohydrates Monosaccharides: composed of three to seven carbon atoms. 1- Glucose 1 The most abundant hexose in our diet. 2 The building block of complex carbohydrates. 3 Component of the disaccharides: sucrose, maltose and lactose. 4 Found in the polysaccharides: starch, cellulose and glycogen. CHO CH2OH H C OH H HO C H H C OH O H OH H H,OH OH H H C OH CH2OH OH 2. Galactose Found in the disaccharide, lactose.Found in the cellular membranes of the brain and nervous system. Galactose is the C-4 epimer of glucose. CHO CH2OH H C OH HO HO C H HO C H O H OH H H,OH H H C OH H CH2OH OH 3. Fructose Sweetest of the carbohydrates. Component of the disaccharide sucrose. Fructose is a keto sugar. 11

CHO CH2OH H C OH HO HO C H O H H,OH H HO C H H OH OH H H C OH CH2OH Disaccharides: composed of 2 monosaccharide units. 1. Maltose - malt sugar. Used in cereals, candies and the brewing of beverages.Composed of two D-glucose sugars joined by an α-1,4 linkage. CH2OH CH2OH O H H H OH O OH H H OH H H O OH H H OH H OH 2. Lactose - milk sugar. Found in milk and milk products. Composed of one galactose and one glucose unit joined by a β-1,4 linkage. CH2OH CH2OH OH H OH O O OH H O H H OH H H H H H OH OH 3. Sucrose - table sugar. Product of sugar cane and sugar beets. Composed of one glucose and one fructose unit. Linkage is at both anomeric carbons. 11

CH2OH H H OH OH H CH2OH O O H H H OH OH H H O OH CH2OH Polysaccharides: composed of many (more than 10) monosaccharide units. classified as homopolysaccharides(if they consist of one type of monosaccharide) or heteropolysaccharides ( consist of more than one type of monosaccharide). Polysaccharides in contrast to proteins and nucleic acids, form branched as well as linear polymers. This is because glycosidic linkages can be made to any of the hydroxyl groups of a monosaccharide. 1- Cellulose: Major structural material of plant cells. Consists of many glucose units joined by β-1,4 linkages. ( a linear polymer of up to 15,000 Dglucose residues linked by β (1-4) glycosidic bonds). 2. Starch: Storage form of glucose found in rice wheat, potatoes, grains and cereals. Consists of many glucose units joined by α-1,4 linkages. Maltose is the disaccharide starting material. is deposited in the chloroplasts of plant cells as insoluble granules composed of α-amylose and amylopectin. α-Amylose is a linear polymer of several thousand glucose residues linked by α 12

3. Glycogen: Animal starch. Storage form of glucose found in the liver and muscle of animals. Contains many highly branched glucose units. 1 Joined by α-1,4 linkages and branched by α-1,6 linkages. 4. Chitin: is the principal structural component of the exoskeletons of invertebrates such as crustaceans, insects, and spiders and is also present in the cell walls of most fungi and many algae. Chitin is a homopolymer of -linked Nacetyl- D-glucosamine residues. 13

Conclusion 1- Carbohydrates are wide group of bio molecules that represents the first row of energy sources in our bodies. 2- Carbohydrates are carbon hydrate molecules that can be simple or multiple from two (disaccharide) or more (poly saccharides) monomeric units of (monosaccharides). 3- Carbohydrates are stereochemical active molecules. 4- general formula of simple sugar is Cn (H2O)n like glucose C6(H2O)6. 5- Disaccharides like succrose, poly saccharides like starch which is linear or branched polymers. 14

Amino Acids Amino Acids are the building units of proteins. Proteins are polymers of amino acids linked together by what is called ― Peptide bond‖ (see latter). There are about 300 amino acids occur in nature. Only 20 of them occur in proteins. Structure of amino acids: Each amino acid has 4 different groups attached to α- carbon (which is C-atom next to COOH). So the common amino acids are known as α-amino acids, These 4 groups are: amino group, COOH group, hydrogen atom and side Chain (R). The 20 standard amino acids differ in the structures of their side chains (R groups). Amino Acids Are Dipolar Ions At physiological PH (7.4), -COOH gp is dissociated forming a negatively charged carboxylate ion (COO-) and amino gp is protonated forming positively charged ion (NH3+) forming Zwitter ion (dipolar ions : act as both an acid and a base). Amino acids, like other ionic compounds, are more soluble in polar solvents than in nonpolar solvents. 15

Peptide Bonds Link Amino Acids Amino acids can be polymerized to form chains. This process can be represented as a condensation reaction (bond formation with the elimination of a water molecule). The resulting CO-NH linkage, an amide linkage, is known as a peptide bond. Polymers composed of two, three, a few (3–10), and many amino acid units are known, respectively, as dipeptides, tripeptides, oligopeptides, and polypeptides. These substances, however, are often referred to simply as peptides. After they are incorporated into a peptide, the individual amino acids (the monomeric units) are referred to as amino acid residues. Polypeptides are linear polymers rather than branched chains; that is, each amino acid residue participates in two peptide bonds and is linked to its neighbors in a head-totail fashion. The residues at the two ends of the polypeptide each participate in just one peptide bond. The residue with a free amino group is called the amino terminus or N-terminus. The residue with a free carboxylate group (at the right) is called the carboxyl terminus or C-terminus. Classification of amino acids I- Chemical classification: According to number of COOH and NH2 groups i.e. according to net charge on amino acid. A- Monobasic, monocarboxylic amino acids i.e. neutral or uncharged (glycine, alanine, valine) 16

B- Basic amino acids: Contain two or more NH2 groups or nitrogen atoms that act as base i.e. can bind proton. At physiological pH, basic amino acids will be positively charged. e.g. a- Lysine b- Arginine: contains guanido group c- Histidine: is an example on basic heterocyclic amino acids C- Acidic Amino acids: at physiological pH will carry negative charge. e.g. Aspartic acid (aspartate) and Glutamic acid (glutamate). see structures in hand out. Aspargine and Glutamine: They are amide forms of aspartate and glutamate in which side chain COOH groups are amidated. They are classified as neutral amino acids. 17

II- Classification according to polarity of side chain (R): The amino acid side chains in globular proteins are spatially distributed according to their polarities: A- Polar amino acids: in which R contains polar hydrophilic group so can forms hydrogen bond with H2O. In those amino acids, R may contain: 1- OH group: as in serine, threonine and tyrosine 2- SH group: as in cysteine 3- amide group: as in glutamine and aspargine. 4- NH2 group or nitrogen act as a base (basic amino acids): as lysine, arginine and histidine. 5- COOH group ( acidic amino acids): as aspartic and glutamic . -The charged polar residues Arg, His, Lys, Asp, and Glu are usually located on the surface of a protein in contact with the aqueous solvent. This is 18

because immersing an ion in the virtually anhydrous interior of a protein is energetically unfavorable. -The uncharged polar groups Ser, Thr, Asn, Gln, and Tyr are usually on the protein surface but also occur in the interior of the molecule. When buried in the protein, these residues are almost always hydrogen bonded to other groups, the formation of a hydrogen bond neutralizes their polarity. B- Non polar amino acids: R is alkyl hydrophobic group which can’t enter in hydrogen bond formation. 9 amino acids are non polar (glycine, alanine, valine, leucine, isoleucine, phenyl alanine, tryptophan, proline and methionine). The nonpolar residues Val, Leu, Ile, Met, and Phe occur mostly in the interior of a protein, out of contact with the aqueous solvent. The hydrophobic effects that promote this distribution are largely responsible for the three-dimensional structure of native proteins. 19

III- Nutritional classification: 1- Essential amino acids: These amino acids can’t be formed in the body and so, it is essential to be taken in diet. Their deficiency affects growth, health and protein synthesis. 2- Semiessential amino acids: These are formed in the body but not in sufficient amount for body requirements especially in children. 3- Non essential amino acids: These are the rest of amino acids that are formed in the body in amount enough for adults and children. They are the remaining 10 amino acids. IV- Metabolic classification: according to metabolic or degradation products of amino acids they may be: 1- Ketogenic amino acids: which give ketone bodies.Lysine and Leucine are the only pure ketogenic amino acids. 2- Mixed ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids: which give both ketonbodies and glucose.These are: isoleucine, phenyl alanine, tyrosine and tryptophan. 21

3- Glucogenic amino acids: Which give glucose. They include the rest of amino acids. These amino acids by catabolism yields products that enter in glycogen and glucose formation. Properties of Amino Acid A. Physical properties: 1. Solubility: most of the amino acids are soluble in water and insoluble in inorganic solvent: 2. Melting point: amino acids are generally melt at higher temperature , often above 200°C 3. Taste: amino acids may be sweet (Gly, Ala, Val), tasteless (Leu) or bitter (Arg, ILe).Monosodium Glutamate (Ajinomoto) is used as flavouring agent in food industry, chinese foood to increase taste and flavour. Zwitterions or dipolar ion: The name Zwitter derived from the German word which mean hybrid. Zwitter ion is a hybrid molecule containing positive and negative ionic group. The amino acids rarely exists in a neutral form with free carboxylic (-COOH ) and free amino (-NH2) groups. In strongly acidic pH the amino acid are positively charged, while in strongly alkaline pH it is negatively charged. Each amino acid has a characteristics pH at which it carries both positive and negative charge and Exist as Zwitterions. Isoelectric pH: pH at which amino acids exist as the zwitterion (neutral) and carries no net charge. Thus molecule is electrically neutral. The pl value can be calculated by taking the average pKa values corresponding to the ionizable groups. For example leucine has two ionizable groups, and its pl value can be calculated as follows. 21

B. Chemical properties 3 Reaction due to –COOH group 1. Amino acid form salts (-COONa) with base, and Ester (-COOR) with alcohol. 2. Decarboxylation: Amino acid undergo deacarboxylation to produce amines: this reaction assumes significance in the living cell due to the formation of many biologically important amine. These include histamine, tyramine, γ-amino butyric acid from the amino acid histidine, tyrosine and glutamate respectively. 3. Reaction with ammonia: the carboxyl group of dicarboxylic amino acid reacts with NH3 to form amide. Aspartic acid + NH3 Aspargine 22


4. Reaction due to NH2 The amino acid behave as bases and combine with acids to form salts. Reaction with ninhydrine: the α- Amino acidreact with ninhydrine to form a purple , blue or pink color complex (Ruhemann’s purple) Amino acid + ninhydrine keto acid+NH3+ CO2+ Hydrindantin Hydrindantin+ NH3+Ninhydrine Ruhemann’s purple 5. Colour reaction 6. Transamination 7. Oxidative deamination: Ninhydrine can react with imino acids as proline and hydroxy proline but gives yellow color. 3- Reactions due to side chain (R): 1- Millon reaction: for tyrosine gives red colored mass 2- Rosenheim reaction: for trptophan and gives violet ring. 3- Pauly reaction: for imidazole ring of histidine: gives yellow to reddish product 4- Sakagushi test: for guanido group of arginine andgives red color. 5- Lead sulfide test (sulfur test): for sulfur containing amino acids as cysteine give brown color. Peptides and Proteins 20 amino acids are commonly found in protein. These 20 amino acids are linked together through ―peptide bond forming peptides and proteins (what’s the difference). The chains containing less than 50 amino acids are called ―peptides‖ while those containing greater than 50 amino acids are called ―proteins‖. 24

Peptide bond formation: α-carboxyl group of one amino acid (with side chain R1) forms a covalent peptide bond with α-amino group of another amino acid ( with the side chain R2) by removal of a molecule of water. The result is Dipeptide ( i.e. Two amino acids linked by one peptide bond). By the same way, the dipeptide can then forms a second peptide bond with a third amino acid (with side chain R3) to give Tripeptide. Repetition of this process generates a polypeptide or protein of specific amino acid sequence. Peptide bond formation: Each polypeptide chain starts on the left side by free amino group of the first amino acid enter in chain formation . It is termed (N- terminus). - Each polypeptide chain ends on the right side by free COOH group of the last amino acid and termed (C-terminus). 25

Examples on Peptides: 1- Dipeptide (tow amino acids joined by one peptide bond): Example: Aspartame which acts as sweetening agent being used in replacement of cane sugar. It is composed of aspartic acid and phenyl alanine. 2- Tripeptides: 3 amino acids linked by two peptide bonds. Example: glutathione which is formed from 3 amino acids: glutamic acid, cysteine and glycine. It helps in absorption of amino acids, protects against hemolysis of RBC by breaking H2O2 which causes cell damage. 3- Octapeptides: 8 amino acids, for examples: two hormones; oxytocine and vasopressin (ADH). 4- Polypeptides: 10- 50 amino acids: e.g. Insulin hormone Protein structure: There are four levels of protein structure (primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary). 1. Primary structure: The primary structure of a protein is its linear sequence of amino acids and the location of covalent linkages such as disulfide bonds between amino acids. Lysozyme, an enzyme that attacks bacteria, consists of a polypeptide chain of 129 amino acids. The precise primary structure of a protein is determined by inherited genetic information. At one end is an amino acid with a free amino group the (the N-terminus) and at the other is an amino acid with a free carboxyl group the (the Cterminus). 26

High orders of Protein structure A functional protein is not just a polypeptide chain, but one or more polypeptides precisely twisted, folded and coiled into a molecule of unique shape (conformation). This conformation is essential for some protein function e.g. Enables a protein to recognize and bind specifically to another molecule e.g. hormone/receptor; enzyme/substrate and antibody/antigen. 27

2- Secondary structure: areas of folding or coiling within a protein; Results from hydrogen bond formation between hydrogen of –NH group of peptide bond and the carbonyl oxygen of another peptide bond. According to H-bonding there are two main forms of secondary structure: α-helix: It is a spiral structure resulting from hydrogen bonding between one peptide bond and the fourth one β-sheets: is another form of secondary structure in which two or more polypeptides (or segments of the same peptide chain) are linked together by hydrogen bond between H- of NH- of one chain and carbonyl oxygen of adjacent chain (or segment). 28

Hydrogen bonding in α-helix: In the α-helix CO of the one amino acid residue forms H-bond with NH of the forth one. Supersecondary structure or Motifs: occurs by combining secondary structure. The combination may be: α-helix- turn- α-helix- turn…..etc Or: β-sheet -turn- β-sheet-turn………etc Or: α-helix- turn- β-sheet-turn- α-helix Turn (or bend): is short segment of polypeptides (3-4 amino acids) that connects successive secondary structures. e.g. β-turn: is small polypeptide that connects successive strands of βsheets. 29

3. Tertiary structure is determined by a variety of non-covalent interactions (bond formation) among R groups and between R groups and the polypeptide backbone forming three-dimensional structure of a protein a. The weak interactions include: Hydrogen bonds among polar side chains. Ionic bonds between charged R groups (basic and acidic amino acid). Hydrophobic interactions among hydrophobic (nonpolar) R groups. b. Strong covalent bonds include disulfide bridges, that form between the sulfhydryl groups (SH) of cysteine monomers, stabilize the structure. 4. Quaternary structure: results from the aggregation (combination) of two or more polypeptide subunits held together by non-covalent interaction like H-bonds, ionic or hydrophobic interactions. Examples on protein having quaternary structure: Insulin: two polypeptide chains (dimeric) Collagen is a fibrous protein of three polypeptides (trimeric) that are supercoiled like a rope. This provides the structural strength for their role in connective tissue. 31

Hemoglobin is a globular protein with four polypeptide chains (tetrameric Classification of proteins I- Simple proteins: i.e. on hydrolysis gives only amino acids Examples: 1- Albumin and globulins: present in egg, milk and blood. They are proteins of high biological value i.e. contain all essential amino acids and easily digested. 31

Types of globulins: α1 globulin: e.g. antitrypsin. α2 globulin: e.g. hepatoglobin: protein that binds hemoglobin to prevent its excretion by the kidney β-globulin: e.g. transferrin: protein that transport iron γ-globulins e.g Immunoglobulins (antibodies) : responsible for immunity. Conjugated proteins: i.e. On hydrolysis, give protein part and non protein part and subclassified into: 1- Phosphoproteins: These are proteins conjugated with phosphate group. Phosphorus is attached to oh group of serine or threonine. e.g. Casein of milk and vitellin of yolk. 2- Lipoproteins: These are proteins conjugated with lipids. Functions: a- help lipids to transport in blood. b- Enter in cell membrane structure helping lipid soluble substances to pass through cell membranes. 3- Glycoproteins: proteins conjugated with sugar (carbohydrate) e.g. Mucin Some hormones such as erythropoeitin Present in cell membrane structure Blood groups. 4- Nucleoproteins: These are basic proteins ( e.g. histones) conjugated with nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). e.g. a- chromosomes: are proteins conjugated with DNA b- Ribosomes: are proteins conjugated with RNA 5- Metalloproteins: These are proteins conjugated with metal like iron, copper, zinc. 32

a- Iron-containing proteins:Iron may present in heme such as in - hemoglobin (Hb), myoglobin (protein of skeletal muscles and cardiacmuscle), cytochromes, catalase, peroxidases (destroy H2O2). Iron may be present in free state (not in heme) as in three forms: Ferritin: main store of iron in the body, present in liver, spleen and bone marrow. Hemosidrin: another iron store. Transferrin: is the iron carrier protein in plasma. b- Copper containing proteins: e.g. - Ceruloplasmin which oxidizes ferrous ions into ferric ions. - Oxidase enzymes such as cytochrome oxidase. c- Zn containing proteins: e.g. Insulin and carbonic anhydrase d- Mg containing proteins:e.g. Kinases and phosphatases. 6-Chromoproteins: These are proteins conjugated with pigment. e.g. - All proteins containing heme (Hb, myoglobin) - Melanoprotein:e.g proteins of hair or iris which contain melanin. Derived proteins Produced from hydrolysis of simple proteins. e.g. - Gelatin: from hydrolysis of collagen - Peptone: from hydrolysis of albumin 33

Conclusion 1. Amino Acids are the building units of proteins 2. Each amino acid has 4 different groups attached to α- carbon are: amino group, COOH group, hydrogen atom and side Chain (R). 3. Amino Acids are classified chemically to neutral or uncharged e.g: ( glycine, alanine, valine). Basic amino acids: Lysine - Acidic Amino acids :-Aspargine and Glutamine 4. Classified according to polarity of side chain (R) to:( Polar amino acids- Non polar amino acids) 5. Nutritional classification (Essential amino acids, Semi essential amino acids -Non essential amino acids). 6. Metabolic classification (Ketogenic amino acids, mixed ketogenic and glucogenic amino acids and Glucogenic amino acids) 7. amino acids are bonded to each other by peptide bonds forming peptides or proteins 8. Proteins structures are primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary. 9. proteins can be simple or conjugated (containing non protein part ) 34

Lipids 1 Lipids are diverse in form and are defined by solubility in non-polar solvents (and insolubility in water) 2 Lipids are used for efficient energy storage, as structural components of cell membranes, as chemical messengers and as fat-soluble vitamins with a variety of functions 3 We consume many lipids from a variety of plant and animal sources 4 Our cells can also biosynthesize most lipids. Classification of Lipids 1. Simple lipids: Esters of fatty acids with various alcohols. a. Fats: Esters of saturated fatty acids with glycerol (animal sources). b. Oils: Esters of unsaturated fatty acids with glycerol (plant sources). c. Waxes: Esters of fatty acids with higher molecular weight monohydric alcohols. 2. Complex lipids: Esters of fatty acids containing groups in addition to an alcohol and a fatty acid. a. Phospholipids: They frequently have nitrogen-containing bases and other substituents, eg, in glycerophospholipids the alcohol is glycerol and in sphingophospholipids the alcohol is sphingosine. b. Glycolipids (glycosphingolipids): Lipids containing a fatty acid, sphingosine, and carbohydrate. c. Other complex lipids: Lipids such as sulfolipids and aminolipids. Lipoproteins may also be placed in this category. 3) Precursor and derived lipids: These include steroids (cholesterol), lipid-soluble vitamins, and hormones. 35

Types of Lipids 1 Following is a summary of the types of lipids we will study and their general structures: Fatty Acids 1 The simplest lipids are the fatty acids, which rarely exist alone in nature, but instead are usually a component of more complex lipids 2 Fatty acids are carboxylic acids with a long hydrocarbon chain attached 3 Although the acid end is polar, the nonpolar hydrocarbon tail makes fatty acids insoluble (or sparingly soluble) in water 36

4 Fatty acids can be classified by how many double bonds are present in the hydrocarbon tail: - Saturated fatty acids have only single bonds - Monounsaturated fatty acids have one double bond - Polyunsaturated fatty acids have two or more double bonds Structures and Melting Points of Saturated Fatty Acids 37

Physical Properties of Saturated Fatty Acids Saturated fatty acids have: 1 Molecules that fit closely together in a regular pattern 2 Strong attractions (dispersion forces) between fatty acid chains 3 High melting points that makes them solids at room temperature. Structures and Melting Points of Unsaturated Fatty Acids 38

Physical Properties of Unsaturated Fatty Acids Unsaturated fatty acids have: 1 Nonlinear chains that do not allow molecules to pack closely 2 Weak attractions (dispersion forces) between fatty acid chains 3 Low melting points and so are liquids at room temperature 39

Triglycerides Triglycerides (also called Triacylglycerols) are tri-fatty acid esters of glycerol. Triglycerides are the major form of fatty acid storage in plants and animals. Triglycerides can be classified as fats or oils. - fats are solid at room temperature and most come from animals - oils are usually liquid at room temperature and come from plants (palm and coconut oils are liquids at room temperature). Triacylglycerols function as energy reservoirs in animals and are therefore their most abundant class of lipids because they are not components of cellular membranes. 41

Olive Oil Olive oil contains mostly triolein, which has three oleic acids. Oleic acid, a monounsaturated fatty acid, is a component of all fats and oils, but is especially abundant in olive and peanut oils. Some studies have shown that oleic acid may raise HDL (―good cholesterol‖) levels while also lowering LDL (―bad cholesterol‖) levels 41

Olestra: a Fat Substitute Olestra is: used in foods as an artificial fat. Sucrose linked by ester bonds to several long-chain fatty chains. Not broken down in the intestinal tract. Olestra inhibits the absorbtion of fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) and carotenoids. There are many reports of problems such as diarrhea and abdominal cramps with olestra use, but the manufacturers claim there’s no proof Reaction of fatty acids 1. Hydrogenation 2. Oxidation 3. Hydrolysis 1. Hydrogenation of Unsaturated Oils Hydrogenation converts alkenes to alkanes. So, hydrogenation of unsaturated oils produces saturated fats. Hydrogenation is typically carried out by bubbling H2 gas through the heated oil, in the presence of a metal catalyst (such as nickel or platinum). Unsaturated oils are usually only partially hydrogenated, so that the product is not completely saturated, giving a soft semisolid fat such as margarine 42

+3H2 O Pt O CH2 O C (CH2)7CH CH(CH2)7CH3 O CH2 O C O (CH2)16CH3 O C O (CH2)16CH3 CH O C (CH2)7CH CH(CH2)7CH3 O CH CH2 O C (CH2)7CH CH(CH2)7CH3 CH2 O C (CH2)16CH3 Cis and Trans Unsaturated Fatty Acids 1. Natural unsaturated fatty acids have cis double bonds 2. When unsaturated vegetable oils are hydrogenated to form more saturated oils (as in margarine), some of the cis fatty acids are isomerized to trans fatty acids. 3.Trans fatty acids are much more linear than cis fatty acids, so their melting points are higher and studies have shown that trans fats may act similarly to saturated fats and could contribute to heart disease and some cancers. 4.Due to new requirements for including amounts of trans fats on food labels, many companies are developing hydrogenation methods that do not produce trans fats 2. Oxidation of Unsaturated Oils Fats and oils can become rancid in two ways: 43

- bacterial ester hydrolysis (next slide) - air oxidation of alkenes Oxidation of fatty acid alkenes involves cleavage of the double bonds to form short-chain carboxylic acids. These oxidation products are foul-tasting and smell horrible O OH O2 or O3 O O O + OH HO OH Hydrolysis of Fats and Oils 1. Fats and oils contain ester groups which can be hydrolyzed with aqueous acid, aqueous base (saponification) or enzymes 2. The hydrolysis products are glycerol and three fatty acids 3. When triglycerides containing short-chain fatty acids are hydrolyzed the carboxylic acid products (such as butanoic and hexanoic acids) are foulsmelling and foul-tasting (rancid) O H 2C H 2C O C O (CH2)14CH3 HC O C O (CH2)14CH3 H 2C O C (CH2)14CH3 OH O H3O+ 44 HC OH H 2C or lipase OH + 3 HO C (CH2)14CH3

Saponification When a triglycerides is hydrolyzed with a strong base the process is called saponification. The products of saponification are glycerol and fatty acid salts (soap). NaOH is used with saturated fats to produce hard soaps. KOH is used with unsaturated fats to produce softer, more liquid soaps O H 2C O C O (CH2)14CH3 H 2C OH O NaOH HC H 2C O O C O (CH2)14CH3 C (CH2)14CH3 HC OH + 3 Na O C (CH2)14CH3 (Soap) H 2C OH Cholesterol Cholesterol is soft, fat-like, waxy substance. Bloodstream and cells needed it for cell membranes and hormones and to make vitamin D. comes from 2 sources: – Body produces it (mostly genetic) in liver (1000 mg day) – Food sources (animal products not from plant sources such as meats, poultry, fish, eggs, butter, whole milk, and cheese) (100 – 500 mg day) – Foods with trans fats or saturated fats may cause the body to produce more cholesterol 45

Cholesterol Must be transported through blood. Carriers are called lipoproteins – Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) – High-density lipoprotein (HDL) Lipoprotein = protein + fat – LDL, more fat, less protein – HDL, more protein, less fat LDL vs. HDL LDL = ―bad‖. Too much can clog arteries by forming plaque Atherosclerosis can cause heart attack or stroke. LDL vs. HDL HDL = ―good‖. Tends to carry cholesterol away from arteries and back to liver. May also remove excess cholesterol from plaque in arteries, slows buildup Triglycerides Form of fat. Also made in body (body fat stored as triglyceride) and from food. Help transport dietary fat, metabolism. Trigger liver to make more cholesterol, rising LDL and total cholesterol Synthesis of vitamin D 46

Steroids Steroids constitute an important class of biological compounds. Steroids are usually found in association with fat. They are derivatives of cholesterol that is formed of steroid ring or nucleus. Biologically important groups of substances, which contain this ring, are: Sterols, Adrenal cortical hormones, Male and female sex hormones, Vitamin D group, Bile acids, Cardiac glycosides. Bile acids: They are produced from oxidation of cholesterol in the liver producing cholic and chenodeoxycholic acids that are conjugated with glycine or taurine to produce glycocholic, glycochenodeoxycholic, taurocholic and taurochenodeoxycholic acids. They react with sodium or potassium to produce sodium or potassium bile salts. Their function is as follows: Emulsification of lipids during digestion. Help in digestion of the other foodstuffs. Activation of pancreatic lipase. Help digestion and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Solubilizing cholesterol in bile and prevent gall stone formation. Intestinal antiseptic that prevent putrefaction Conclusion 1- Lipids are esters of fatty acids, alcohols, sometimes additional groups. 2- lipids are storage forms of energy for living organisms 3- lipids are classified to simple (esters of fatty acids and alcohols) and complex (contains additional groups e.g. protein part) 4- fatty acids are the building unites of lipids which can be saturated or unsaturated 5- Cholesterol is soft, fat-like, waxy substance. Cells needed it for cell membranes and hormones and to make vitamin D. 47

6- Good cholesterol (HDL), bad cholesterol (LDL) is very important types of cholesterol used in detection of fat content abnormalities. 7- Triglycerides are Forms of fat made in body and from food. Help transport dietary fat, metabolism. Trigger liver to make more cholesterol, rising LDL and total cholesterol 8- Steroids are derivatives of cholesterol that is formed of steroid ring or nucleus e.g:Adrenal cortical hormones. 9- Bile acids are produced from oxidation of cholesterol in the liver, make Emulsification of lipids during digestion. Help in digestion of the other foodstuffs. 48

NUCLEOTIDES There are eight common varieties of nucleotides, each composed of a nitrogenous base linked to a sugar to which at least one phosphate group is also attached. The bases of nucleotides are planar, aromatic, heterocyclic molecules that are structural derivatives of either purine or pyrimidine (although they are not synthesized in vivo from either of these organic compounds). The most common purines are adenine (A) and guanine (G), and the major pyrimidines are cytosine (C), uracil (U), and thymine (T). The purines form bonds to a five-carbon sugar (a pentose) via their N9 atoms, whereas pyrimidines do so through their N1 atoms. In ribonucleotides, the pentose is ribose, while in deoxyribonucleotides (or just deoxynucleotides), the sugar is 2’-deoxyribose (i.e., the carbon at position 2’ lacks a hydroxyl group). Note that the primed numbers refer to the atoms of the pentose; unprimed numbers refer to the atoms of the nitrogenous base. In a ribonucleotide or a deoxyribonucleotide, one or more phosphate groups are bonded to atom C3’ or atom C5’ of the pentose to form a 3’-nucleotide or a 5’-nucleotide, respectively When the phosphate group is absent, the compound is known as a nucleoside. A 5’-nucleotide can therefore be called a nucleoside-5’-phosphate. Nucleotides most commonly contain one to three phosphate groups at the C5’ position and are called nucleoside monophosphates, diphosphates, and triphosphates. 49

The structures, names, and abbreviations of the common bases, nucleosides, and nucleotides Ribonucleotides are components of RNA (ribonucleic acid), whereas deoxynucleotides are components of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Adenine, guanine, and cytosine occur in both ribonucleotides and deoxynucleotides (accounting for six of the eight common nucleotides), but uracil primarily occurs in ribonucleotides and thymine occurs in deoxynucleotides. Free nucleotides, which are anionic, are almost always associated with the counterion Mg2+ in cells. Nucleic Acids Are Polymers of Nucleotides The nucleic acids are chains of nucleotides whose phosphates bridge the 3’ and 5’ positions of neighboring ribose units. The phosphate of these polynucleotides is acidic, so at physiological pH, nucleic acids are polyanions. The linkage between individual nucleotides is known as a phosphodiester bond, so named because the phosphate is esterified to two ribose units. Each nucleotide that has been incorporated into the polynucleotide is known as a nucleotide residue. The terminal residue whose C5’ is not linked to another nucleotide is called the 5’ end, and the terminal residue whose C3’ is not linked to another nucleotide is called the 3’ end. By convention, the sequence of nucleotide residues in a nucleic acid is written, left to right, from the 5’ end to the 3’ end. The properties of a polymer such 51

as a nucleic acid may be very different from the properties of the individual units, or monomers. DNA Forms a Double Helix (Watson–Crick model) The Watson–Crick model of DNA has the following major features: 1. Two polynucleotide chains wind around a common axis to form a double helix. 2. The two strands of DNA are antiparallel (run in opposite directions), but Each forms aright-handed helix. 3. The bases is the core of the helix and sugar–phosphate chains are the periphery. 4. Each base is hydrogen bonded to a base in the opposite strand to form a planar base pair. The Watson ‫ــــ‬Crick structure can accommodate only two types of base pairs. Each adenine residue must pair with a thymine residue and vice versa, and each guanine residue must pair with a cytosine residue and vice versa. These hydrogen-bonding interactions, a phenomenon known as complementary base pairing, result in the specific association of the two hains of the double helix. 51

RNA Is a Single-Stranded Nucleic Acid RNA occurs primarily as single strands, which usually form compact structures rather than loose extended chains (double-stranded RNA is the hereditary material of certain viruses). An RNA strand which is identical to a DNA strand except for the presence of 2’-OH groups and the substitution of uracil for thymine can base-pair with a complementary strand of RNA or DNA. As expected, A pairs with U (or T in DNA), and G with C. 52

CONCLUSION RNA DNA sugar Ribose Deoxiribose Purine Adenine, Guanine Adenine, Guanine Uracil, Cytosine Thymine,Cytosine present present In nucleus In nucleus Absent present Protein synthesis Carry and save genetic pyrimidine Phosphate groups presence Duble helex Function information Types 3 types One type 53

Enzymes Function of Enzymes Biological catalysts made up of proteins. Enzymes speed up the rate of chemical reactions in the body; both breaking down (e.g.: starch into maltose) and building up reactions. (e.g: amino acids into proteins). Enzymes lower the activation energy required to start a chemical reaction Characteristics of Enzymes Enzymes are highly specific in action. Enzymes remain chemically unchanged at the end of the reaction. Enzymes are required in minute amounts. Nomenclature of Enzymes In most cases, enzyme names end in –ase The common name for a hydrolase is derived from the substrate – Urea: remove -a, replace with -ase = urease – Lactose: remove -ose, replace with -ase = lactase Other enzymes are named for the substrate and the reaction catalyzed – Lactate dehydrogenase – Pyruvate decarboxylase Some names are historical - no direct relationship to substrate or reaction type – Catalase, pepsin, chymotrypsin and trypsin Nomenclature and Classification Enzymes are often classified by placing them in categories according to the reactions that they catalyze: Classification Type of Reaction Catalyzed 1. Oxidoreductases Oxidation–reduction reactions 54

2. Transferases Transfer of functional groups 3. Hydrolases Hydrolysis reactions 4. Lyases Group elimination to form double bonds 5. Isomerases Isomerization 6. Ligases Bond formation coupled with ATP hydrolysis Classification of Enzymes Oxidoreductases catalyze redox reactions – Reductases – Oxidases 2.Transferases: transfer a group from one molecule to another – Transaminases catalyze transfer of an amino group – Kinases transfer a phosphate group 3. Hydrolases cleave bonds by adding water – Phosphatases – Peptidases – Lipases 55

4. Lyases catalyze removal of groups to form double bonds or the reverse break double Decarboxylases and synthases 5. Isomerases catalyze intramolecular rearrangements – Epimerases – Mutases 1. Ligases catalyze a reaction: in which a C-C, C-S, C-O, or C-N bond is made or broken 56

Mode of Action Substrate fits in the enzyme active site, just like a key fits into a lock. An enzyme-substrate complex is formed. Chemical reactions occur at the active site and products are formed. 1. Lock and Key Enzyme Model: In the lock-and-key model, the enzyme is assumed to be the lock and the substrate the key. The enzyme and substrate are made to fit exactly. This model fails to take into account proteins conformational changes to accommodate a substrate molecule 2. Induced Fit Enzyme Model The induced-fit model of enzyme action assumes that the enzyme active site is more a flexible pocket whose conformation changes to accommodate the substrate molecule 57

Specificity of the Enzyme-Substrate Complex For enzyme and substrate to react, surfaces of each must be complementary. Enzyme specificity: the ability of an enzyme to bind only one, or a very few, substrates thereby catalyzing only a single reaction. Compare these 2 reactions: Urease is very specific or has a high degree of specificity. Classes of Enzyme Specificity Absolute: enzyme reacts with only one substrate Group: enzyme catalyzes reaction involving any molecules with the same functional group Linkage: enzyme catalyzes the formation or break up of only certain category or type of bond Stereochemical: enzyme recognizes only one of two enantiomers Cofactors and Coenzymes Active enzyme / Holoenzyme: – Polypeptide portion of enzyme (apoenzyme) – Nonprotein prosthetic group (cofactor) Cofactors are bound to the enzyme for it to maintain the correct configuration of the active site – Metal ions – Organic compounds – Organometallic compounds 58

Coenzymes A coenzyme is required by some enzymes – An organic molecule bound to the enzyme by weak interactions / Hydrogen bonds – Most coenzymes carry electrons or small groups – Many have modified vitamins in their structure 59

Factors affecting Enzyme Activity 1. Temperature Low temperatures, at 0C cause low Kinetic Energy of enzymes and substrates. No/very few enzyme-substrate complexes are formed. Enzymes are inactivated. at 20 0C Increasing the temperature will lead to the increase in kinetic energy of enzyme and substrate molecules. Enzyme and substrate molecules move with increasing speed and collide more frequently with each other. This increases the rate of enzyme-substrate complex formation This increases the rate of enzyme-substrate complex formation and product formation then rate of reaction increases. As the temperature continues to 61

increase, the rate of enzyme activity also increases until the optimal temperature is reached. Optimal temperature is the temperature at which the enzyme works best. Rate of product formation is highest. Beyond Optimal Temperatures, at high temperatures (>60°C), weak bonds within the enzyme molecule are broken. Enzyme loses its shape and its active site.Loss of shape leads to a loss of function. Enzyme is said to have denatured. Denaturation is the change in 3D structure of an enzyme or any other protein caused by heat or chemicals such as acids or alkali, causing it to lose its function. Different enzymes denature at different temperatures. Most enzymes denature at temperatures higher than 60°C. However, there are some enzymes that stay active even at high temperatures like 80°C (Enzymes in the bacteria Thermus aquaticus). 2. Effect of pH on enzyme activity Enzyme works best within a narrow pH range. Each enzyme works best at particular pH, known as its optimum pH level. At extreme pH levels, enzymes lose their shape and function and become denatured. 61

3. Effect of substrate concentration on enzyme activity As substrate concentration increases, the rate of reaction increases (at constant enzyme concentration). The enzyme eventually becomes saturated giving maximum activity. Uses of Enzymes in Medicine Diagnostic enzyme levels altered with disease Liver :Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma glutamyl tranferase (GGT) Heart attack: Lactate dehydrogenase, Creatine phosphate, AST 62

Pancreatitis: Amylase, lipase Analytical reagents: Enzyme used to measure another substance eg. Urea converted to NH3 via urease. CONCLUSION 1. Enzymes Biological highly specific catalysts made up of proteins which speed up the rate of chemical reactions in the body. 2. Common name of an enzyme = substrate or reaction or both +ase. 3. Enzymes act according to Lock and Key Model also Induced Fit Enzyme Model. 4. Enzyme activity affected by temperature, pH and enzyme substrate concentration. 5. Diagnostic enzyme levels altered with disease. 63

Vitamins Vitamins are made up of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. Vitamins are called micronutrients because they are needed in only very small quantities. They all have chemicals names but they are usually referred to by letters. Main functions Vitamins are essential to the body: 1. To maintain health 2. To help prevent deficiency diseases such as Beriberi (weakened muscles, heart, nerves and digestive system) and rickets (softening of the bones) 3. To regulate the repair of body cells 4. To help combat the ageing process 5. To help to process carbohydrates and release energy in the body Vitamins are Two main categories 1. Water soluble Vitamins ( B, C) 2. Fat Soluble (A, D, E, K) Water soluble: Cannot be stored in body - regular supply needed. Excess is excreted in urine. No danger of toxic levels. Unstable to heat and light, leach into cooking liquids. Fat Soluble: Can be stored in body - regular supply not needed. Can accumulate to toxic levels if large amounts ingested. Fairly stable at normal cooking temperatures Vitamin A found in two forms; Retinol and Beta-Carotene Retinol: Named because of its concern with retina of eye, only found in animal foods Beta-Carotene: plant sources, present with chlorophyll in plants, converted to Vitamin A in gut wall. 64

Functions: Regulates growth, promotes healthy skin, maintenance of healthy tissues, helps eye adapt to dim light. Sources: Retinol - Cod liver oil, Liver, Dairy products, Herrings, Egg yolk Beta-Carotene: Dark green leafy, vegetables, Broccoli, Carrots, Deep orange, fruits and vegetables Effects of deficiency • Retarded growth, malformed bones, long term-may lead to night blindness, susceptibility to infection, excess beta-carotene may lead to liver and bone damage Vitamin D -Calciferols Functions: Absorption and laying down of calcium and phosphorous in bones and teeth. Regulates calcium balance between bones and blood, Prevents rickets Sources: Sunlight conversion, Fish liver oils, Dairy products, Oily fish, Margarine Effects of deficiency 1. Rickets in children and osteomalacia in adults (Conditions where bones are soft and cannot take weight of body). 2.Osteoporosis (Bones become light, less dense and prone to fractures) 3. Dental caries Vitamin E - Tocopherol Functions: 1. Protects tissues against damage 2. Promotes normal growth and development 3. Helps in normal red blood cell formation Sources: Pure vegetable oils, Wheat, wholemeal bread, Cereals, egg yolk, nuts, sunflower seeds. 65

Effects of deficiency Deficiency is very rare but it could affect the central nervous system Vitamin K - Napthoquinone Functions: Needed for blood clotting, which means it helps wounds heal properly.There is increasing evidence that vitamin K is also needed to help build strong bones. Sources: Green leafy Vegetable, vegetable oil, cereals. Effects of deficiency Deficiency is very rare but individuals with liver damage and new born infants are at a higher risk Vitamin B1 - Thiamin Functions: Essential for release of energy from carbohydrates. Necessary for appetite and good health. Needed for normal functioning of nervous system Sources: Meat, Oatmeal, Breakfast cereals, Wheat, Fortified white flour Milk, Eggs, vegetables Deficiency: 1. Fatigue, depression, irritability 2. Beri-beri - disease of nervous system Vitamin B2 -Riboflavin Functions 1. Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats 2. Growth, repair, development of body tissues - healthy skin, eyes and tongue 3. The principal growth promoting factor in the vitamin B complex Sources: Offal, Milk, Cheese, Eggs, Yeast extracts, Green Vegetables 66

Deficiency 1. Loss of appetite 2. Swollen tongue, cracked lips, eye infection, Vitamin B3 -Niacin Functions 1. Metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats 2. Needed for normal functioning of nervous system Sources: Meat, Offal, Yeast extracts, Yeast, Bran, wheat, flour Some pulses, dried fruit Deficiency 1. Fatigue, depression, irritability 2. Beri-beri - disease of nervous system Vitamin B9 -Folic Acid Functions 1. Red blood cell formation 2. Development of brain, spinal cord and skeleton in foetus 3. Reduces risk of neural tube defects e.g. spina bifida 4. May play role preventing heart attacks, strokes and cancer Sources: fortified cereals, green leafy vegetables, potatoes, bread, milk, wheat Deficiency 1. Fatigue in mild cases 2. Anaemia in severe cases 3. Neural tube defects Important to take folic acid prior to conception and vital during first 3 months pregnancy 67

Vitamin C -Ascorbic Acid Functions 1. Critical to immune system. 2. Formation of connective tissue, collagen Helps absorption of iron. 3. Prevents scurvy. 4. Promotes healing of wounds and healthy blood vessels.5. Acts as antioxidant, protects cholesterol Sources: Rosehips, blackcurrants, green peppers, kiwi, citrus, fruits, strawberries, spinach, cabbage, broccoli Deficiency 1. Weakening of connective tissue 2. Susceptibility to infection 3. Incomplete iron absorption 4. Delayed healing of wounds 5. Prevent scurvy - pale skin with spots, bleeding, soft gums. Conclusion 1. Vitamins are very important organic biomolecules which can be water soluble or fat soluble 2. Water soluble: Cannot be stored in body, Unstable to heat and light, leach into cooking liquids.e.g: ( B, C) 3. Fat Soluble: Can be stored in body. Fairly stable at normal cooking; (A, D, E, K) 4. Each type of vitamins have it's own importance and is needed daily for healthy body. 68

MINERALS Our body requires mineral elements for a variety of functions. They are also known as micronutrients. Unlike vitamins, which are organic substances minerals are inorganic and are found in rocks and soil. Vegetables absorb minerals as they grow, while animals digest it through their diet. Minerals can be divided into two groups those needed in larger quantities (major minerals) and those only required in tiny amounts (trace elements). Trace Minerals - are iron, zinc and iodine. Major Minerals - are sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus. Minerals have 4 major functions: Body building – teeth and bones. Control of body processes, especially the nervous system. Essential part of body fluids and cells. Form part of enzymes and other proteins necessary for the release of energy Iron Functions: Production of haemoglobin in red blood cells to carry oxygen in the blood Deficiency: Anaemia, Sources: Red meat, Kidney, Liver, Eggs, Bread, Green veg Calcium Functions: Teeth and bones, Blood clotting, Nerve and muscle contraction. Heart regulation. Deficiency: Stunted growth can cause rickets, osteoporosis. Sources: Dairy products, fortified white bread, oily fish, green veg, nuts and seeds, citrus fruits. Phosphorus Functions: Bones and teeth with calcium.Muscle contraction Deficiency: Rarely deficient but could cause tiredness and depression 69

Sources: Dairy products, Nuts, Meat, Fish, foods rich in calcium Sodium Functions: Maintains water balance in the body and controls body temperature, helps you sweat when body temp rises. Deficiency: Deficiency is highly unlikely Sources: Cheese, Bacon, smoked meats, Fish, processed foods, table salt. Government advice says on average you should be eating no more than 6g of salt a day. Potassium Functions: Muscle contraction and in maintaining fluid. It is necessary for the building of muscle and for normal body growth. Deficiency: Dry skin, acne, Muscle spasms Sources: Banana, Celery, Turnips Zinc Functions: Everything from acne to diabetes. Aids the immune system. Needed for the senses of smell and taste. Deficiency: Dry skin, acne, Muscle spasms Sources: Meat (lamb), Oats, Eggs, Nuts Iodine: Functions: Thyroid gland function (controls how quickly the body uses energy) and body metabolism Deficiency: Particularly in children, fall in the production of thyroid hormones Sources: Animal and plat life from the sea, milk, eggs, yogurt Conclusion 71

1. Minerals are inorganic and are found in rocks and soil. 2. Major Minerals required in larger quantities are sodium, potassium, calcium and phosphorus. 3. Trace Minerals required in tiny amounts are iron, zinc and iodine. 4. Each type of elements have it's own importance and needed for healthy body. MCQ Q.1- Which of the following is a simple sugar or monosaccharide? a) Galactose c)Maltose b) Lactose d)Sucrose (a) Q.2- What is the molecular formula for Glucose? a) CH3OH c)C12H22O11 b) C6H1206 d)C6H12O5 (b) Q.3- Maltose is composed of which two sugars? a) Glucose and Glucose c) Glucose and Fructose b) Glucose and Galactose d) Fructose and Galactose (a) Q.4- In which form Glucose is stored in animals? a) Starch c)Dextrins b) Glycogen d)Cellulose 71 (b)

Q.5-All are glucosans excepta) Glycogen b) Inulin c)Starch d)Cellulose (b) Q.6- Choose the Aldose sugara) Sucrose b) Ribulose c)Fructose d)Ribose (d) Q.7- Choose the keto triosea) Glyceraldehyde b) Erythrose c) Dihydroxyacetone d)Arabinose Q.8- A pentose sugar present in the heart muscle isa) Xylose c)Xylulose b)Lyxose d)Aldose (c) (b) Q.9- α-D Glucose and β- D glucose area) Epimers c)Anomers b) Keto- Aldose Isomers d) Optical isomers Q.10- All tests arenegative for sucrose excepta) Benedict c)Barfoed b) Seliwanoff d)Osazone (c) (b) Q.11- Glucose canhave ————- isomers due to the presence of 4 asymmetric carbon atomsa) 4 c)8 b) 12 d)16 (d) Q.12- Galactose andGlucose area) Epimers c)Anomers b) Isomers d)Ketose- Aldose isomers (a) Q.13- The compounds having same structural formula but differing in configuration around one carbon atom are calleda) Optical isomers c) Anomers 72

b) Stereo isomers Epimers d) (d) Q.14- What does the following equation represent? α-D Glucose +112ο→+52.5 ο → +19 ο β- D glucose a) Stereoisomerism c) Opticalisomerism b) Mutarotation d)Epimerization Q.15- Thecarbohydrate of blood group substance isa) Fucose c)Lyxose b) Xylose d)Fructose Q.16- Dulcitol isa a) Sugar acid b) Amino sugar c) Deoxysugar d) Sugaralcohol Q.17- Which of thefollowing is a non reducing sugara) Arabinose c)Trehalose b) Erythrose d)Ribulose (b) (a) (d) (c) Q.18- APolysaccharide formed by β1→4 Glycosidic linkages isa) Starch c)Glycogen b) Dextrin d)Cellulose (d) Q.19-Invert sugarisa) Starch b) Glucose c)Fructose d)Hydrolytic product of Sucrose (d) Q.20- Thepolysaccharide found in the exoskeleton of insects isa) Hyaluronic acid c) Chitin b) Cellulose d)Chondrosamine (c) Q,21- Which of thefollowing is a polymer of fructose? a) Inulin c)Cellulose b)Dextrin d)Glycogen (a) Q.22- Adisaccharide produced on hydrolysis of starch is calleda) Sucrose c)Maltose b) Lactose d)Trehalose (c) 73

Q.23- The typicalcyclical structure of Glucose is α and β Da) Glucopyranose c)Glucofuranose b) Glucoside d)Glucosamine (a) Q.24- Which testcan be undertaken to differentiate between Glucose and Fructose? a) Benedict c)Seliwanoff b) Molisch d)Osazone (c) Q.25- Which of thefollowing molecules is a carbohydrate? a) C3 H7O2N c)C6H12O6 b) C13H26O2 d)C20H40O2 (c) Q.26- Which of the followingmonosaccharides is not an aldose? a) Ribose c) Glucose b) Fructose d)Glyceraldehyde (b) Q.27-Which of following is ananomeric pair? a) D-glucose and L-glucose c) D-glucose andD-fructose b) α-D-glucose and β-D-glucose d) α-D-glucose and β-L-glucose (b) Q.28- Which of the followingmonosaccharides is not a carboxylic acid? a) Glucuronate c) Glucose b) Gluconate d)Muramic acid (c) Q.29- From the abbreviated nameof the compound Gal (β 1 →4) Glc, we know that: a) The glucose residue is the β anomer. b) The galactose residue is at thenonreducing end. c) C-4 of glucose is joined toC-1 of galactose by a glycosidic bond. d) The compound is in its furanoseform (c) 74

1. The general formula of monosaccharides is (A) CnH2nOn (B) C2nH2On (C) CnH2O2n (D) CnH2nO2n 2. The general formula of polysaccharides is (A) (C6H10O5)n (B) (C6H12O5)n (C) (C6H10O6)n (D) (C6H10O6)n 3. The aldose sugar is (A) Glycerose (B) Ribulose (C) Erythrulose (D) Dihydoxyacetone 4. A triose sugar is (A) Glycerose (B) Ribose (C) Erythrose (D) Fructose 5. A pentose sugar is (A) Dihydroxyacetone (B) Ribulose (C) Erythrose (D) Glucose 6. The pentose sugar present mainly in the heart muscle is (A) Lyxose (B) Ribose (C) Arabinose (D) Xylose 7. Polysaccharides are (A) Polymers (B) Acids (C) Proteins (D) Oils 8. The number of isomers of glucose is (A) 2 (B) 4 (C) 8 (D) 16 9. Two sugars which differ from one another only in configuration around a single carbon atom are termed (A) Epimers (B) Anomers (C) Optical isomers (D) Stereoisomers 10. Isomers differing as a result of variations in configuration of the — OH and —H on carbon atoms 2, 3 and 4 of glucose are known as (A) Epimers (B) Anomers 75

(C) Optical isomers (D) Steroisomers 11. The most important epimer of glucose is (A) Galactose (B) Fructose (C) Arabinose (D) Xylose 12. α-D-glucose and β -D-glucose are (A) Stereoisomers (B) Epimers (C) Anomers (D) Keto-aldo pairs 13. α-D-glucose + 1120 → + 52.50 ← + 190 βD-glucose for glucose above represents (A) Optical isomerism (B) Mutarotation (C) Epimerisation (D) D and L isomerism 14. Compounds having the same structural formula but differing in spatial configuration are known as (A) Stereoisomers (B) Anomers (C) Optical isomers (D) Epimers 15. In glucose the orientation of the —H and —OH groups around the carbon atom 5 adjacent to the terminal primary alcohol carbon determines (A) D or L series (B) Dextro or levorotatory (C) α and β anomers (D) Epimers Answer 1. A 2. A 3. A 4. A 5. B 6. A 7. A 8. D 9. A 10. A 11. A 12. C 13. B 14. A 15. 76

Amino Acids Quiz 1. Which of the following is most found in protein molecule? a. Carbon b. Hydrogen c. Oxygen d. Nitrogen 2. No of naturally occuring aminoacids is : a. 10 b. 20 c. 30 d. 40 3. All of the following are aliphatic amino acids except : a. Glycine b. Alanine c. Proline d. Lysine 4. One of the following is neutral amino acid : a. Arginine b. Lysine c. Glutamine d. Valine 5. All of the following are hydroxy containing amino acids except : a. Serine b. Threonine c. Valine d. Tyrosine 6. One of the following is optically non active amino acid a. Valine b. Tyrosine c. Glycine d. Threonine 7. All of the following are polar amino acids except: a. Serine b. Glutamate c. Arginine d. Alanine 8. All of the following are essential amino acids except : a. Lysine b. Aspartate c. Tryptophan d. Hisitidine 9. Lysine: a. Basic Only ketogenic b. Ketogenic glucogenic c. Acidic glucogenic d. Non essential 10. All of the following are primary aminoacids except: a. Cysteine b. Cystine c. Alanine d. Arginine 11. Which of the following is precursor of T3 and T4 : a. GABA b. Dopa c. B- Alanine d. Di-iodotyrosine 12. Zwitter ion are: a. Basic b. Acidic c. Neutral d. Carry both -ve & +ve charges e. Both c and d 13. The unit of peptides is: a. Moiety b. Residue c. Polypeptide d. Both a and b 14. Lactic acid is buffered by: a. L.Carnosine b. Glutathione c. Casenogin d. Dopa 15. N terminal of glutathione is: a. Glycine b. Cysteine c. Glutamate d. Aspartate 16. Which of the following is BLOOD iron carrier? a. Haemoglobin b. Albumin c. Transferrin d. Globulin 17. Storage form of iron: a. Transferrin b. Ferritin c. Myosin d. Actin 18. Which of the following protein is found in bone : a. Keratin b. Ossein c. Mucin d. Actin 77

19. Type of bonds between C terminal and N terminal is: a. Covalent b. Disulphide bond c. Peptide d. Ionic e. Both a and c 20. Type of bond between nitrogen and carbonyl group: a. Hydrogen bonds b. Covalent bond c. Peptide bond d. Disulphide bond 21. All of the following are non covalent except: a. Hydrophobic interactions b. Disulphide bond c. Hydrogen bond d. Electrostatic bond 22. Primary structure of proteins refers to: a. Coi

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