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Introduction Linguistics

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Information about Introduction Linguistics

Published on October 31, 2008

Author: cupidlucid

Source: slideshare.net

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Linguistics • is systematic study of human language • lies at the crossroads of the humanities Introduction to Linguistics and the social sciences • combines intuition and scientific Down, dirty, quick approaches to analyze language Linguists Branches of Linguistics • are not polyglots—do not study various • Phonetics (production of sounds) languages in order to speak them • Phonology (the use of sounds) • Morphology (word formation) • are not translators • Syntax (sentence and phrase formation) • are interested in areas including cognitive • Semantics (meaning) psychology, philosophy, logic, literature, • Pragmatics (effect of situation) computer science, and anthropology • Other • describe and explain language and are not – Theoretical Linguistics, Historical Linguistics, Sociolinguistics, Psycholinguistics, Applied concerned with the prescriptive rules of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics, the language (i.e., do not split infinitives) Neurolinguistics, Anthropological Linguistics… Linguistics Circle Phonetics • study of the production and perception of speech sounds • concerned w/sounds of language, how these sounds are articulated and how the hearer perceives them. • three sub-disciplines of phonetics: – Articulatory Phonetics: the production of speech sounds – Acousitc Phonetics: the study of the physical production and transmission of speech sounds – Auditory Phonetics: the study of the perception of speech sounds 1

Phonology Lynn isn’t in love with phonology. . . • study of the sound patterns of language • concerned with how sounds are organized in a language • examines – what occurs to speech sounds when they are combined to form a word – how these speech sounds interact with each other • endeavors to explain what these phonological processes are in terms of formal rules. Where/Why does [ ] rise across . . .but some of it is important to AmE the country? • Not all varieties of a language have the same phonemic inventory: – Mary, merry, marry – cot, caught; tot, taught • or, if they do have the same phonemic inventory, they don’t have the same allophonic alternations Simple Vowels Sounds into writing rules. . . IPA Chart 2

It gets worse. . . . . . .see what I mean? simple English vowels Morphology Morphology • studies word formation and structure • dog, dogs, bulldog • Studies – how words are put together from their smaller parts – rules governing this process • walk, walks, walked, walking, moonwalk • elements that are combining to form words are called morphemes • morpheme is the smallest unit of meaning you • red, reddish, redden, reddens, redder can have in a language – cats, for example, contains the morphemes cat and the plural -s Morphemes …or looked at another way • Dog 1 morpheme • Dogs 2 morphemes dog + -s [pl] • Bulldog 2 morphemes bull + dog • Walk 1 morpheme walk • Walks 2 morphemes walk + -s [3rd per sing.] • Walked 2 morphemes walk = -ed [past tense] • Red 1 morpheme red • Reddish 2 morphemes red + -ish [deriv. adj] • Redder 2 morphemes red + -er [comparative] 3

Morphemes: base, root, free, Phonology vs. Morphology bound, inflectional, derivational. . . • Derivational • Inflectional Phonemes Morphemes – change the meaning of – do not change the a morpheme meaning /b/ + /e/ (2 phonemes) /be/ = bay (1 morpheme) – Change the part of – Do not change the speech of a part of speech of a morpheme morpheme /pat/ + /s/ = pots (2 /p/ + /a/ + /t/ + /s/ (4 phonemes) – can be prefixes or – strictly provide morphemes) suffixes grammatical /e/ (1 phoneme) /e/ = a (1 morpheme) • Prefix: un-, in- – Always suffixes • Suffix: -ly, -ness /t/ + /i/ + /ch/ + /U/ + /r/ (5 /tich/ + /Ur/ = teacher (2 phonemes) morphemes) Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 inflectional morphemes inflectional morphemes • Go with verbs: – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 inflectional morphemes inflectional morphemes • Go with verbs: • Go with verbs: – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -ed [past tense] 4

Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 inflectional morphemes inflectional morphemes • Go with verbs: • Go with verbs: – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -ed [past tense] drank – -ed [past tense] drank – -ing [progressive] Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 inflectional morphemes inflectional morphemes • Go with verbs: • Go with verbs: – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -ed [past tense] drank – -ed [past tense] drank – -ing [progressive] [is] drinking – -ing [progressive] [is] drinking – -en [perfective participle] Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 inflectional morphemes inflectional morphemes • Go with verbs: • Go with verbs: – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -ed [past tense] drank – -ed [past tense] drank – -ing [progressive] [is] drinking – -ing [progressive] [is] drinking – -en [perfective participle] [has] drunk – -en [perfective participle] [has] drunk • Go with adjectives: – -er [comparative] 5

Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 inflectional morphemes inflectional morphemes • Go with verbs: • Go with verbs: – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -ed [past tense] drank – -ed [past tense] drank – -ing [progressive] [is] drinking – -ing [progressive] [is] drinking – -en [perfective participle] [has] drunk – -en [perfective participle] [has] drunk • Go with adjectives: • Go with adjectives: – -er [comparative] bloodier – -er [comparative] bloodier – -est [superlative] Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 inflectional morphemes inflectional morphemes • Go with verbs: • Go with nouns: – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -s [plural] – -ed [past tense] drank – -ing [progressive] [is] drinking – -en [perfective participle] [has] drunk • Go with adjectives: – -er [comparative] bloodier – -est [superlative] bloodiest Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 inflectional morphemes inflectional morphemes • Go with nouns: • Go with nouns: – -s [plural] vampires – -s [plural] vampires – -’(s) [possessive] 6

Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 inflectional morphemes inflectional morphemes • Go with nouns: • Go with nouns: – -s [plural] vampires – -s [plural] vampires – -’(s) [possessive] vampire’s – -’(s) [possessive] vampire’s – ‘s’ [plural possessive] Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 Contemporary AmE has 8 or 9 inflectional morphemes inflectional morphemes • Go with nouns: • Go with verbs: – -s [3rd person singular, present tense] drinks – -s [plural] vampires – -ed [past tense] drank – -ing [progressive] [is] drinking – -’(s) [possessive] vampire’s – -en [perfective participle] [has] drunk – -s’ [plural possessive] vampires’ • Go with adjectives: – -er [comparative] bloodier – -est [superlative] bloodiest • Go with nouns: – -s [plural] vampires – -’(s) [possessive] vampire’s – ‘s’ [plural possessive] vampires’ Put another way: Mod AmE Verbs Derivational? Too many to list… • Change meaning • Change part of speech: – Re- – picture (N) + esque = Verbs • reorganize, restate, picturesque (ADJ) remark, reconvene, – sing (V) + er = singer (N) Regular Irregular repaint, retry, return. . . – quiet (ADJ) + ly = quietly – -ness (ADV) Add regular endings: Add some endings, • creativeness, laziness, – vaccine (N) + ate = -s present, 3rd person singular Change vowels expressiveness, courtliness… vaccinate (V) -ed past tens Stay regular – Un- – tall (ADJ) + ness = tallness (N) love be • undo, unpaid, laugh sing unadverturous, – migrate (V) + ory = smile write unadvisedly,unaerated, migratory (ADJ) unaffected… 7

Put this much together and you Phonology vs. Morphology have….syllable and word! Phonemes Morphemes • Syllable: organized sequence of sounds /b/ + /e/ (2 phonemes) /be/ = bay (1 morpheme) • Word: [hard one!] unit of language, mostly /pat/ + /s/ = pots (2 w/meaning and morphemes /p/ + /a/ + /t/ + /s/ (4 phonemes) morphemes) /e/ (1 phoneme) /e/ = a (1 morpheme) /t/ + /i/ + /ch/ + /U/ + /r/ (5 /tich/ + /Ur/ = teacher (2 phonemes) morphemes) Word Formation Word Formation fan (fanatic) NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Agency) TESOL (Teachers of English as a Second lab (laboratory) Language) fax (facsimile) AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) ASAP phone (telephone) Acronyms: creating a word from initials Clipping: reducing a word to one of its parts Word Formation Word Formation edit editor Xerox Kleenex peddle peddler Band-aid enthuse enthusiasm Sandwich shevelled dishevelled (Bill Bryson’s word) Back Formation: new form from Eponyms: derived from proper name of a removing prefixes/suffixes person or place 8

Word Formation Word Formation motel = motor + hotel petite, genre (from French) smog = smoke + fog karaoke (from Japanese) brunch = breakfast + lunch tea, tofu (from Chinese) camcorder = camera + recorder salsa (from. . .guess where?) Blending: formed from parts of other words Borrowing: aka: we don’t have the word so squished together we’ll just steal it Syntax (Lynn likes this area) Underlying? Transformational? • study of sentence structure • underlying structure of English for example • attempts to describe what is grammatical would have a subject-verb-object sentence order in a particular language in term of rules – S V [O] • rules detail an underlying structure and a – John hit the ball transformational process • transformational process would allow an alteration of the word order – could have something like The ball was hit by John Sentence: The students attended Syntax gets interesting when class • Start using it for practical purposes such as natural language generation • Attribute-Value Grammar tree for Mary chased John. 9

Put this much together and you have….clause and phrase! Semantics • Clause: unit of language w/subject and • study of meaning (loaded statement!) verb marked for tense • concerned with describing • Phrase: unit of language similar to clause – how we represent the meaning of a word in but lacking either subject, verb, or tense our mind marker – how we use this representation in constructing sentences • based largely on the study of logic in philosophy Pragmatics & Speech Acts Lynn really likes pragmatics… • study of the ability of natural language • Pragmatics depends on speakers to communicate more than that – the speaker which is explicitly stated – the addressee – other features of the context of utterance, • includes social uses of language: such as the following: – eye contact, turn taking in conversation, use • effect that the following have on the speaker’s of appropriate words in social conversation, choice of expression and the addressee’s taking the perspective of the listener, interpretation of an utterance: – Context of utterance understanding and appropriately using body – Generally observed principles of communication language and expressions – The goals of the speaker Pragmatics depends on implicature H. P. Grice & Cooperative Principle • refers to what is suggested in an utterance, even • quot;Make your contribution such as it is though not expressed nor strictly implied (that is, entailed) by the utterance. required, at the stage at which it occurs, – quot;Mary had a baby and got married“ by the accepted purpose or direction of the – strongly suggests that Mary had the baby before the talk exchange in which you are engaged.quot; wedding – …but would still be strictly true if Mary had her baby after she got married. • cooperative principle describes—doesn’t – Further, if we add the qualification quot;— not necessarily in that orderquot; to the original sentence, then the prescribe—how people interact with one implicature is cancelled even though the meaning of another the original sentence is not altered. 10

H. P. Grice & Maxims Pragmatics rather like Rhetoric • Maxim of Quality—Truth • Language • Language used to – Do not say what you believe to be false. – Do not say that for which you lack adequate evidence. intentionally used persuade people • Maxim of Quantity—Information • Concerned w/spoken • Classically concerned – Make your contribution as informative as is required for the current purposes of the exchange. language w/spoken language – Do not make your contribution more informative than is required. • Concerned w/speech • Concerned w/ • Maxim of Relation—Relevance – Be relevant. acts: – Invention, delivery, • Maxim of Manner—Clarity – convince, judge, arrangement, style, – Avoid obscurity of expression. (quot;Eschew obfuscationquot;) defend. . . memory – Avoid ambiguity. (quot;Espouse elucidationquot;) – Be brief. (quot;Avoid unnecessary prolixityquot;) • Descriptive • Prescriptive – Be orderly. Another quickie comparison • Pragmatics • Rhetoric – Boast, celebrate, – Ethos: purpose is to praise make the hearer trust speaker – argue, motivate, – Logos: purpose is to exemplify use argument to persuade – disparage, belittle, – Pathos: purpose is to praise, accuse, annoy stir emotions 11

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