Introduction Biocontrol Insects For Greenhouses

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Information about Introduction Biocontrol Insects For Greenhouses
Education

Published on January 29, 2009

Author: bedmunds

Source: slideshare.net

Description

This was a presentation given at the ProGreen 2009 expo on biocontrol insects for greenhouse production.

Biological Insect Pest Control for Greenhouses Brooke Edmunds, PhD CSU Extension-Adams County Regional Specialist, Commercial Greenhouses & Nurseries

What is Biological Control? The rearing and release of living organisms that seek out and destroy organisms considered to be pests First known use: 324 BC Chinese growers strategically placed ant colonies to control foliar insects in citrus trees Commercial biocontrol started in late 1960’s ~30 species of insects available today

The rearing and release of living organisms that seek out and destroy organisms considered to be pests

First known use: 324 BC

Chinese growers strategically placed ant colonies to control foliar insects in citrus trees

Commercial biocontrol started in late 1960’s

~30 species of insects available today

Why consider Biocontrol? Pesticide options are limited Herbs & vegetables Insecticide resistance Reduce risk of worker exposure Reduced re-entry times-better scheduling

Pesticide options are limited

Herbs & vegetables

Insecticide resistance

Reduce risk of worker exposure

Reduced re-entry times-better scheduling

Outline General biocontrol agents Common biocontrol insects used in greenhouses Steps to getting started

General biocontrol agents

Common biocontrol insects used in greenhouses

Steps to getting started

Lysiphlebus testaceipes Parasitoids

Predators

Beauveria bassiana Pathogens

Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Entomopathogenic Nematodes

Parasitoids Predators

Today’s Focus: Predators & Parasitoids What’s the difference? Predator: Insect that utilizes other insects as a food source Parasite: Insect that requires another insect to complete it’s life cycle (eggs laid in other insect)

Predators & Parasitoids

What’s the difference?

Predator: Insect that utilizes other insects as a food source

Parasite: Insect that requires another insect to complete it’s life cycle (eggs laid in other insect)

Specificity of biocontrols Most biocontrol insects are specific to a pest

Most biocontrol insects are specific to a pest

Whitefly Silverleaf whitefly Predator – none commercially available Parasite Eretmocerus eremicus (wasp) Greenhouse whitefly Predator – none commercially available Parasite Encarsia formosa (wasp)

Silverleaf whitefly

Predator – none commercially available

Parasite

Eretmocerus eremicus (wasp)

Greenhouse whitefly

Predator – none commercially available

Parasite

Encarsia formosa (wasp)

Spider mites -know pest species Predators Neoseiulus californicus (mite) Mesoseiulus longipes ( mite ) Galendromus occidentalis (mite) Phytoseiulus persimilis (mite) Parasite None commercially available

Predators

Neoseiulus californicus (mite)

Mesoseiulus longipes ( mite )

Galendromus occidentalis (mite)

Phytoseiulus persimilis (mite)

Parasite

None commercially available

Aphids -Know pest species Predator Aphidoletes aphidimiza (midge) Parasite Aphidius colemani (wasp) Aphidius ervi (wasp)

Predator

Aphidoletes aphidimiza (midge)

Parasite

Aphidius colemani (wasp)

Aphidius ervi (wasp)

Thrips Predator Amblyseius cucumeris (mite) Parasite None commercially available

Predator

Amblyseius cucumeris (mite)

Parasite

None commercially available

Generalists Orius insidiosus (minute pirate bug) Amblyseius swirskiis (predatory mite) Chrysopa carnea (lacewings) Hippodamia convergens (lady beetle)

Orius insidiosus (minute pirate bug)

Amblyseius swirskiis (predatory mite)

Chrysopa carnea (lacewings)

Hippodamia convergens (lady beetle)

Getting started: Accurate Pest ID Most biocontrols are host-specific! For help with identification: CSU Extension Faculty Adams Co. Greenhouse Plant Diagnostic Lab Internet sources

Accurate Pest ID

Most biocontrols are host-specific!

For help with identification:

CSU Extension Faculty

Adams Co. Greenhouse Plant Diagnostic Lab

Internet sources

Scouting Scout pest populations before starting: What are your pests? Where are your problems? Hot spots? When do they occur? Getting started:

Scouting

Scout pest populations before starting:

What are your pests?

Where are your problems? Hot spots?

When do they occur?

Scouting After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working? Depending on the species released: Use trap/indicator plants over sticky traps Look for aphid mummies Look for shriveled spider mites Look for blacken pupa Getting started:

Scouting

After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working?

Depending on the species released:

Use trap/indicator plants over sticky traps

Look for aphid mummies

Look for shriveled spider mites

Look for blacken pupa

 

Eggplant in Gerbera crop Photo: Cornell Univ.

Scouting After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working? Depending on the species released: Use trap/indicator plants over sticky traps Look for aphid mummies Look for shriveled spider mites Look for blacken pupa Getting started:

Scouting

After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working?

Depending on the species released:

Use trap/indicator plants over sticky traps

Look for aphid mummies

Look for shriveled spider mites

Look for blacken pupa

 

Scouting After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working? Depending on the species released: Use trap/indicator plants over sticky traps Look for aphid mummies Look for shriveled spider mites Look for blacken pupa Getting started:

Scouting

After biocontrol release: Are the biocontrol insects working?

Depending on the species released:

Use trap/indicator plants over sticky traps

Look for aphid mummies

Look for shriveled spider mites

Look for blacken pupa

Photos: UC Davis

Getting started: Educate yourself Know biology/life cycles of pests & biocontrol What is optimum environment for biocontrol? Humidity? Temps? Create resource list & contacts Suppliers, other growers, Extension agent

Educate yourself

Know biology/life cycles of pests & biocontrol

What is optimum environment for biocontrol?

Humidity? Temps?

Create resource list & contacts

Suppliers, other growers, Extension agent

Encarsia formosa

Getting started: Start Small Learn the ropes in a single house or with a single crop Long-term crops (i.e. Poinsettia) work better than short-term crops (bedding plants)

Start Small

Learn the ropes in a single house or with a single crop

Long-term crops (i.e. Poinsettia) work better than short-term crops (bedding plants)

Getting started: Give biocontrols best chance for success Screen vents to restrict pest entry Inspect new plants/ quarantine Screen vents to restrict new pest entry

Give biocontrols best chance for success

Screen vents to restrict pest entry

Inspect new plants/ quarantine

Getting started: Plan Ahead-Compatible Pesticides Compatible pesticides available to treat hot spots? www.koppert.com or www.biobest.de (click on ‘side effects’) have great databases showing the effect of insecticides on biological control performance Results are compiled from research studies so small-scale tests should be done

Plan Ahead-Compatible Pesticides

Compatible pesticides available to treat hot spots?

www.koppert.com or www.biobest.de (click on ‘side effects’) have great databases showing the effect of insecticides on biological control performance

Results are compiled from research studies so small-scale tests should be done

Encarsia formosa (parasitic wasp) Abamectin (Avid insecticide)

http://www.biobest.be/ click ‘side effects’ on top menu

Getting started: Select a Supplier Is the supplier a member of the Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers? Have other growers you know dealt with the supplier before and been pleased with the service? Does the producer provide information about its products? Do packages arrive quickly (1-3 days), on time and in good condition? Is the supplier a primary producer of the biocontrol insect, or a distributor? Is the producer a firm that has been around for some years, or a small start up company?

Select a Supplier

Is the supplier a member of the Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers?

Have other growers you know dealt with the supplier before and been pleased with the service?

Does the producer provide information about its products?

Do packages arrive quickly (1-3 days), on time and in good condition?

Is the supplier a primary producer of the biocontrol insect, or a distributor?

Is the producer a firm that has been around for some years, or a small start up company?

Local Sources No endorsements implied-FYI only! Hydro Gardens www.hydro-gardens.com (Colorado Springs) M & R Durango www.goodbug.com (Bayfield) Web search will turn up other sources

No endorsements implied-FYI only!

Hydro Gardens www.hydro-gardens.com (Colorado Springs)

M & R Durango www.goodbug.com (Bayfield)

Web search will turn up other sources

Getting started: Insure quality during & after shipping Shipping & holding temp are important! Shaker bottle of predatory mites mixed with vermiculite

Insure quality during & after shipping

Shipping & holding temp are important!

Getting started Insure quality during & after shipping: Do counts if possible immediate on arrival If you receive a shipment of biological control agents and they are all dead: Call the supplier immediately to file a claim . If the counts are low, let the supplier know before you discard the samples. A rep may want to examine the containers to find out what went wrong and how to remedy the problem. Complain about consistently low counts . If there is a serious problem or you are having difficulty doing the counts, try to find an extension agent or pest manager to help you.

Insure quality during & after shipping:

Do counts if possible immediate on arrival

If you receive a shipment of biological control agents and they are all dead: Call the supplier immediately to file a claim .

If the counts are low, let the supplier know before you discard the samples. A rep may want to examine the containers to find out what went wrong and how to remedy the problem. Complain about consistently low counts .

If there is a serious problem or you are having difficulty doing the counts, try to find an extension agent or pest manager to help you.

Getting started: Know Release Rates & Timing

Know Release Rates & Timing

Getting started: Success = Patience & Commitment Biocontrol doesn’t produce instant results Requires intensive management Takes more time Balance between allowing biocontrol time to work and managing an insect outbreak another way

Success = Patience & Commitment

Biocontrol doesn’t produce instant results

Requires intensive management

Takes more time

Balance between allowing biocontrol time to work and managing an insect outbreak another way

Resources Univ. of Wisconsin ‘Biological Control of Insects and Other Pests of Greenhouse Crops’ 108 pp ( http://learningstore.uwex.edu/pdf/NCR581.pdf ) The Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers http://www.anbp.org/beneficialinsectprofiles.htm Compatible pesticides with biocontrols www.koppert.com or www.biobest.de (click on ‘side effects’)

Univ. of Wisconsin ‘Biological Control of Insects and Other Pests of Greenhouse Crops’ 108 pp ( http://learningstore.uwex.edu/pdf/NCR581.pdf )

The Association of Natural Biocontrol Producers http://www.anbp.org/beneficialinsectprofiles.htm

Compatible pesticides with biocontrols www.koppert.com or www.biobest.de (click on ‘side effects’)

Resources-Suppliers Hydro Gardens www.hydro-gardens.com (Colorado Springs) M & R Durango www.goodbug.com (Bayfield) Koppert www.kopperts.com Syngenta Bio-line

Hydro Gardens www.hydro-gardens.com (Colorado Springs)

M & R Durango www.goodbug.com (Bayfield)

Koppert www.kopperts.com

Syngenta Bio-line

Brooke Edmunds, PhD CSU Extension-Adams County Regional Specialist, Commercial Greenhouses & Nurseries 303/637-8016 office [email_address] www.adamscountyextension.org Click on Greenhouse & Nursery then Presentations

Brooke Edmunds, PhD

CSU Extension-Adams County

Regional Specialist, Commercial Greenhouses & Nurseries

303/637-8016 office

[email_address]

www.adamscountyextension.org

Click on Greenhouse & Nursery then Presentations

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