Published on March 12, 2014
1Laura Swash, Feb 2014
SCLOA Principles Methods Topics Theories Ethics LearningOutcomes Laura Swash, Feb 2014 2
Principles Laura Swash, Feb 2014 3
Laura Swash, Feb 2014 4 Principles
Laura Swash, Feb 2014 5 Principles
Laura Swash, Feb 2014 6 Principles
Methods* • Human beings are social animals and have a basic need to belong • Culture influences behaviour • Humans are social animals and have a social self • People’s views of the world are resistant to change Experiments: Asch (1956, and others) on conformity. Overt participant observation: ethnographic studies, such as Margaret Mead’s Case study : Lovell and Lee on bullying is an example. Covert participant observation, for example Festinger et al. *Note that these methods can be interchangeable – I am just showing a strong link between principle and method.Laura Swash, Feb 2014 7
Topics WHAT WE DO: Attribution, social identity, social representation, stereotyping THE WIDER CONTEXT: Cultural norms, cultural dimensions WHY WE DO IT: Social Learning, Social Influence: compliance and conformity Laura Swash, Feb 2014 8
Main theories Attribution theory – we need to explain why. Social identity theory – “us and them” Social learning theory – copying role models Attribution Actor-Observer effect FAE – situational/dispositional factors SSB and modesty bias Social categorization: in-group/out- group Self-esteem boosted by in- group membership Social representations (cognitive schema) Stereotyping Children especially learn by imitation Applied to TV and video game violence Difficult to be sure, because of extraneous variables and vicarious learning Laura Swash, Feb 2014 9
Main theories Social influence – compliance and conformity Cultural norms and dimensions – the bigger picture Compliance as result of direct pressure Conformity as a result of indirect pressure Cultural factors and conformity Cultural norms – emic and etic approaches Cultural dimensions, based on values and norms. Individualism/ collectivism Confucian work dynamism Laura Swash, Feb 2014 10
Ethics Informed consent and right to withdraw – yet many of the studies use covert participant observation, so this is not possible. Psychological Stress – when put in a difficult situation through role play (see Zimbardo’s prison experiment) Deception – not being told the whole truth in the informed consent. Laura Swash, Feb 2014 11
Learning outcomes Levels 1 & 2 (SAQs) • Outline principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis • Explain how principles that define the sociocultural level of analysis may be demonstrated in research • Describe the role of situational and dispositional factors in explaining behaviour. • Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect on behaviour. • Explain social learning theory, making reference to two relevant studies. • Define the terms “culture” and “cultural norms”. • Using one or more examples, explain “emic” and “etic” concepts. 12Laura Swash, Feb 2014
Learning Outcomes Level 3 (ERQs) • Discuss how and why particular research methods are used at the sociocultural level of analysis • Discuss ethical considerations related to research studies at the sociocultural level of analysis • Discuss two errors in attributions • Evaluate social identity theory, making reference to relevant studies. • Discuss the use of compliance techniques • Evaluate research on conformity to group norms • Discuss factors influencing conformity • Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour Laura Swash, Feb 2014 13
Application of what you know – use it to make an argument Particular research methods relevant to the principles The role of situational and dispositional factors attribution error in different real-life situations Evaluate social identity theory intergroup relationships and sports fans Explain the formation of stereotypes and their effect gender stereotypes and illusory correlation Explain social learning theory the controversy over violent video games, mirroring the earlier debate about TV violence and children. Discuss the use of compliance techniques apply to selling, charity fundraising Evaluate research on conformity to group norms issues of validity and reliability, participant expectations Discuss factors influencing conformity why do some conform and others not? Examine the role of two cultural dimensions on behaviour controversy over ecological fallacy – does culture have the strong effect we think? Laura Swash, Feb 2014 14
Do you have questions? 15Laura Swash, Feb 2014
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