INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY

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Information about INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY
Education

Published on March 11, 2009

Author: JoeLopez

Source: authorstream.com

IMPORTANCE OF PHILOSOPHICAL FORMATION : IMPORTANCE OF PHILOSOPHICAL FORMATION Ordinatio Studiorum, no. 2 (1997) Use reason in non-sensible experience. Preparation for Theology Greater love for the truth; prepare wider apostolate Fides et Ratio, n. 5 (1998) As a way to come to know the fundamental truth about human life. An indispensable help for a deeper understanding of the faith. An indispensable tool to communicate the faith to others. Examples : Examples Substance and accidents (Metaphysics) : --------Transubstantiation-------- Matter and form (Metaphysics) -----Sacrament of Baptism------ BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY : BRANCHES OF PHILOSOPHY BRANCHES OF THEOLOGY : BRANCHES OF THEOLOGY OBJECTIVES OF THIS COURSE : OBJECTIVES OF THIS COURSE To grasp the vital importance of philosophy: faith, culture, life. To understand the nature of philosophical reflection, its methods, and relation with human sciences. To elucidate the Church’s Magisterium on Philosophy: ancilla theologiae; Fides et ratio. 1. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? : 1. WHAT IS PHILOSOPHY? Greek: Philo (love) + sophia (wisdom) Ancient tradition thinkers = philosophers. PYTHAGORAS, the first philosopher: WISE MAN St. Thomas Aquinas’ definition Knowledge sought in and for itself Man’s desire for knowledge Philosophy seeks a deep knowledge of reality beyond spontaneous knowledge, the arts, particular and technical sciences. DEFINITION OF PHILOSOPHER: Wise Man : DEFINITION OF PHILOSOPHER: Wise Man LEVELS OF KNOWLEDGE(de Torre, p. 54) : LEVELS OF KNOWLEDGE(de Torre, p. 54) Experience Natural Science Mathematics Metaphysics Philosophy does not do away with spontaneous knowledge. 2. PHILOSOPHY IN HUMAN LIFE (ordinary knowledge) : 2. PHILOSOPHY IN HUMAN LIFE (ordinary knowledge) Philosophy – knowledge of all things through their ultimate causes acquired through the use of reason Common sense – ordinary knowledge acquired in an unreflective manner Ideology – a body of ideas that reflects the beliefs of a nation, political system (more pragmatic, goal-oriented) 3. SIGNIFICANCE OF PHILOSOPHY TO LIFE : 3. SIGNIFICANCE OF PHILOSOPHY TO LIFE Speculative – seek to know reality as such, to contemplate the truth Practical – study how human acts are directed to their end. SCIENCES AND ART RELEVANCE TO LIFE : RELEVANCE TO LIFE Human happiness is closely linked to wisdom. Philosophy, the love for wisdom, is both practical and speculative. PHILOSOPHIA ANCILLA THEOLOGIAE : PHILOSOPHIA ANCILLA THEOLOGIAE Philo of Nature Metaphysics, Natural Theology, Philo of Religion Philo of Science Philo Anthropology Creation, Sacraments God One & Triune, Sacraments, Ecclesiology Sacred Scriptures Christology, Grace 4. DEFINITION OF PHILOSOPHY : 4. DEFINITION OF PHILOSOPHY Philosophy is the knowledge of all things through their ultimate causes, acquired through the use of reason. (Artigas, p. 9) Material object: What? Formal object: How? PHILOSOPHY vis-à-vis PARTICULAR SCIENCES : PHILOSOPHY vis-à-vis PARTICULAR SCIENCES SOME CONCEPTS : SOME CONCEPTS CAUSE- person, event, thing, or state of action that produces an effect ULTIMATE – conclusive in a series or process, final; the highest or most significant 5. Philosophy and a “World-View”. : 5. Philosophy and a “World-View”. KNOWLEDGE that is connatural to man. Orderly study Effort St. Anselm on “the desire for truth”: To see You was I conceived; and I have yet to conceive that for which I was conceived. (Proslogion, 1: PL 158, 226). THE TRUTH : THE TRUTH The truth, regardless of who utters it, comes from the holy spirit, who infuses the natural light and prompts the intellect to understand and express the truth. S. Th. I-II, 109, 1, ad 1. PERENNIAL THEMES OF PHILOSOPHY : PERENNIAL THEMES OF PHILOSOPHY GOD Man World BEINGKNOWING : BEINGKNOWING GOD Man World Stage 1 Stage 2 Stage 3 Ch 2 PHILOSOPHY AS WISDOM : Ch 2 PHILOSOPHY AS WISDOM 2.1. Wisdom in human existence WISDOM: a certain knowledge of the deepest causes of everything SAPIENTIA SIMPLICITER. Ultimate causes. WISE: The one who asks questions... 2.2. TYPES OF WISDOM : 2.2. TYPES OF WISDOM METAPHYSICS: to the deepest causes of reality. Ultimately: God. Experience Natural Science Mathematics Metaphysics 2.3. WISDOM IS ALSO SCIENCE : 2.3. WISDOM IS ALSO SCIENCE Science is the knoledge of truths attained by means of demonstration, starting form some principles. INTELLECTUAL SCIENCE. PRINCIPLE OF IDENTITY PRINCIPLE OF CAUSE & EFFECT PRINCIPLE OF NON-CONTRADICTION IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR SOMETHING TO BE AND NOT TO BE IN THE SAME SENSE AND IN THE SAME SUBJECT. 2.4. WISDOM AND IGNORANCE : 2.4. WISDOM AND IGNORANCE Wisdom facilitates the attainment of moral uprightness, and the consequent happiness. SOCRATES: virtue = knowledge The wise man is good 2.4. WISDOM AND IGNORANCE : 2.4. WISDOM AND IGNORANCE But the exercise of the human freedom plays an important role in the growth of sapiential knowledge INTELLECT WILL The wise man is good END OF CHAPTER 2 : END OF CHAPTER 2 3.1. PHILOSOPHY AS SCIENCE : 3.1. PHILOSOPHY AS SCIENCE A/ Certain knowledge through causes. B/ Science is the knowledge of truths attained by means of demonstration, starting from some principles. INTELLECTUAL SCIENCE. For Descartes, the model was mathematics: clarity and precision. To deduce all knowledge from indubitable evidence. Different Stances of Philosophy : Different Stances of Philosophy 1st stage: Pre-Christian Philo Pure Reason 2nd stage: Christian Philosophy Reason enlightened by Faith 3rd stage: Modern Philosophy Reason versus Faith 3.2. UNITY AND MULTIPLICITY in Philosophy : 3.2. UNITY AND MULTIPLICITY in Philosophy 3.3. PHILOSOPHY & PARTICULAR SCIENCES : 3.3. PHILOSOPHY & PARTICULAR SCIENCES PHILOSOPHY: ALL the reality/ in its deepest aspect/ ultimate causes (Being). PARTICULAR SCIENCES: specific aspects of reality/ proximate causes. Biology, Physics, etc. Scientism. Historicism. 3.4. Philosophical foundation of sciences: Philosophy and Being : 3.4. Philosophical foundation of sciences: Philosophy and Being Philosophy studies the most fundamental truth about reality: what is being? What is to be? What is to be itself? Other sciences take for granted that a thing is. This is the philosophical foundation Erroneous foundations : Erroneous foundations Mechanism: reductionism to matter, and only the quantitative aspect. (Evolutionist theories). Marxism: reductionism to economy. Behaviourism: materialism in human behaviour. 3.5. Autonomy of the Sciences : 3.5. Autonomy of the Sciences Philosophy as foundation Logic leads research But PARTICULAR SCIENCES (Medicine, biology, geology, etc) enjoy autonomy. On-going division of sciences started from NATURAL PHILOSOPHY in Medioevo. 4 THE METHOD OF PHILOSOPHY : 4 THE METHOD OF PHILOSOPHY Philosophy follows ordinary common human knowledge. SENSES + INTELLECT Particular Sciences: experimentation + logical process conclusions 4.2. Philosophy & intellectual evidence : 4.2. Philosophy & intellectual evidence ABSTRACTION: the intellect grasps the essences of things, expressing them through ideas or concepts. Ideas (universals) vs images (particular). 4.3. Philosophy and experimental proof : 4.3. Philosophy and experimental proof Experience (1) Philosphy applies reasoning (2). Causes; deduces conclusions. Conversion to images (3) : (conversio ad phantasmata). But spiritual realities/ or metaphysical aspects of reality are not imaginable. METAPHYSICS : METAPHYSICS Philosophy and Being : Philosophy and Being Philosophy studies the most fundamental truth about reality: what is being? What is to be? What is to be itself? Ultimate causes. Other sciences take for granted that a thing is. Metaphysics is the nucleus of philosophy. Cfr. Page 46 BEING AND ITS CAUSES : BEING AND ITS CAUSES Four Causes: What is this? (formal cause) What is it for? (final cause) What is it made of? (material cause) Who made it? (efficient cause) EFFICIENT CAUSALITY : EFFICIENT CAUSALITY Finite creatures produce their effects within the level of the essence – transform reality. God works at the level of the act of being (that is why He can create: give being). MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS : MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS Ens, esse and essence Substance and Accidents Act and Potency; Change Matter and Form MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS : MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS esse (v)= to be; the act of being Essence (n)= the manner of being Ens (n)= that which has the act of being; an essence which has the act of being BEING AS OBJECT OF METAPHYSICS : BEING AS OBJECT OF METAPHYSICS BEING AS OBJECT OF METAPHYSICS : BEING AS OBJECT OF METAPHYSICS MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS : MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS BEING can be of 2 types: Substance (n) = that which exists by itself; stands under. Accidents (n) = that which exists in another; perfects the substance (color, size, etc) APPLICATION : APPLICATION Peter is a man. He is 5’3”, fair-skinned with blue eyes. He is the son of Paul. Peter died last year. His corpse is buried in the cemetery. MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS : MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS Change = passage from potency to act Potency = capacity to be Act= to actually be Tree + fire?charcoal (tree in potency to become charcoal; after the fire, actually become charcoal, but not milk.) MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS : MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS This tree= substance + accidents [matter + form (s + a)] + esse material and formal cause Fire – efficient cause; Economic reason – final cause That charcoal =substance + accidents [matter + form (s + a)] + esse material and formal cause Tree in potency to become charcoal; after the fire, actually become charcoal.) MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS : MORE METAPHYSICAL CONCEPTS PRINCIPLE OF NON-CONTRADICTION IT IS IMPOSSIBLE FOR SOMETHING TO BE AND NOT TO BE IN THE SAME SENSE AND IN THE SAME SUBJECT. Versus PHILOSOPHICAL RELATIVISM Philosophy of nature : Philosophy of nature Study of the material beings, the being of the corporeal beings. It looks into the composition (structure) of material substances, with regard to their being. Ultimate causes. Hylemorphism. Page 54. Proximate causes: experimental sciences. Pages 56-7. Philosophy of living beings : Philosophy of living beings Power of self motion. Assimilate external substances & transform them into their own substance. Growth, maintaining their individual unity. Reproductive power. Man (anthropology): rational being. Psychology. Human sciences. ETHICS : ETHICS Voluntary actions towards their end. It studies the last end of man which ensures his happiness. Morality. Moral Theology General / social LOGIC : LOGIC Reasoning: limits of our knowledge. Mental process. INDUCTION: from some particular cases to UNIVERSAL KNOWLEDGE (gravitation law) DEDUCTION: from the universal laws to INDIVIDUAL CASES. Validity. Propositions (judgments); syllogisms (relations) Logic & Metaphysics : Logic & Metaphysics The necessary character of logical laws proceeds from the necessary character of metaphysical laws. Experience will never be able to contradict true logical laws, since these conform with the necessary laws of reality. Process of knowing : Process of knowing 1. Simple apprehension: concept. 2. Judging: proposition. 3. Reasoning: syllogism. Pigeon Flying with olive branch It stopped raining. HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY : HISTORY OF PHILOSOPHY Pre-Christian Philosophy Humble Reason (w/o faith) close to truth Christian Philosophy Humble Reason enlightened by Faith, closest to fullness of truth Modern Philosophy Proud reason rejects faith and falls into error. PURE REASON: PLATO AND ARISTOTLE : PURE REASON: PLATO AND ARISTOTLE PLATO (427-348 BC) -The world of Ideas and the world of things. Participation. -Immortality of human soul; reincarnation -God is the supreme soul and the origin of all motion (one God) ARISTOTLE (384-322 BC) -Reality is in the sensible world. Being as being. -Substantial and accidental change; matter and form. -God as First Mover, First Cause and Final Cause; but not Efficient Cause ROLE OF GREEK PHILO IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY : ROLE OF GREEK PHILO IN EARLY CHRISTIANITY “The teaching of the Savior is perfect in itself and has no need of support, because it is the strength and wisdom of God. Greek philosophy with its contribution, does not strengthen the truth, but, … in disarming those who betray truth and wage war upon it, greek philo is rightly called the hedge and protective wall around the vineyard.” St. Clement of Alexandria REASON AND FAITH: : REASON AND FAITH: St. Augustine (354-430 AD) -The true philosopher is one who loves God. -The “ideas” of all that exists are in God, and God has sown these ideas in the world of matter as a seed. St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274); canonized 1323 -Harmony of faith and reason. -Creative causality of God -The world of creatures as participated beings. “I am who Am” (Ex. 3).59 SPIRIT OF CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY : SPIRIT OF CHRISTIAN PHILOSOPHY Philosophy conceived in dynamic union with the faith. Humility of reason towards God, truth, reality. HARMONY OF FAITH AND REASON (STH AQ) : HARMONY OF FAITH AND REASON (STH AQ) What we can see with reason alone, is seen by faith with much more light, and what faith reveals is never against reason, though it often surpasses it. THOMISTIC SYNTHESIS : THOMISTIC SYNTHESIS “THOMAS GATHERED THEIR DOCTRINES TOGETHER ---THEY HAD LONG LAIN DISPERSED LIKE THE SCATTERED LIMBS OF A BODY—AND KNITTED THEM INTO ONE WHOLE.” (POPE LEO XIII, ENC. AETERNI PATRIS, 1879) CRISIS OF MODERNITY:FAITH VS. REASON : CRISIS OF MODERNITY:FAITH VS. REASON Martin Luther 1483- 1546 Protestant Revolt in the Church. FIDEISM: ONLY FAITH Rene Descartes 1596- 1650 Parallel ‘Revolt’ in Philosophy RATIONALISM: ONLY REASON SPIRIT OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY : SPIRIT OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY Rejection of all received knowledge: x faith x past x senses Man finds truth out of himself, by himself and for himself. God is unknowable. FIDEISM or AGNOSTICISM METAMORPHOSIS: MODERN ? CONTEMPORARY : METAMORPHOSIS: MODERN ? CONTEMPORARY DESCARTES Rationalism= intellect Empiricism = senses KANT HEGEL MARX COMTE Communism Philo of Science Analytic Philo Nihilism, Hedonism NIETZSCHE An Evaluation of Modern Philosophy : An Evaluation of Modern Philosophy IT HAS GREAT MERIT IN FOCUSING ITS ATTENTION ON MAN. BUT REASON, IN ITS ONE-SIDED CONCERN TO INVESTIGATE HUMAN SUBJECTIVITY, SEEMS TO HAVE FORGOTTEN THAT MAN IS ALWAYS CALLED TO DIRECT ITS STEPS TOWARDS A TRUTH WHICH TRANSCENDS THEM… REASON HAS WILTED UNDER THE WEIGHT OF SO MUCH KNOWLEDGE…AND LOST ITS CAPACITY TO LIFT ITS GAZE TO THE HEIGHTS… (FIDES ET RATIO, NO. 5) LEGACY OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY (bad news) : LEGACY OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY (bad news) Can we know the truth? Scepticism It is impossible to know the truth! Agnosticism There is no absolute truth! Relativism LEGACY OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY (good news) : LEGACY OF MODERN PHILOSOPHY (good news) … even in the philosophical thinking of those who helped drive faith and reason further apart, there are found at times precious and seminal insights, which if pursued and developed with mind and heart rightly tuned, can lead to a discovery of truth’s way. (Fides et Ratio, no. 48). Personhood, intersubjectivity, freedom and values, time and history… IN SEARCH OF LOST UNITY : IN SEARCH OF LOST UNITY Philosophy to recover union with faith Because: Reason w/o faith? loses final transcendent good Faith to be enriched by right reason Because: Faith w/o reason? sentimentalism, myth, superstition RETURN TO REALIST PHILOSOPHY IN 20TH C. : RETURN TO REALIST PHILOSOPHY IN 20TH C. Revival of Thomistic Philosophy, with its openness to the truth and compatibility with the faith: Cardinal Mercier (Louvain), Cornelio Fabro (Italy), Josef Pieper (Germany), Jacques Maritain, Etienne Gilson (France), John Henry Newman (Engl).

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