Published on February 11, 2014
What is matter?
• Matter – Has mass and volume – Made up of atoms – Examples:
• Not Matter – No mass, no volume – Examples: Light, Sound, Electricity
• Atoms – General name for the smallest particle that still has properties of an element – Composed of • Protons • Neutrons • Electrons
Phases of Matter Solids Liquids Gases
Changes in State (Physical Change)
• Elements – Elements consists of only one type of atoms – Atom with specific # of protons – Has a Name • 6 protons Carbon • 8 protons Oxygen
• Each element has its own properties – Carbon melting point 3550°C – Oxygen melting point -218°C – Hydrogen melting point -259°C
Oxygen freezing point -218°C Hydrogen freezing point -259°C
• Capital letter – Symbol that denotes an element always capitalized O H C Na Cl Mg NaCl P F N Be Li Si HNO SiO
ds al i lo t Me nNo l ta Me Metals All element are listed here …
Metals are: • Malleable – Mean that it can hammered into shapes. • Ductile – Can be drawn into wires • Lustre – Shiny when rubbed with sandpaper. • Solids at room temperature.
Non-metals • There are 17 elements who make up nonmetals. • Except for Hydrogen, they all appear on the right hand side of the Periodic Table. • They can be solid, liquids or gases. • When solid, they are usually brittle (it means that it crumbles).
Metalloids • Metalloids have both metal and non metal qualities. • There are 8 element. • They are often used in semiconductors and therefore extensively used in electronics and computers.
• Compounds are – Two or more different elements chemically combined – They are a lot more common and there are millions of them.
• Subscript – Number of atoms of the element – Always after the symbol O2 H2 H2O HNO3 C6H12O6 CO2
Do you want to make some compounds?
8E Making marvellous molecules!
Compounds are a result of a chemical change or reaction.
A chemical change happened when: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A gas gets formed. Energy is given off. Apparent change of mass. Permanent colour change. Formation of a precipitate.
Reaction Rates are increased by: • • • • An increase in temperature. Smaller particle size. The more concentrated the reactant. Using a catalyst. – A catalyst is a chemical that are not consumed in the reaction but caused the reaction rate to increase.
pure substances or mixtures
• Pure substances – – – – – Fixed composition Definite properties Cannot by separated by physical actions Elements Compounds
• Pure substance examples O H C H2O HNO3 C6H12O6 CO2
• Mixtures –Blend of 2 or more pure substances –All properties remain in mixture
ts en lv o S • It a liquid in which you dissolve something • Water is the most common solvent
Solutions • Is a liquid with which has a substance completely dissolved in it.
Suspensions • It is a mixture with large enough particles that are visible in the liquid. • These visible particles are called sediments.
Its time to concentrate • Diluted • Concentrated • Saturated
Colloids • Colloids are liquids with more than one substance spread evenly through it. • They differ from suspensions in that they contain smaller particles. • They differ from solutions in that they contain larger particles.
Emulsions • Emulsions are a type of Colloids • It occurs when tiny droplets of one liquid is spread evenly throughout the liquid.
Separating mixtures Decanting Sieving Re-crystallisation Evaporation Filtration Magnetic
Separating complex mixtures n latio l disti id is e e us ne liqu ther. W o o hen ed in an w lv isso d
Acids & Bases
Acids 1. Taste sour
4. Turns Blue litmus paper to RED
bases 1. tastes bitter
3. Turns Red litmus paper to BLUE
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