Intro To Environmental Evidence

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Information about Intro To Environmental Evidence

Published on February 20, 2009

Author: guestcc90c7

Source: slideshare.net

Evidence in Prosecutions: Sampling and Analysis CEC November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe, Ph.D. in Law

Overview Sampling  Analysis  Reporting  Special Cases  2 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Reliable results Clear official rules  Thorough training  Meticulous attention to detail  3 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Adequate samples? How many samples?  Statistically valid?  Correct locations?  Correct tool?  Correct container?  Quantity?  4 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Samples representative? Cross contamination?  Purged/ non purged?  Multiple layers/ levels?  Time of year?  Composite samples?  Capture volatiles?  Limited access?  5 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Heterogeneous solids Difficult to sample accurately  Especially mixed wastes  Must match statutory test  6 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Selecting samples for analysis For what parameters?  Are correct samples analysed?  Field evidence reasonable?  Preserved?  7 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

What happens to the sample? Correctly preserved?  Correctly transported?  Chain of custody?  Proper record keeping?  8 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Analysis Lab qualified for that particular analysis?  Qualified analyst?  Using correct method?  Sample suitable?  9 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Lab Sample Preparation Timeliness  Refrigeration  Manipulation  Fletcher v. Kingston  Inco  10 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Appropriate test? Bulk analysis  Leachate  Flammability  Toxicity  Odour  11 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Quality assurance/ control QA/ QC  Field blanks  Travel blanks  Duplicates  Calibration  12 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Reliability of result Good record keeping?  False precision?  Method detection limit  Dilution/ masking  Judgment required?  13 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Reporting Official certificate  Correct form, correctly completed?  Chain of custody  Statute may make admissible  14 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Appropriate benchmark Often contentious  Especially if drawing on other jurisdictions  Statute may determine  15 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Relevance of result Background?  Natural variability?  Forms of contaminant  Arsenic/ arsenate  Chromium: hexavalent v trivalent  16 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Special cases: Field variables  Noise/ Vibration  Odour  Lay Evidence  17 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Field variables: pH  Temperature  Volatiles  Opacity  Wind direction/ speed  18 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Noise/ Vibration Completely different  Unique expertise and equipment  Measured on site  Logarithmic scale  Excess over background?  Level, impulse, tone  19 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Odour Samples taken  Panel of “trained noses”  Reproducibility?  “Odour units”  Detection/ identification/ objection  Strong emotional element  20 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Lay evidence Accurate record keeping?  Credible?  Independent?  Corroboration  21 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Reliable results Clear official rules  Thorough training  Meticulous attention to detail  22 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

Thank you!! Saxe Law Office 248 Russell Hill Road Toronto, Ontario M4V 2T2 Tel: 416-962-5882 Fax: 416-962-8817 Email: admin@envirolaw.com www.envirolaw.com 23 November 18, 2008 Dianne Saxe

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