Published on March 18, 2014
Anatomical Position Introduction to Anatomy • Standing erect, with palms and feet facing forward • Is the standard reference point in which all positions, movements, and planes are described
Anatomical Terms Worksheet
Introduction to Anatomy Prone : Lying face down Supine : Lying face up Unilateral : Pertaining to one side of the body Bilateral : Pertaining to both sides of the body Positions and Directions
• Fixed lines of reference along which the body is often divided or sectioned to facilitate viewing of its structures • These planes can also refer to movements at individual joints. (Movement Analysis) Introduction to Anatomy Anatomical Planes pdf file- intro to anatomyexplanation of planes of motion video
Sagittal plane – The plane dividing the body into right and left portions – Midsagittal or median are names for the plane dividing the body into equal right and left halves Introduction to Anatomy Anatomical Planes Sagittal Plan
Frontal plane – The plane dividing the body into front and back portions – Also called the Coronal plane Introduction to Anatomy Anatomical Planes
Transverse plane – divides the body into upper and lower portions – Also called the horizontal plane Anatomical Planes Introduction to Anatomy
Introduction to Anatomy Anatomical Axes An axis is a straight line where rotations occurs. Movement at the joint take place in a plane about an axis. There are three axis of rotation. THE GENERAL RULE: The axis of rotation is perpendicular to the plane of movement. anteroposterior axis
Introduction to Anatomy Relationship Between Planes and Axes Axis of Rotation Plane of Motion Example Transverse Sagittal Flexion, Extension Vertical (longitudinal) Horizontal (Transverse) Rotation of extremities, Axial rotation Anteroposterior Frontal (Coronal) Abduction, Adduction
Introduction to Anatomy Describe the following motions in terms of its plane of motion. Cartwheel Back somersault Head spin Pirouette Side hops Split Front roll Frontal Sagittal Transverse or horizontal Transverse or horizontal Frontal Frontal Sagittal
Introduction to Anatomy Describe the following motions in terms of its plane of motion & axis of rotation Shoulder flexion/extension Hip abduction Head rotation Plane Axis Frontal Sagittal Frontal sagittal Transverse vertical (Horizontal)
Introduction to Anatomy Moving in the three planes of motion How do we train our bodies? • Think of gym equipment (machines vs free weights) •Which planes of motion? • Function activities – daily life activities Consider the following: • Movements in sports
Introduction to Anatomy Moving in the 3 planes of motion clips Moving in the three planes of motion Our bodies generally move in more than one plane at a time. Which plane of movement is usually neglected in training? Answer: Transverse (horizontal) Plane
Introduction to Anatomy Assignment: For each plane of motion list and describe 3 exercises/ warm-ups. Your description should include what plane(s) it is moving in and which axis (axes) is/are involved. If you choose a multi-joint exercise you only need to describe one joint during the exercise. (Name that joint in your description) You can include pictures in your description.
Superior (cranial) is a term used to describe a place that is toward the upper part of the body. For example the skull is superior to the shoulders. Superior can also be used to mean above. When the lower part of the body (or below is referred to, the term inferior (caudal) is used. For example, the knees are inferior to the shoulders. Terms of Position & Direction Introduction to Anatomy
Lateral means towards the side of the body or away from the middle imaginary body line (the midline). For example, the humerus is lateral to the sternum Medial is used to describe the position of a part of the body located towards the midline. For example, coccyx is medial to the carpals. Introduction to Anatomy Terms of Position & Direction
Anterior (ventral) is used to describe the front or towards the front of the body. For example, the sternum is anterior to the vertebrae. Posterior (dorsal) is used to describe the back of the body. For example, the vertebral column is posterior to the sternum. Introduction to Anatomy Terms of Position & Direction
Proximal means closer to the center of the body. For example, the shoulder is proximal in relation to the hand. Distal means away from the center of the body. For example, the hand is distal in relation to the head. Introduction to Anatomy Terms of Position & Direction These are only used when discussing limbs
Introduction to Anatomy Terms of Position & Direction External refers on the surface or near the surface. Internal refers to internal or further away from the surface. A structure closer to the surface of the body is superficial, while a structure further away from the surface is deep.
Activity: Give an example of the use of the following terms in relation to body parts, bones or muscles: e.g. “the patella is _________ to the scapula.” Inferior/Superior : Caudal/Cranial Proximal/Distal Medial/Lateral Posterior/Anterior : Dorsal/Ventral Superficial/Deep Ipsilateral/Contralateral Introduction to Anatomy Terms of Position & Direction
Movements – Flexion – Extension – Hyperextension – Adduction – Abduction – Prontaion – Supination – Retraction – Protraction – Elevation – Depression – Rotation – Circumduction – External Rotation – Internal Rotation – Inversion – Eversion – Dorsiflexion – Plantarflexion – Radial Deviation – Ulnar Deviation – Opposition Movements of the body video
Flexion • Bending a joint or decreasing the angle between two bones – In the Fetal Position we are flexing our joints Extension • Straightening a joint or increasing the angle between two bones – In the Anatomical Position we are extending our joints Hyperextension • Excessive extension of the parts at a joint beyond anatomical position. Introduction to Anatomy Movements
Introduction to Anatomy Flexion / Extension / Hyperextension
Adduction • Moving a body part towards the midline of the body Abduction • Moving a body part away from the midline of the body Movements Introduction to Anatomy
Pronation • Turning the arm or foot downward • (palm or sole of the foot - down) • Prone Supination • Turning the arm or foot upward • (palm or sole of the foot - up) • Supine Movements Introduction to Anatomy Over-pronation in the ankle
Elevation - Raising a part Depression - Lowering a part (Occurs at the shoulders as well) Introduction to Anatomy Movements
Rotation • Turning on a single axis Circumduction • Tri-planar, circular motion at the hip or shoulder Movements Introduction to Anatomy
Lateral Flexion • Side-bending left or right Movements Introduction to Anatomy
Inversion • Turning the sole of the foot inward Eversion • Turning the sole of the foot outward Dorsiflexion • Ankle movement bringing the foot towards the shin Plantarflexion • Ankle movement pointing the foot downward Movements of the foot Introduction to Anatomy
Radial Deviation • Movement of the wrist towards the radius or lateral side. Ulnar Deviation • Movement of the wrist towards the ulna or medial side. Opposition • Movement of the thumb across the palm of the hand. Movements of the wrist & thumb Introduction to Anatomy
Additional ROM Introduction to Anatomy
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