Intro.Lit Analysis

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Information about Intro.Lit Analysis

Published on July 28, 2008

Author: gskeesee

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Overview of literary analysis process for work of fiction. Includes overview of story elements and rhetorical devices

Literary Analysis Mack Gipson, Jr. Tutorial and Enrichment Center Gayla S. Keesee Education Specialist

Literature focuses on the search for reasons , values , and interpretations in all areas of human interest and experience. Because literature presents us with more than one possible meaning , interpreting literature requires more care and attention than does responding to an essay.

Read slowly and carefully. Plan on reading the work several times. Ask questions to establish the literal meaning first; then work on interpretation. Annotate as you read. Identify themes and patterns. How to proceed

Read slowly and carefully.

Plan on reading the work several times.

Ask questions to establish the literal meaning first; then work on interpretation.

Annotate as you read.

Identify themes and patterns.

An analysis explains what a work of literature means, and how it means it.

Critical Thinking and Reading Responding to literature with a critical temperament means always being willing to analyze , interpret , question , synthesize , and evaluate .

Responding to literature with a critical temperament means always being willing to analyze , interpret , question , synthesize , and evaluate .

Critical Thinking and Reading ANALYZE What does the passage mean, literally ? INTERPRET : What does it mean figuratively? Are there symbolic overtones? Can it mean more than one thing? What passages in the text lead you to believe this is a valid interpretation?

ANALYZE

What does the passage mean, literally ?

INTERPRET :

What does it mean figuratively?

Are there symbolic overtones?

Can it mean more than one thing?

What passages in the text lead you to believe this is a valid interpretation?

Critical Thinking and Reading QUESTION : What problems are suggested by the reading? What's confusing? If you had the author here, what would you ask? What philosophical question(s) does the reading inspire?

QUESTION :

What problems are suggested by the reading?

What's confusing?

If you had the author here, what would you ask?

What philosophical question(s) does the reading inspire?

Critical Thinking and Reading SYNTHESIZE : How does this reading compare or contrast what you’ve read previously? How does it fit into your scheme, either thematically or formally?

SYNTHESIZE :

How does this reading compare or contrast what you’ve read previously?

How does it fit into your scheme, either thematically or formally?

Critical Thinking and Reading EVALUATE : Is it a first rate piece of writing or fifth rate piece of writing? What criteria do you use to establish this judgment? If you are evaluating a poem, for instance, what defines a first rate poem? How does this particular poem match up to that standard? Can you point to the exact places in the text to support your reading?

EVALUATE :

Is it a first rate piece of writing or fifth rate piece of writing?

What criteria do you use to establish this judgment?

If you are evaluating a poem, for instance, what defines a first rate poem?

How does this particular poem match up to that standard?

Can you point to the exact places in the text to support your reading?

What is Literary Analysis? It’s literary It’s an analysis It’s— An Argument! Uses evidence from the text May also involve research on and analysis of secondary sources

It’s literary

It’s an analysis

It’s—

An Argument!

Uses evidence from the text

May also involve research on and analysis of secondary sources

How is it “literary”? Usually, a literary analysis will involve a discussion of a text as writing , thus the term literary, which means “having to do with letters” This will involve the use of certain concepts that are very specifically associated with literature

Usually, a literary analysis will involve a discussion of a text as writing , thus the term literary, which means “having to do with letters”

This will involve the use of certain concepts that are very specifically associated with literature

How to Analyze a Story Essential Elements of the Story Structure of the Story Rhetorical Elements Meaning of the Story

Essential Elements of the Story

Structure of the Story

Rhetorical Elements

Meaning of the Story

How to Analyze a Story Essential Elements of the Story Plot: Relationship and patterns of events Characters: people the author creates Including the narrator of a story or the speaker of a poem Setting: when and where the action happens Point of View: perspective or attitude of the narrator or speaker Theme: main idea—what the work adds up to

Essential Elements of the Story

Plot: Relationship and patterns of events

Characters: people the author creates

Including the narrator of a story or the speaker of a poem

Setting: when and where the action happens

Point of View: perspective or attitude of the narrator or speaker

Theme: main idea—what the work adds up to

Plot Exposition: Introductory material giving setting, tone, characters Rising Action: series of complications leading up to the climax Conflict: Person vs…Person, Nature, Society, Supernatural, Self Crisis/Climax: Turning point in the conflict—moment of highest interest and/or emotion Falling Action: Events after the climax which close the story. Resolution (Denouement): Concludes the action

Exposition: Introductory material giving setting, tone, characters

Rising Action: series of complications leading up to the climax

Conflict: Person vs…Person, Nature, Society, Supernatural, Self

Crisis/Climax: Turning point in the conflict—moment of highest interest and/or emotion

Falling Action: Events after the climax which close the story.

Resolution (Denouement): Concludes the action

Plot Sequence Introduction Rising Action Crisis/Climax Falling Action Resolution Complications leading to Conflict(s)

Characterization Protagonist Main character Antagonist Character or force that opposes the main character Foil Character that provides a contrast to the protagonist Round Three-dimensional personality Flat Only one or two striking qualities—all bad or all good Dynamic Grows and progress to a higher level of understanding Static Remain unchanged throughout the story

Protagonist

Main character

Antagonist

Character or force that opposes the main character

Foil

Character that provides a contrast to the protagonist

Round

Three-dimensional personality

Flat

Only one or two striking qualities—all bad or all good

Dynamic

Grows and progress to a higher level of understanding

Static

Remain unchanged throughout the story

Point of View First Person Narrator is a character within the story—reveals own thoughts and feelings but not those of others Third Person Objective : narrator outside the story acts as a reporter—cannot tell what characters are thinking Limited : narrator outside the story but can see into the mind of one of the characters Omniscient : narrator is all-knowing outsider who can enter the mind of more than one character.

First Person

Narrator is a character within the story—reveals own thoughts and feelings but not those of others

Third Person

Objective : narrator outside the story acts as a reporter—cannot tell what characters are thinking

Limited : narrator outside the story but can see into the mind of one of the characters

Omniscient : narrator is all-knowing outsider who can enter the mind of more than one character.

Setting Time period Geographical location Historical and cultural context Social Political Spiritual Instrumental in establishing mood May symbolizes the emotional state of characters Impact on characters’ motivations and options

Time period

Geographical location

Historical and cultural context

Social

Political

Spiritual

Instrumental in establishing mood

May symbolizes the emotional state of characters

Impact on characters’ motivations and options

Theme Main idea or underlying meaning of the literary work. What the author wants the reader to understand about the subject In fables, this may also be the moral of the story

Main idea or underlying meaning of the literary work.

What the author wants the reader to understand about the subject

In fables, this may also be the moral of the story

Common Themes in Literature Questions, issues or problems: what is right or wrong; good or bad; worthwhile or unimportant Abstract ideas: love, death, honor Conflicts: freedom vs. restraint, poverty vs. wealth Common topics: self-realization, mortality, fall from innocence, search for the meaning of life.

Questions, issues or problems: what is right or wrong; good or bad; worthwhile or unimportant

Abstract ideas: love, death, honor

Conflicts: freedom vs. restraint, poverty vs. wealth

Common topics: self-realization, mortality, fall from innocence, search for the meaning of life.

How to Analyze a Story Structure of the Story: design or form of the completed action May philosophically mirror the author’s intentions How the author uses the elements of the story to reveal his/her theme Look for repeated elements in action, gestures, dialogue, description as well as shifts in direction, focus, time, place, etc.

Structure of the Story: design or form of the completed action

May philosophically mirror the author’s intentions

How the author uses the elements of the story to reveal his/her theme

Look for repeated elements in action, gestures, dialogue, description as well as shifts in direction, focus, time, place, etc.

How to Analyze a Story Rhetorical Elements: Identify the author’s use and explain their importance Foreshadowing Use of hints or clues to suggest event that will occur later in the story Builds suspense —means of making the narrative more believable Tone Author’s attitude —stated or implied—toward the subject Revealed through word choice and details

Rhetorical Elements: Identify the author’s use and explain their importance

Foreshadowing

Use of hints or clues to suggest event that will occur later in the story

Builds suspense —means of making the narrative more believable

Tone

Author’s attitude —stated or implied—toward the subject

Revealed through word choice and details

Rhetorical Elements Mood Climate of feeling in a literary work Choice of setting, objects, details, images, words Symbolism Person, place, object which stand for larger and more abstract ideas American flag = freedom Dove = peace

Mood

Climate of feeling in a literary work

Choice of setting, objects, details, images, words

Symbolism

Person, place, object which stand for larger and more abstract ideas

American flag = freedom

Dove = peace

Rhetorical Elements Irony: contrast between what is expected or what appears to be and what actually is Verbal Irony —contrast between what is said and what is actually meant Irony of Situation —an event that is the opposite of what is expected or intended Dramatic Irony —Audience or reader knows more than the characters know

Irony: contrast between what is expected or what appears to be and what actually is

Verbal Irony —contrast between what is said and what is actually meant

Irony of Situation —an event that is the opposite of what is expected or intended

Dramatic Irony —Audience or reader knows more than the characters know

Rhetorical Elements Figurative Language: language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words Simile Metaphor Personification Oxymoron Hyperbole

Figurative Language: language that goes beyond the literal meaning of words

Simile

Metaphor

Personification

Oxymoron

Hyperbole

How to Analyze a Story Meaning of the Story (Interpretation) Identify the theme(s) and how the author announces it. Explain how the story elements contribute to the theme. Identify contextual elements (allusions, symbols, other devices) that point beyond the story to the author’s life/experience, history or to other writings.

Meaning of the Story (Interpretation)

Identify the theme(s) and how the author announces it.

Explain how the story elements contribute to the theme.

Identify contextual elements (allusions, symbols, other devices) that point beyond the story to the author’s life/experience, history or to other writings.

How do I support a thesis statement? Examples from the text Direct quotations Summaries of scenes/action Paraphrases Other critics’ opinions Historical and social context

Examples from the text

Direct quotations

Summaries of scenes/action

Paraphrases

Other critics’ opinions

Historical and social context

Supporting Your Thesis The Text (Primary Source) As you write, consistently refer to the text to support your purpose. Use the author’s own words—quotes. No right or wrong interpretation as long as you can support it from the text. Secondary Sources Literary Criticism

The Text (Primary Source)

As you write, consistently refer to the text to support your purpose.

Use the author’s own words—quotes.

No right or wrong interpretation as long as you can support it from the text.

Secondary Sources

Literary Criticism

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