Intro Ch. 14 Psych Disorders PPT Skeleto

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Published on December 11, 2008

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Slide 1: Chapter 14 Psychological Disorders Explanations of Abnormality : Explanations of Abnormality Demonology assumes that evil spirits reside within a person Trephining: open the skull to let the spirit out Medical Model assumes that abnormal behaviors reflect mental or physical illness Anxiety Disorders : Anxiety Disorders Symptoms: rapid breathing, dry mouth, and increased heart rate Anxiety disorders include: Generalized Anxiety Disorder - long-lasting anxiety not focused on an object or situation (unspecific or free-floating) Panic Disorder - to brief but intense bouts of anxiety Phobias are strong irrational fears of objects or of situations Specific phobias Social phobias Slide 4: Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder characterized by diffuse anxiety related to recurring thoughts and images (obsessions). Compulsions are impulses to exert some action Posttraumatic Stress Disorder refers to anxiety related to suffering a traumatic event Anxiety Disorders Anxiety Disorders : Anxiety Disorders Causes of Anxiety Disorders : Causes of Anxiety Disorders Learning perspective – phobias result from learning/conditioning Classical conditioning Learned associations Operant conditioning avoidance of feared object Social learning observation and modeling Phobia Conditioning : Phobia Conditioning Slide 8: Psychosis refers to a general lack of contact with reality Schizophrenia form of psychosis involving disorders of perception language thought emotion behavior The Nature of Schizophrenia Schizophrenia Symptoms : Schizophrenia Symptoms Perceptual Symptoms Sensory filtering & perception impaired Hallucinations - perceptions without sensations Language and Thought Disturbance Word salad: jumbled speech Delusions - mistaken beliefs maintained despite contrary evidence Paranoid Persecution Slide 10: Schizophrenia Symptoms Emotional Disturbance Behavioral Disturbance Unusual actions that have meaning to the person Catalepsy immobile stance (like a statue) Waxy Flexibility Refusal to communicate with others Classification of Schizophrenia : Classification of Schizophrenia Positive symptoms involve distorted or excessive mental activity Delusions, hallucinations,altered emotions, erratic behaviors Positive symptoms occur during acute episodes Negative symptoms involve behavioral and mental deficits Flattened emotions, social withdrawal Negative symptoms are chronic Disorganization of behavior Biological Views of Schizophrenia : Biological Views of Schizophrenia Genetics: 43 to 83% concordance (identical twins) Neurotransmitters: Dopamine activity excessive in the schizophrenic brain Brain damage: enlarged ventricles are evident in schizophrenia A common finding in the brains of people with schizophrenia is larger than normal lateral ventricles. Heritability of Schizophrenia : Heritability of Schizophrenia Biological Views of Schizophrenia : Biological Views of Schizophrenia Genetics: 43 to 83% concordance (identical twins) Neurotransmitters: Dopamine activity excessive in the schizophrenic brain Brain damage: enlarged ventricles are evident in schizophrenia Decreased frontal and temporal lobe activity Other potential causes… A common finding in the brains of people with schizophrenia is larger than normal lateral ventricles. Psychosocial Theories of Schizophrenia : Psychosocial Theories of Schizophrenia Stress – Diathesis-stress model Genetic predisposition + overwhelming stress Family communication Slide 16: Mood Disorders are characterized by extreme disturbances in emotional states Major Depressive Disorder - prolonged intensely reduced mood without an obvious cause Bipolar disorder - alternating state of reduced mood (depression) and mania (increased mood) Mood Disorders Mood Disorders-Depression : Mood Disorders-Depression Mood Disorders-Bipolar : Mood Disorders-Bipolar PET scans show that brain energy consumption rises and falls with emotional swings Slide 19: Personality Disorders Enduring behavior patterns that impair social and occupational functioning 2 most well known personality disorders: Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Slide 20: disorder in which the person (usually a man) lacks a conscience or guilt may be ruthless or a clever con artist Antisocial Personality Disorder Personality Disorders : Personality Disorders Adrenaline excretion(ng/min) 15 10 5 0 Nonstressful situation Stressful situation Those with criminal convictions have lower levels of arousal No criminal conviction Criminal conviction Personality Disorders : Personality Disorders PET scans illustrate reduced activation in a murderer’s frontal cortex Slide 23: Impulsivity and instability in mood, relationships and self-image One of most commonly diagnosed personality disorders One of most complex and debilitating of all personality disorders Borderline Personality Disorder Mood Disorders- Suicide : Mood Disorders- Suicide Myths of Suicide : Myths of Suicide People who talk about suicide are unlikely to commit suicide Suicides usually do not warn others Suicidal persons are fully committed to dying Men and women are equally likely to commit suicide Only depressed people commit suicide

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