Published on January 8, 2014
Nadia Amaghou Abdelhamid Bousaadi Abderrahman Sidi Hida
TURN-TAKING Giving the floor to another person or taking your turn in a conversation INFORMATION STRUCTURE Major stress items pick out the most important words in the sentence .
Nadia Amaghou ► Intonation is the variation of pitch when speaking. ► One of the elements of linguistic prosody. ► Perhaps the most important element of a good accent.
► Intonation helps create the music of a language. (like notes in music) ► It is a part of communication. * the rise and fall of pitch in our voice plays a crucial role in how we express meaning. ► Intonation is the change of level of voice
Extra high High Medium Low Gilbert(1994) stated that the purpose of intonation is “helping the listener to follow”. It is a navigation guide for the listener.
STRESS INTONATION - stress within a word - a syllable is said Louder, Longer at a higher pitch - It goes beyond the word level. - - it’s a change in pitch within a group of words. - A long line of melody
Fall Rise – fall Fall – rise Rise Level
of finality Fall – gives the impression Rise- conveys an impression that something more is to follow. Fall-Rise – shows limited agreement, uncertainty and doubt. Rise-Fall – convey rather strong feelings of approval, disapproval or surprise Level- tone is neutral and uninterested (usually called “flat”)
Abderrahman Sidi Hida 1. Grammatical function * Intonation is used to signal the syntactic or grammatical structure. Ex. She dressed and fed the baby. She dressed / and fed the baby. ( the baby was dressed and fed ) ( She dressed herself and then fed the baby)
Qamar& Rubab (2007) “ A learner who learns a new language has not only to grasp the grammar of that language but also the intonation pattern to prove himself a good communicator.”
2. Accentual information Distributes accents among stressed syllables to emphasize what need to be perceived as significant word. Ex. Paul is very tall. Paul is very tall. (Paul and not another one)
3. Discourse Function * The study of the intonation related to the context. It means to convey what is new and what is old or known. The main accent is in the last lexical word. Ex. My name is Bond. My name is Bond. James Bond. (new is accented )
4. Attitudinal * Function Intonation is used to convey attitude, emotions or feelings. This adds a special kind of meaning to spoken language.
Say “HELLO” ● to a friend you meet regularly ● to a friend you haven’t seen for 10 years ● to a neighbor whom you don’t like ● to a 6 month old baby ● to someone doing what he shouldn’t ● to know if someone is listening (phone)
I did not say you stole my red hat. I did not say you stole my red hat. (the meaning contains the idea that someone else said it, not me ) I did not say you stole my red hat. (Strong anger and denial of the fact.) I did not say you stole my red hat. (But I implied it that you did. Did you?)
I did not say you stole my red hat. I did not say you stole my red hat. (I wasn't accusing you. I know it was someone else) I did not say you stole my red hat . (I meant that you stole someone else's red hat)
I did not say you stole my red hat. I did not say you stole my red hat. (I said that you stole my blue hat.) I did not say that you stole my red hat. (I said that you stole my red bat. You misunderstood my pronunciation)
Fry, et al, (2000), the changes in meaning are due to what is called supersegmental phonemes. Phonemes are speech sounds and the supersegmental stress/inflection kind affect the meaning .
Segmentals are isolated sounds ( consonants, vowels, dipthongs) Suprasegmentals features of speech like stress, intonation and rhythm
5. Sociolinguistic function Intonation gives the clue a. where somebody comes from b. his social level c. sex, age, personality d. Individual features (idiosyncrasy)
Thanks for listening