Interventions for musculoskeletal disord

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Information about Interventions for musculoskeletal disord
Education

Published on October 28, 2008

Author: RaelynnSPU

Source: authorstream.com

Chapter 54 : Chapter 54 Interventions for Clients with Musculoskeletal Problems Osteoporosis : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Osteoporosis Metabolic disease, in which bone demineralization results in decreased density and subsequent fractures Osteopenia (low bone mass), which occurs when there is a disruption in the bone remodeling process Classification of Osteoporosis : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Classification of Osteoporosis Generalized osteoporosis occurs most commonly in postmenopausal women and men in their 60s and 70s. Secondary osteoporosis results from an associated medical condition such as hyperparathyroidism, long-term drug therapy, long-term immobility. Regional osteoporosis occurs when a limb is immobilized. Health Promotion/Illness Prevention : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Health Promotion/Illness Prevention Ensure adequate calcium intake. Avoid sedentary life style. Continue program of weight-bearing exercises. Assessment : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Assessment Physical assessment Psychosocial assessment Laboratory assessment Radiographic assessment Drug Therapy : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Drug Therapy Hormone replacement therapy Parathyroid hormone Calcium and vitamin D Bisphosphonates Selective estrogen receptor modulators Calcitonin Other agents used with varying results Diet Therapy : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Diet Therapy Protein Magnesium Vitamin K Trace minerals Calcium and vitamin D Avoid alcohol and caffeine Fall Prevention : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Fall Prevention Hazard-free environment High-risk assessment through programs such as Falling Star protocol Hip protectors that prevent hip fracture in case of a fall Others : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Others Exercise Pain management Orthotic devices Osteomalacia : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Osteomalacia Softening of the bone tissue characterized by inadequate mineralization of osteoid Vitamin D deficiency, lack of sunlight exposure Similar, but not the same as osteoporosis Major treatment: vitamin D from exposure to sun and certain foods Paget’s Disease of the Bone : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Paget’s Disease of the Bone Metabolic disorder of bone remodeling, or turnover; increased resorption of loss results in bone deposits that are weak, enlarged, and disorganized Nonsurgical management: calcitonin, selected bisphosphonates, mithramycin Surgical management: tibial osteotomy or partial or total joint replacement Osteomyelitis : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Osteomyelitis A condition caused by the invasion by one or more pathogenic microorganisms that stimulates the inflammatory response in bone tissue Exogenous, endogenous, hematogenous, contiguous Drug therapy Infection control Hyperbaric oxygen therapy Surgical Management : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Surgical Management Sequestrectomy Bone grafts Bone segment transfers Muscle flaps Amputation Bone Tumors : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Bone Tumors Benign bone tumors (noncancerous): Chrondrogenic tumors: osteochondroma, chondroma Osteogenic tumors: osteoid osteoma, osteoblastoma, giant cell tumor Fibrogenic tumors Interventions : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Interventions Nondrug pain relief measures Drug therapy: analgesics, NSAIDs Surgical therapy: curettage (simple excision of the tumor tissue), joint replacement, or arthrodesis Malignant Bone Tumors : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Malignant Bone Tumors Primary tumors, those tumors that originate in the bone Osteosarcoma Ewing’s sarcoma Chondrosarcoma Fibrosarcoma Metastatic bone disease Acute Pain; Chronic Pain : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Acute Pain; Chronic Pain Interventions include: Treatment aimed at reducing the size or removing the tumor Drug therapy; chemotherapy Radiation therapy Surgical management Promotion of physical mobility with ROM exercises Anticipatory Grieving : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Anticipatory Grieving Interventions include: Active listening Encouraging client and family to verbalize feelings Making appropriate referrals Helping client and others to cope with the loss and grieving Promoting the physician-client relationship Disturbed Body Image : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Disturbed Body Image Interventions include: Recognize and accept the client’s view of body image alteration. Establish and maintain a trusting nurse-client relationship. Emphasize the client’s strengths and remaining capabilities. Establish realistic mutual goals. Potential for Fractures : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Potential for Fractures Interventions Nonsurgical management: radiation therapy and strengthening exercises. Surgical management: replace as much of the defective bone as possible, avoid a second procedure, and return client to a functioning state with a minimum of hospitalization and immobilization. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome Common condition; the median nerve in the wrist becomes compressed, causing pain and numbness Common repetitive strain injury via occupational or sports motions Nonsurgical management: drug therapy and immobilization Possible surgical management Hand Disorders : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Hand Disorders Dupuytren's contracture—slowly progressive contracture of the palmar fascia resulting in flexion of the fourth or fifth digit of the hand Ganglion—a round, cystlike lesion, often overlying a wrist joint or tendon Disorders of the Foot : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Disorders of the Foot Hallux valgus Hammertoe Morton’s neuroma Tarsal tunnel syndrome Plantar fasciitis Other problems of the foot Scoliosis : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Scoliosis Changes in muscles and ligaments on the concave side of the spinal column Congenital, neuromuscular, or idiopathic in type Assessment: complete history, pain assessment, observation of posture Interventions: exercise, weight reduction, bracing, casting, surgery Osteogenesis Imperfecta : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Osteogenesis Imperfecta Rare genetic disorder in which the bones are fragile and fracture easily, resulting in bone deformity Clinical manifestations: poor skeletal development Treatment: palliative; client’s life span is often shortened Steroids, calcium, vitamin C, and possibly sodium fluoride Progressive Muscular Dystrophies : Elsevier items and derived items © 2006 by Elsevier Inc. Progressive Muscular Dystrophies At least nine types of muscular dystrophies identified; categorized as slowly or rapidly progressive Diagnosis often difficult Management Supportive, making client as comfortable as possible Prednisone, immunosuppressive agents, anabolic steroids

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