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InterPlanetary IFAkyildiz

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Information about InterPlanetary IFAkyildiz
Education

Published on January 11, 2008

Author: Obama

Source: authorstream.com

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InterPlanetary Internet Deep Space Network:  InterPlanetary Internet Deep Space Network InterPlaNetary Internet Architecture :  InterPlaNetary Internet Architecture InterPlaNetary Backbone Network InterPlaNetary External Network PlaNetary Network PlaNetary Network Architecture:  PlaNetary Network Architecture PlaNetary Satellite Network PlaNetary Surface Network CHALLENGES:  CHALLENGES Extremely long and variable propagation delays Asymmetrical forward and reverse link capacities Extremely high link error rates Intermittent link connectivity, e.g., Blackouts Lack of fixed communication infrastructure Effects of planetary distances on the signal strength and the protocol design Power, mass, size, and cost constraints for communication hardware and protocol design Backward compatibility requirement due to high cost involved in deployment and launching processes Planned InterPlaNetary Internet Missions:  Planned InterPlaNetary Internet Missions Proposed Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Protocol Stack:  Proposed Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Protocol Stack Used for Mars Exploration Mission Communications Proposed Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) Protocol Stack (Bundling Architecture):  Proposed Delay Tolerant Networking (DTN) Protocol Stack (Bundling Architecture) Applications:  Applications Time-Insensitive Scientific Data Delivery: Large volume of scientific data to be collected from planets and moons. Time-Sensitive Scientific Data Delivery: Audio and visual information about the local environment to Earth, in-situ controlling robots, or eventually in-situ astronauts. Mission Status Telemetry: Delivery of the status and the health report of the mission, spacecraft, or the landed vehicles to the mission center or other nodes. Command and Control: Closed-loop command and control of the in-situ space mission elements. Transport Layer Issues:  Transport Layer Issues Extremely High Propagation Delays High Link Error Rates Asymmetrical Bandwidth Blackouts Extremely Long Propagation Delays:  Extremely Long Propagation Delays Performance of Existing TCP Protocols:  Window-Based TCP’s are not suitable!!! For RTT = 40 min  20B/s throughput on 1Mb/s link !! Performance of Existing TCP Protocols O. B. Akan, J. Fang, I. F. Akyildiz, “Performance of TCP Protocols in Deep Space Communication Networks”, IEEE Communications Letters, Vol. 6, No. 11, pp. 478-480, November 2002. Space Communications Protocol Standards – Transport Protocol (SCPS-TP):  Space Communications Protocol Standards – Transport Protocol (SCPS-TP) Addresses link errors, asymmetry, and outages SCPS-TP: Combination of existing TCP protocols: Window-based Slow Start Retransmission timeout TCP-Vegas congestion control scheme – variation of the RTT value as an indication of congestion SCPS-TP Rate-Based: Does not perform congestion control Uses fixed transmission rate * Space Communications Protocol Specification-Transport Protocol (SCPS-TP)", Recommendation for Space Data Systems Standards, CCSDS 714.0-B-1, May 1999. New Transport Protocols are needed !!! TP-Planet *O. B. Akan, J. Fang and I.F. Akyildiz, “TP-Planet: A Reliable Transport Protocol for InterPlaNetary Internet”, to appear in IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), early 2004. :  TP-Planet *O. B. Akan, J. Fang and I.F. Akyildiz, “TP-Planet: A Reliable Transport Protocol for InterPlaNetary Internet”, to appear in IEEE Journal of Selected Areas in Communications (JSAC), early 2004. Objective: To address challenges of InterPlaNetary Internet A New Initial State Algorithm A New Congestion Detection Algorithm in Steady State A New Rate-Based scheme instead of Window-Based Steady State FollowUP Immediate Start Initial State Follow Up t=RTT t=2*RTT Performance Evaluation (Initial State):  Performance Evaluation (Initial State) Initial State (TP-Planet) vs. Jump Start (TCP-Peach+) and Slow Start (TCP); RTT=600 sec; p=10-5; Target Rate =100packets/sec. Performance Evaluation (Throughput):  Performance Evaluation (Throughput) Throughput vs. File size; RTT=600 s, p=10-5 ,10-4,10-3, Link 1Mb/s; Target rate = 100 packets/sec ( 100 KB/sec for data packets of size 1KB). NOTE: 200 MB  Vegas (SCPS-TP)  30 B/sec;  Planet  83 KB/sec !!!!!! Multimedia Transport in InterPlaNetary Internet :  Multimedia Transport in InterPlaNetary Internet Additional Challenges * Bounded Jitter * Minimum Bandwidth * Smoothness * Error Control Performance of Existing Multimedia Rate Control Protocols:  Existing multimedia rate control protocols are not suitable for IPN Backbone link with high delay and link errors!!! For RTT = 40 min  RCS 41 KB/s, RAP 237 B/s, and TFRC, SCTP 100 B/s throughput on a 10 Mb/s link !! Performance of Existing Multimedia Rate Control Protocols J. Fang and O. B. Akan, “Performance of Multimedia Rate Control Protocols in InterPlaNetary Internet”, submitted to IEEE Communications Letters, November 2003. RCP-Planet: Overview J. Fang and I.F. Akyildiz, “RCP Planet: A Rate Control Scheme for Multimedia Traffic in InterPlaNetary Internet”, July 2003. :  RCP-Planet: Overview J. Fang and I.F. Akyildiz, “RCP Planet: A Rate Control Scheme for Multimedia Traffic in InterPlaNetary Internet”, July 2003. Objective: To Address the Challenges Framework: * A New Packet Level FEC * A New Rate-Based Approach * A New BEGIN State Algorithm * A New Rate Control Algorithm in OPERATIONAL State Performance Evaluation (Throughput):  Performance Evaluation (Throughput) Throughput vs. Packet Loss Rate due to Link Errors (10 RCP connections, RTT=300, 600, 1200 sec, p=10-5 - 10-1, Minimum Media Rate: 20KB/s, Maximum Media Rate: 140KB/s, Link Speed: 1300 KB/s, Duration= 10 RTTs) Transport Layer Open Research Issues:  Transport Layer Open Research Issues End-to-End Transport: Feasibility of the end-to-end transport should be investigated and new end-to-end transport protocols should be devised accordingly. Extreme PlaNetary Distances: Deep Space links with extreme delays such as Jupiter, Pluto have intermittent connectivity even within an RTT. Cross-layer Optimization: The interactions between the transport layer and lower/higher layers should be maximized to increase network efficiency for scarce space link resources. Network Layer Issues:  Network Layer Issues Naming and Addressing in the InterPlaNetary Internet Routing in the InterPlaNetary Backbone Network Routing in PlaNetary Networks Naming and Addressing :  Purpose: To provide inter-operability between different elements in the architecture Influencing Factors: What objects are named? (Typically nodes or data objects) Whether a name can be directly used by a data router in order to determine the delivery path? The method by which name/object binding is managed? Naming and Addressing Domain Name System (DNS) Approach in Internet:  Domain Name System (DNS) Approach in Internet If an application on a remote planet needs to resolve an Earth based name to an address: Problems: If query an Earth-resident name server: A significant delay of a round-trip time in the commencement of communication If maintain a secondary name server locally: State updates would dominate communication channel utilization If maintain a static list of host names and addresses: Not scale well with system’s growth Tiered Naming and Addressing:  Tiered Naming and Addressing Name Tuple = {region ID, entity ID} Region ID identifies the entity’s region and is known by all regions in the InterPlaNetary Internet Entity ID is a name local to its entity’s local region and treated as opaque data outside this region  The opacity of entity names outside their local region enforces Late Binding: the entity ID of a tuple is not interpreted outside its local region which avoids a universal name-to-address binding space and preserves a significant amount of autonomy within each region. An InterPlaNetary Internet: Example and Host Name Tuples:  An InterPlaNetary Internet: Example and Host Name Tuples Challenges Network Layer:  Challenges Network Layer Long and Variable Delays Without timely distribution of topology information, routing computations fail to converge to a common solution, resulting in route inconsistency or oscillation The node movement adds to the variability of delays Intermittent Connectivity Determine the predicted time and duration of intermittent links and the degree of uncertainity Obtain knowledge of the state of pending messages Schedule transmission of the pending messages when links become available SCPS-NP  possible solution??? Open Research Issues Network Layer:  Open Research Issues Network Layer Distribution of Topology Information Combination of link state and distance vector information exchange Distribution of trajectory and velocity information Path Calculation Hop-by-hop routing is expected using incomplete topology information and probabilistic estimation Adaptive algorithms are needed for rerouting and caching decisions Interaction with Transport Layer Protocols Error Control InterPlaNetary Backbone Network:  Error Control InterPlaNetary Backbone Network CCSDS Telemetry Standard: (Telemetry Channel Coding): For Gaussian Channels  ½ Rate Convolutional Code For Bandwidth-Constrained Channels  Punctured Convolutional Codes For Further Constrained Channels  Concatenated Codes (i.e.,Convolutional code as the inner code and the RS code as the outer code) Own Experience  TORNADO CODES!!! Challenges Network Layer (Planet):  Challenges Network Layer (Planet) Extreme Power Constraints Space elements mainly depend on rechargeable battery using solar energy Frequent Network Partitioning The network can be partitioned due to harsh environmental factors Adaptive Routing through Heterogeneous Networks Fixed elements (e.g., landers) Satellites with scheduled movement Mobile elements with slow movement (e.g., rovers) Mobile elements with fast movement (e.g., spacecraft) Low-power sensor nodes in clusters Medium Access Control InterPlaNetary Backbone Network:  Medium Access Control InterPlaNetary Backbone Network Challenges: Very Long Propagation Delays Physical Design Change Constraints Topological Changes Power Constraints Medium Access Control InterPlaNetary Backbone Network:  Medium Access Control InterPlaNetary Backbone Network Vastly unexplored research field The suitability and performance evaluation of fundamental MAC schemes, i.e., TDMA, CDMA, and FDMA, should be investigated Thus far, Packet Telecommand, and Packet Telemetry standards developed by CCSDS are used to address deep space link layer issues (Virtual Channelization Method!!!) Error Control InterPlaNetary Backbone Network:  Error Control InterPlaNetary Backbone Network Deep space channel is generally modelled as Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel Scientific space missions require bit-error rate of 10-5 or better after physical link layer coding  Error control at link layer is necessary Error Control InterPlaNetary Backbone Network:  Error Control InterPlaNetary Backbone Network Advance Orbiting Systems Rec. by CCSDS  Space Link (ARQ) Protocol (SLAP) Packet Telecommand Standard of CCSDS  Command Operation Procedure (COP) (GoBack N) Open Research Issues Link Layer:  Open Research Issues Link Layer MAC for InterPlaNetary Backbone Network MAC for PlaNetary Networks Error Coding Schemes Cross-layer Optimization Optimum Packet Sizes ITLP: Integrated Transport/Link Layer Protocol for IPN Backbone Network O. B. Akan and I.F. Akyildiz, “Hop-by-Hop or End-to-End in InterPla Internet?”, Nov. 2003.:  ITLP: Integrated Transport/Link Layer Protocol for IPN Backbone Network O. B. Akan and I.F. Akyildiz, “Hop-by-Hop or End-to-End in InterPla Internet?”, Nov. 2003. ITLP is unified integrated transport/link layer protocol to achieve efficient local congestion control and reliable data transport following hop-by-hop approach in the InterPlaNetary Backbone Network. ITLP: Integrated Transport/Link Layer Protocol for IPN Backbone Network:  ITLP: Integrated Transport/Link Layer Protocol for IPN Backbone Network DEEP SPACE CHANNEL Integrated Transport / Link Layer (ITLP) Channel Coding (RS, Turbo, etc.) Modulator Transmitter Upconvert SOURCE Integrated Transport / Link Layer (ITLP) Channel Coding (RS, Turbo, etc.) Modulator Transmitter Upconvert RECEIVER ITLP Protocol Structure ITLP: Integrated Transport/Link Layer Protocol for IPN Backbone Network:  ITLP: Integrated Transport/Link Layer Protocol for IPN Backbone Network Local Flow/Congestion Control Algorithm: Exploits local link resource availability of the receiving IPN Relay Satellite (IRS). Independent of the link delay, hence achieves accurate congestion control. Local Adaptive Reliability Mechanism: Adaptive Hybrid ARQ which adaptively switches between the FEC and ARQ modes according to the local wireless channel conditions. Achieves 100% reliable data transport. Optimum Packet Size: The protocol uses the optimum packet size analytically obtained by considering the transmission efficiency, link delay, packet and bit error rates. Hop-by-Hop Communication in IPN:  Hop-by-Hop Communication in IPN Let E[Ne2e] and E[Nhbh] be the total number of packets transmitted to reliably transport D data packets between Planet and Earth in End-to-End and Hop-by-Hop approaches, respectively. Then, we analytically show that E[Ne2e] > E[Nhbh], i.e., hop-by-hop approach is more efficient in InterPlaNetary Backbone Network. Physical Layer Issues InterPlaNetary Backbone Network:  Physical Layer Issues InterPlaNetary Backbone Network Possible approach is to increase radiated RF signal energy: Use of high power amplifiers such as travelling wave tubes (TWT) or klystrons which can produce output powers up to several thousand watts This comes with an expense of increased antenna size, cost and also power problems at remote nodes Current NASA DSN has several 70m antennas for deep space missions DSN operates in S-Band and X-Band (2GHz and 8GHz, respectively) for spacecraft telemetry, tracking and command Not adequate to reach high data rates aimed for InterPlaNetary Internet New 34m antennas are being developed to operate in Ka-Band (32 GHz) which will significantly improve data rates Open Research Issues PHYSICAL LAYER:  Open Research Issues PHYSICAL LAYER Signal Power Loss: Powerful and size-, mass-, and cost-efficient antennas and power amplifiers need to be developed Channel Coding: Efficient and powerful channel coding schemes should be investigated to achieve reliable and very high rate bit delivery over the long delay InterPlaNetary Backbone links Optical Communications: Optical communication technologies should be investigated for possible deployment in InterPlaNetary Backbone links Hardware Design: Low-power low-cost transceiver and antennas should be developed Modulation Schemes: Simple and low-power modulation schemes should be developed for PlaNetary Surface Network nodes. Ultra-wide Band (UWB) could be explored for this purpose Challenges in Deep Space Time Synchronization:  Challenges in Deep Space Time Synchronization Variable and long transmission delays The long and variable delays may cause a fluctuating offset to the clock Variable transmission speed It may produce a fluctuating offset problem Variable temperature It may cause the clock to drift in different rate Variable electromagnetic interference This may cause the clock to drift or even permanent damage to the crystal if the equipment is not properly shielded Challenges in Deep Space Time Synchronization (cont’d):  Challenges in Deep Space Time Synchronization (cont’d) Intermittent connectivity The situation may cause the clock offset to fluctuate and jump Impractical transmissions A time synchronization protocol can not depend on message retransmissions to synchronize the clocks, because the distance between deep space equipments are simply too large Distributed time servers Deep space equipments may require to synchronize to their local time servers, and the time servers have to synchronize among themselves Related Work:  Related Work Network Time Protocol Can not handle mobile servers and clients (variable range and range rate with intermittent connectivity) Has time offset wiggles of few milliseconds of amplitude DSN Frequency and Time Subsystems Uses several atomic frequency standards to synchronize the devices and provide references for the three DSN sites, i.e., Goldstone, USA; Madrid, Spain; Canberra, Australia Recommendation for proximity-1 space link protocol Finds the correlation between the clocks of proximity nodes. The correlation data and UTC time are used to correct the past and project the future UTC values Conclusions:  Conclusions InterPlaNetary Internet will be the Internet of next generation deep space networks. There exist many significant challenges for the realization of InterPlaNetary Internet. Many researchers are currently engaged in developing the required technologies for this objective. FiNAL WORDS:  FiNAL WORDS NASA’s VISION: to improve life here, to extend life to there, to find life beyond... NASA’s MISSION: to understand and protect our home planet, to explore the Universe and search for life, to inspire the next generation of explorers… OUR AIM: to point out the research problems and inspire the researchers worldwide to realize these objectives!!!!!!!!!

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