Published on March 7, 2014
Women and Change International Women’s Day 2014 Warringah Council Professor Marian Baird firstname.lastname@example.org BUSINESS SCHOOL
Male and Female Participation Rates 1978-2013, % ABS Labour Force, Australia, April 2013 Cat. No. 6291.0.55.001
Male and Female Employment 1978-2013 (Numbers)
‘M’ CURVE: women’s labour force participation rate by age 1978-2013, % ABS Labour Force, Australia, April 2013 Cat. No. 6291.0.55.001
‘M’ CURVE: women’s full-time employment rates by age, 1978-2013 ABS Labour Force, Australia, April 2013 Cat. No. 6291.0.55.001
Inverted ‘U’ CURVE: men’s labour force participation rate by age 19782013, % ABS Labour Force, Australia, April 2013 Cat. No.
Maternal employment rates by age of youngest child, 2009 7
Maternal employment rates by age of youngest child, 2009 8
Gaps › Hours gaps – women work part-time; men work fulltime › Leave gaps – women take more leave from the labour market than men › Security gaps – more women in casual and precarious employment › Career gaps – the labour market is segregated and women are not represented in leadership positions › Pay gaps – women earn 17.5% less than men
Ceilings? Women in leadership census Nov 2012 10
The Changes › More mothers in the workforce – ‘part-time norm’ › Rise of female breadwinners – ‘rise of wives’ and ‘breadwomen’ › More self-employed women – ‘mumpreneurs’
THE MUMPRENEUR Images: Coniville, N. “The Rise of the Mumpreneur”, Body+Soul Mums http://mums.bodyandsoul.com.au/pregnancy+parenting/parenting+tips/the+rise+of+the+mumpren 13
The Policy Changes 1. Right to request flexible work arrangements (Fair Work Act, 2009) 2. Right to request extension to unpaid parental leave (Fair Work Act, 2009) 3. Pay equity – equal remuneration principles (Fair Work Act, 2009) 4. Low paid bargaining stream (Fair Work Act, 2009) 5. Paid Parental Leave (Jan 1, 2011) 6. Dad and Partner Pay (Jan 2013) 7. Workplace Gender Equality Act (setting new standards and benchmarks, 2013 – being reviewed now)
Change and Continuity - Women are more educated than ever (and than men) - Women are entering the workforce, and staying in it, in greater numbers than ever - Women's experience at work is different to men’s -> hours gaps, career gaps, pay gaps, superannuation gaps - Some policy advances have been made but challenges remain - Women’s experience in the labour market is changing - but this is not reflected at home 15
HAPPY IWD 2014 16
Professor Marian Baird presents statistics on women in the workforce in Australia in 2014.
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