INTERCULTURAL MARKETING

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Published on January 13, 2009

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Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 1 Intercultural Marketing Advertising and Culture Lecturer Frédéric LE THEUFF Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 2 Intercultural Marketing Why talk about Intercultural or Cross-cultural Marketing ? 1- International marketing : American Marketing Thought 2- World markets : Globalization 3- Global markets : Global consumer ? 4- No Global Consumer because of… Culture Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 3 Intercultural Marketing Color TVs Audiotape Recorders Videotape Recorders Machine Tools Telephones Semiconductors Computers 7 4% 9 8% 6 4% 8 9% 2 5% 9 9% 3 5% 9 9% 1% 1 0% 0% 4 0% 1 0% 9 0% 0 20 40 60 80 100 1 9 7 0 N O W U.S. Invented Technology Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 4 Intercultural Marketing Anthony GIDDENS (British sociologist) « Globalization is the reason for the revival of local cultural identities in different parts of the world » Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 5 Intercultural Marketing Definitions of Culture 1952 : Research paper of Kroeber KLUCKHOHN 164 definitions Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 6 Intercultural Marketing Definitions of Culture Clifford GEERTZ (anthropologist) « Culture is a set of control mechanisms, plans, recipes, rules, instructions, for the governing of behavior » Geert HOFSTEDE (sociologist) « The collective mental programming of the people in an environnement. Culture is not a characteristic of individuals; it encompasses a number of people who were conditioned by the same education and life experience » Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 7 Intercultural Marketing Essentials elements of Culture 1- Language 2- Institutions 3- Material productions 4- Symbolic productions Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 8 Intercultural Marketing Dimensions of Culture Two « Fathers » of cultural dimensions Edward HALL Geert HOFSTEDE Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 9 Intercultural Marketing Edward HALL 3 variables of Culture 1- High-context and Low-context cultures 2- Dimensions of time 3- Relationship of Man with Nature and Space Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 10 Intercultural Marketing Edward HALL 1- High-context and Low-context cultures * High-context : message is part of the context * Low-context : messages are explicit, direct and unambiguous Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 11 Intercultural Marketing Edward HALL 2- Dimensions of time * Time orientation toward the Past, Present, or Future * Time is linear or circular * Monochronic and polychronic time Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 12 Intercultural Marketing Edward HALL 3- Relationship of man with Nature and Space * Mastery, Harmony, Subjugation to nature * Proxemic : Intimity, Personnal or Social areas Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 13 Intercultural Marketing Geert HOFSTEDE Five dimensions of National Culture 1- Power distance 2- Individualism/collectivism 3- Masculinity/Feminity 4- Uncertainty avoidance 5- Long/Short term orientation Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 14 Intercultural Marketing Geert HOFSTEDE Five dimensions of National Culture 1- Power distance PDI can be defined as « the extent to which less powerful members of a society accept and expect that power is distributed unequally » Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 15 Intercultural Marketing Geert HOFSTEDE Five dimensions of National Culture 2- Individualism/collectivism IDV can be defined as « people looking after themselves and their immediate family only, versus people belonging to in-groups that look after them in exchange for loyalty » Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 16 Intercultural Marketing Geert HOFSTEDE Five dimensions of National Culture 3- Masculinity/Feminity MAS can be defined as follows: « The dominant values in a masculine society are achievement and success; the dominant values in a feminine society are caring for others and quality of life » Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 17 Intercultural Marketing Geert HOFSTEDE Five dimensions of National Culture 4- Uncertainty avoidance UAI can be defined as « the extent to which people feel threatened by uncertainty and ambiguity and try to avoid these situations » Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 18 Intercultural Marketing Geert HOFSTEDE Five dimensions of National Culture 5- Long/Short term orientation LTO is « the extent to which a society exhibits a pragmatic future oriented perspective rather than a conventional historic or short-term point of view » Slide 19: NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 19 Slide 20: NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 20 Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 21 Intercultural Marketing Consequences for Advertising 1- Power Distance * Large Power Distance : Status symbols, the elder advises the younger * Small Power Distance : the daughter advises the mother (younger advises elder) Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 22 Intercultural Marketing Consequences for Advertising 2- Individualism/collectivism * Individualistic cultures : - frequent use of « You, We, I » - « Treat yourself right » * Collectivistic cultures : showing people as part of groups - being alone means you have no friends Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 23 Intercultural Marketing Consequences for Advertising 3- Masculinity/Feminity * Masculinity : strong need to win, to be succesful, wish to dominate « Being the first », « Be the best » * Feminity : caring, softness, understatement « True refinement comes from within » VOLVO ads Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 24 Intercultural Marketing Consequences for Advertising 4- Uncertainty avoidance * Strong Uncertainty avoidance : need for explanations, structure, testing, scientific proof « The best in the test » or «Test winner » * Low Uncertainty avoidance : result is more important Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 25 Intercultural Marketing Consequences for Advertising 5- Long/Short term orientation *Long term orientation : - values are « Save for tomorrow » - symbols are thick trees, explicit referral to future generation *Short term orientation : Urgency, living in the now and not thinking about future Intercultural Marketing : NSYSU - EMBA ISUGA France 20 septembre 2005 26 Intercultural Marketing Case study « Brand USA – Selling Uncle Sam like Uncle Ben’s »

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