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Intercultural Advertising, appreciation of visual metaphors

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Information about Intercultural Advertising, appreciation of visual metaphors
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Published on March 13, 2009

Author: roblepair

Source: slideshare.net

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Rob le Pair & Margot van Mulken: Perceived Complexity and Appreciation of Visual Metaphors by Consumers with Different Cultural Backgrounds.
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Communication and Information Studies Cross-Cultural Differences in the Evaluation of Visual Metaphors in Advertising: Spain, France and the Netherlands RaAM7 Rob le Pair Margot van Mulken Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual rhetoric and consumer response 2 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual rhetoric and consumer response  Rhetorical framework for both verbal and visual rhetoric (McQuarrie & Mick, 1996) 2 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual rhetoric and consumer response  Rhetorical framework for both verbal and visual rhetoric (McQuarrie & Mick, 1996)  Verbal vs. visual advertising  verbal advertising: more schematic devices (rhyme, alliteration, ...)  visual advertising: more tropical figures: metaphors (Van Mulken, 2003)  Visual rhetoric  refined framework • pictorial elements have an internal structure • location of pictorial element within a specific structure indicates the kind of impact that the pictorial element can be expected to have (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004) 2 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual metaphors 3 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual metaphors source || target Juxtaposition 3 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual metaphors source || target Juxtaposition 3 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual metaphors source || target fusion of source-target Juxtaposition Fusion 3 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual metaphors source || target fusion of source-target Juxtaposition Fusion 3 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual metaphors source || target fusion of source-target source replaces target Replacement Juxtaposition Fusion 3 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual metaphors source || target fusion of source-target source replaces target Replacement Juxtaposition Fusion 3 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual metaphors source || target fusion of source-target source replaces target Replacement Juxtaposition Fusion 3 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual metaphors source || target fusion of source-target source replaces target Replacement Juxtaposition Fusion 3 Friday, March 13, 2009

Visual metaphors source || target fusion of source-target source replaces target Replacement Juxtaposition Fusion increasing complexity (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004) 3 Friday, March 13, 2009

Research questions 4 Friday, March 13, 2009

Research questions  Theoretical complexity Replacement  Fusion  Juxtaposition  No metaphor   quot;More complex visual figures […] will result in more cognitive elaboration.quot; (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004, p.128) 4 Friday, March 13, 2009

Research questions  Effectively perceived complexity  Theoretical complexity  Replacement Replacement   Fusion ? Fusion   Juxtaposition Juxtaposition   No metaphor No metaphor   quot;More complex visual figures […] will result in more cognitive elaboration.quot; (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004, p.128) 4 Friday, March 13, 2009

Research questions  Effectively perceived complexity  Theoretical complexity  Replacement Replacement   Fusion ? Fusion   Juxtaposition Juxtaposition   No metaphor No metaphor   quot;More complex visual figures […] will result in more cognitive elaboration.quot; (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004, p.128)  quot;More complex visual figures [...] will be better liked.quot; (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004, p.129) 4 Friday, March 13, 2009

Research questions  Effectively perceived complexity  Theoretical complexity  Replacement Replacement   Fusion ? Fusion   Juxtaposition Juxtaposition   No metaphor No metaphor   quot;More complex visual figures […] will result in more cognitive  Appreciation elaboration.quot;  Replacement (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004, p.128)  Fusion ?  Juxtaposition  No metaphor  quot;More complex visual figures [...] will be better liked.quot; (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004, p.129) 4 Friday, March 13, 2009

Research questions  Effectively perceived complexity  Theoretical complexity  Replacement Replacement   Fusion ? Fusion   Juxtaposition Juxtaposition   No metaphor No metaphor   quot;More complex visual figures […] will result in more cognitive  Appreciation elaboration.quot;  Replacement (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004, p.128)  Fusion ?  Juxtaposition  No metaphor  quot;More complex visual figures [...] will be better liked.quot; (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004, p.129)  Different cultural background Kövecses (2005); France, Netherlands, Spain 4 Friday, March 13, 2009

Research questions  Effectively perceived complexity  Theoretical complexity  Replacement Replacement   Fusion ? Fusion   Juxtaposition Juxtaposition  ?  No metaphor No metaphor   quot;More complex visual figures […] ? will result in more cognitive  Appreciation elaboration.quot;  Replacement (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004, p.128)  Fusion ?  Juxtaposition  No metaphor  quot;More complex visual figures [...] will be better liked.quot; (Phillips & McQuarrie, 2004, p.129)  Different cultural background Kövecses (2005); France, Netherlands, Spain 4 Friday, March 13, 2009

Method 5 Friday, March 13, 2009

Method Material: 24 advertisements  6 x no metaphor   6 x juxtaposition   6 x fusion   6 x replacement   374 participants  age: mean = 26.9 years (SD=9.48; range: 13-68)  male: 35.6 %, female: 64.2 %  Dutch: 202  French: 83  Spanish: 89  Design   within-subjects: all participants saw all 24 ads 2 versions, reversed order, to control for order effects  between subjects: nationality 5 Friday, March 13, 2009

Method: design, instrument 6 Friday, March 13, 2009

Method: design, instrument  Independent variables 6 Friday, March 13, 2009

Method: design, instrument  Independent variables  type of visual metaphor no metaphor • juxtaposition • fusion • replacement • 6 Friday, March 13, 2009

Method: design, instrument  Independent variables  type of visual metaphor no metaphor • juxtaposition • fusion • replacement •  Nationality / cultural background • Dutch • French • Spanish 6 Friday, March 13, 2009

Method: design, instrument  Dependent variables  Independent variables  type of visual metaphor no metaphor • juxtaposition • fusion • replacement •  Nationality / cultural background • Dutch • French • Spanish 6 Friday, March 13, 2009

Method: design, instrument  Dependent variables  Independent variables  Experienced complexity  type of visual metaphor • the meaning of the advertisement is no metaphor • clear to me juxtaposition • • this ad is easy to understand fusion • (Cronbach's alfa ranging from replacement • .86 - .98)  Nationality / cultural background • Dutch • French • Spanish 6 Friday, March 13, 2009

Method: design, instrument  Dependent variables  Independent variables  Experienced complexity  type of visual metaphor • the meaning of the advertisement is no metaphor • clear to me juxtaposition • • this ad is easy to understand fusion • (Cronbach's alfa ranging from replacement • .86 - .98)  Nationality / cultural background  Appreciation • Dutch • this advertisement is • French well-chosen • Spanish • this advertisement is appealing 6 Friday, March 13, 2009

Method: design, instrument  Dependent variables  Independent variables  Experienced complexity  type of visual metaphor • the meaning of the advertisement is no metaphor • clear to me juxtaposition • • this ad is easy to understand fusion • (Cronbach's alfa ranging from replacement • .86 - .98)  Nationality / cultural background  Appreciation • Dutch • this advertisement is • French well-chosen • Spanish • this advertisement is appealing • my overall judgement of the advertisement is positive (Cronbach's alfa ranging from .88 - .96) 6 Friday, March 13, 2009

Method: design, instrument  Dependent variables  Independent variables  Experienced complexity  type of visual metaphor • the meaning of the advertisement is no metaphor • clear to me juxtaposition • • this ad is easy to understand fusion • (Cronbach's alfa ranging from replacement • .86 - .98)  Nationality / cultural background  Appreciation • Dutch • this advertisement is • French well-chosen • Spanish • this advertisement is appealing • my overall judgement of the advertisement is positive (Cronbach's alfa ranging from .88 - .96)        not agree totally at all agree 6 Friday, March 13, 2009

Results: perceived complexity (all three countries) 7 Friday, March 13, 2009

Results: perceived complexity (all three countries)  Ads with visual metaphors are found more complex than ads with no metaphor 7 Friday, March 13, 2009

Results: perceived complexity (all three countries)  Ads with visual metaphors are found more complex than ads with no metaphor  Fusion was found less complex than Juxtaposition 7 Friday, March 13, 2009

Results: perceived complexity (all three countries)  Ads with visual metaphors are found more complex than ads with no metaphor  Fusion was found less complex than Juxtaposition 7 Friday, March 13, 2009

Results: perceived complexity (all three countries)  Ads with visual metaphors are found more complex than ads with no metaphor  Fusion was found less complex than Juxtaposition  Replacement is the most complex visual metaphor 7 Friday, March 13, 2009

Results: perceived complexity (all three countries) predicted by Phillips & McQuarrie's model (2004)  Ads with visual metaphors are found more complex than ads with no metaphor  Fusion was found less complex than Juxtaposition  Replacement is the most complex visual metaphor 7 Friday, March 13, 2009

Dutch, French and Spanish perceived complexity 8 Friday, March 13, 2009

Dutch, French and Spanish perceived complexity  Dutch and Spanish: same main effect of metaphor type 8 Friday, March 13, 2009

Dutch, French and Spanish perceived complexity  Dutch and Spanish: same main effect of metaphor type  French: no effect 8 Friday, March 13, 2009

Dutch, French and Spanish perceived complexity  Dutch and Spanish: same main effect of metaphor type  French: no effect  main effect of nationality  Spanish find all metaphor types less complex than Dutch  interaction effect of metaphor * nationality  effect of metaphor type differs by nationality (T-test) 8 Friday, March 13, 2009

Appreciation (all three countries) 9 Friday, March 13, 2009

Appreciation (all three countries) 9 Friday, March 13, 2009

Appreciation (all three countries) Ads with metaphors are  appreciated more 9 Friday, March 13, 2009

Appreciation (all three countries) Ads with metaphors are  appreciated more Fusion is appreciated most  9 Friday, March 13, 2009

Appreciation (all three countries) expectation from Phillips & McQuarrie (2004) Ads with metaphors are  appreciated more Fusion is appreciated most  9 Friday, March 13, 2009

Appreciation (all three countries) expectation from Phillips & McQuarrie (2004) Ads with metaphors are  appreciated more Fusion is appreciated most  Juxtaposition and  Replacement are equally appreciated 9 Friday, March 13, 2009

Dutch, French and Spanish appreciation 10 Friday, March 13, 2009

Dutch, French and Spanish appreciation  Same pattern in the three groups:  fusion, not replacement, is appreciated most 10 Friday, March 13, 2009

Dutch, French and Spanish appreciation  Same pattern in the three groups:  fusion, not replacement, is appreciated most 10 Friday, March 13, 2009

Dutch, French and Spanish appreciation  Same pattern in the three groups:  fusion, not replacement, is appreciated most 10 Friday, March 13, 2009

Dutch, French and Spanish appreciation  Same pattern in the three groups:  fusion, not replacement, is appreciated most  Both French and Spanish appreciate all three metaphor types more than Dutch (T-Test) 10 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (1) 11 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (1)  Complexity  ads with metaphors are more complex than ads which contain no metaphor  complexity increases in line with Phillips and McQuarrie's framework, except for Fusion (perceived as less complex than Juxtaposition)  Future research questions  are relatively complex Juxtapositions more complex than relatively simple fusions? or  are Fusions per se less complex than Juxtapositions?  Follow-up study 1  11 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (2) 12 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (2)  Appreciation  use of visual metaphors is appreciated, to a certain extent: if cognitive elaboration requires too much effort (Replacement-metaphors), appreciation decreases, which leads to a  Inverted U-curve (McQuarrie & Mick, 2003)  Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve?  Follow-up study 2  12 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (3) 13 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (3)  Culture  variance depending on cultural background: both Spanish and French respondents liked all three metaphor types more than the Dutch respondents. 13 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (3)  Culture  variance depending on cultural background: both Spanish and French respondents liked all three metaphor types more than the Dutch respondents. 13 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (3)  Culture  variance depending on cultural background: both Spanish and French respondents liked all three metaphor types more than the Dutch respondents.  Possible explanations 13 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (3)  Culture  variance depending on cultural background: both Spanish and French respondents liked all three metaphor types more than the Dutch respondents.  Possible explanations • Spanish and French cultures are more tolerant for implicit, indirect communication (Hall & Hall, 1990; Callow and Schiffman, 2002; De Mooij, 2004) 13 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (3)  Culture  variance depending on cultural background: both Spanish and French respondents liked all three metaphor types more than the Dutch respondents.  Possible explanations • Spanish and French cultures are more tolerant for implicit, indirect communication (Hall & Hall, 1990; Callow and Schiffman, 2002; De Mooij, 2004) 13 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (3)  Culture  variance depending on cultural background: both Spanish and French respondents liked all three metaphor types more than the Dutch respondents.  Possible explanations • Spanish and French cultures are more tolerant for implicit, indirect communication (Hall & Hall, 1990; Callow and Schiffman, 2002; De Mooij, 2004) • Different preferences in expressing judgements: cultural response bias 'acquiescence bias' (tendency to agree) or 'extreme response bias' 13 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (4) 14 Friday, March 13, 2009

Conclusion and discussion (4)  Moderating factors  competence (being able to cope with complex visual structures)  familiarity with the particular genre of advertising  product involvement 14 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 1: Juxtaposition and Fusion 15 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 1: Juxtaposition and Fusion  are Fusions per se less complex than Juxtapositions?   example: anti-dandruff shampoo (source = vacuum cleaner) 15 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 1: Juxtaposition and Fusion  are Fusions per se less complex than Juxtapositions?   example: anti-dandruff shampoo (source = vacuum cleaner) Juxtaposition 15 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 1: Juxtaposition and Fusion  are Fusions per se less complex than Juxtapositions?   example: anti-dandruff shampoo (source = vacuum cleaner) Juxtaposition Fusion 15 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 1: complexity of Juxtaposition and Fusion: Method 16 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 1: complexity of Juxtaposition and Fusion: Method 82 participants   male: 56 %; female: 44 %  age: mean = 41, (SD=16,4); range: 16 – 64  experiment: 10 ads, each ad in two versions: Juxtaposition and Fusion (between subjects); 16 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 1: complexity of Juxtaposition and Fusion: Method 82 participants   male: 56 %; female: 44 %  age: mean = 41, (SD=16,4); range: 16 – 64  experiment: 10 ads, each ad in two versions: Juxtaposition and Fusion (between subjects); Design: each participant saw all ten ads,  either the Juxtaposition version or the Fusion version of each ad 16 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 1: complexity of Juxtaposition and Fusion: Results 17 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 1: complexity of Juxtaposition and Fusion: Results Fusion is perceived as less complex than Juxtaposition (F(1,81) = 7.34, p < .01)  17 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 2: Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve? 18 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 2: Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve?  same ads, same questionaire  first exposure  explanation of metaphor; example: “In this ad, the designer wants to express that Coca Cola gives you new energy, just like petrol gives energy to a car engine.” 18 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 2: Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve? Results 19 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 2: Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve? Results  Explanation of the intended meaning of metaphors leads to 19 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 2: Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve? Results  Explanation of the intended meaning of metaphors leads to  increased appreciation of Fusion and Replacement; 19 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 2: Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve? Results  Explanation of the intended meaning of metaphors leads to  increased appreciation of Fusion and Replacement; 19 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 2: Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve? Results  Explanation of the intended meaning of metaphors leads to  increased appreciation of Fusion and Replacement; 19 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 2: Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve? Results  Explanation of the intended meaning of metaphors leads to  increased appreciation of Fusion and Replacement; 19 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 2: Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve? Results  Explanation of the intended meaning of metaphors leads to  increased appreciation of Fusion and Replacement;  decreased appreciation of Juxtaposition. 19 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 2: Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve? Results  Explanation of the intended meaning of metaphors leads to  increased appreciation of Fusion and Replacement;  decreased appreciation of Juxtaposition. 19 Friday, March 13, 2009

Follow-up study 2: Is lack of comprehension the reason for the inverted U-curve? Results  Explanation of the intended meaning of metaphors leads to  increased appreciation of Fusion and Replacement;  decreased appreciation of Juxtaposition.  linear relation between complexity and ad liking, under the condition of full comprehension 19 Friday, March 13, 2009

Communication and Information Studies Cross-Cultural Differences in the Evaluation of Visual Metaphors in Advertising: Spain, France and the Netherlands RaAM7 Thank you Rob le Pair Margot van Mulken Friday, March 13, 2009

Material: no metaphor Dove Ford Nescafe Renault Sony Passoa 21 Friday, March 13, 2009

Material: Juxtaposition Dove Chenet Nissan Contrex Citroën Picasso Seiko 22 Friday, March 13, 2009

Material: Fusion Burgerking Nivea Coca-Cola Real Butter Toyota Peugeot 23 Friday, March 13, 2009

Material: Replacement Ford Milk Audi Wonderbra Zendium Pampers 24 Friday, March 13, 2009

Perceived complexity Dutch French Spanish No metaphor 5.51 (1.05) 4.61 (1.29) 5.38 (1.20) Juxtaposition 4.19 (0.86) 4.48 (0.89) 4.92 (0.95) Fusion 4.50 (0.81) 4.46 (0.93) 5.07 (0.96) Replacement 4.08 (0.90) 4.40 (0.99) 4.48 (1.00) Appreciation Dutch French Spanish No metaphor 3.49 (0.82) 3.15 (0.96) 3.94 (1.10) Juxtaposition 4.00 (0.78) 4.40 (0.94) 4.59 (0.93) Fusion 4.39 (0.82) 4.63 (0.96) 4.83 (1.04) Replacement 4.01 (0.84) 4.36 (0.92) 4.44 (1.07) 25 Friday, March 13, 2009

Complexity: cross-cultural differences  Spanish respondents perceived all three metaphor types as less complex than Dutch: 26 Friday, March 13, 2009

Complexity: cross-cultural differences  Spanish respondents perceived all three metaphor types as less complex than Dutch: Dutch vs. Spanish T-Test Significance No metaphor D=S - - Juxtaposition D<S t(289) = -6.50 p < .001 Fusion D<S t(289) = -5.18 p < .001 Replacement D<S t(289) = -3.36 p < .01 26 Friday, March 13, 2009

Appreciation: cross-cultural differences All four ad types were appreciated more by the Spanish than by the Dutch  Dutch vs. Spanish T-Test No metaphor D<S t(133.18) = -3.47 p < .001 Juxtaposition D<S t(289) = -5.65 p < .001 Fusion D<S t(289) = -3.87 p < .001 Replacement D<S t(137.83) = -3.41 p < .001 All three metaphor types were appreciated more by the French  than by the Dutch: Dutch vs. French T-Test No metaphor D>F t(283) = 3.05 p < .01 Juxtaposition D<F t(283) = -3.73 p < .001 Fusion D<F t(283) = -2.07 p < .05 Replacement D<F t(283) = -3.10 p < .01 27 Friday, March 13, 2009

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