Interactive Walkthrough in Virtual Cities and its Applications in Urban Design

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Published on March 12, 2014

Author: KhaledAhmed2

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Interactive Walkthrough in Virtual Cities and its Applications in Urban Design - Master's Thesis Defense Presentation - 2009 November 9 - Khaled Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Gawad - University of Alexandria - Institute of Graduate Studies and Research - Department of Information Technology

University of Alexandria Institute of Graduate Studies and Research Department of Information Technology Interactive Walkthrough in Virtual Cities and its Applications in Urban Design Master's Thesis Defense Presentation 2009 November 92009 November 9 Khaled Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Gawad Examination Committee: Prof.Dr. Ayman El-Dessouky Ibrahim Prof. Dr. Shawkat Kamal Guirguis Dr. Walaa Mohamed Sheta Supervisors: Dr. Walaa Mohamed Sheta Dr. Sahar El-sayed Bayoumi

Outline Motivation Objective Contribution literature review 5/28/2010 2 Methodology Experiments and Results Future Work

Motivation 3D Virtual City Applications diversity. Applications in urban design. Egyptian non-structured cities. 5/28/2010 3 Increasing size of 3D datasets makes them impossible to display in real time with classical approaches.

Objective Improve visibility culling performance in non-structured virtual city Study performance for the developed visibility algorithm 5/28/2010 4

Main Contribution Developing potentially visible set (PVS) algorithm on non-structured virtual city Providing a new technique to calculate offline 2d visibility for virtual city based on user predefined budget (accuracy, time and storage media size) 5/28/2010 5 budget (accuracy, time and storage media size) (PVS) algorithm over perform partitioning algorithm on non-structured virtual city

Literature Review Virtual Bath (CASA group) Visibility culling (back-face, view-frustum) Occlusion culling algorithms 5/28/2010 6 View frustum eye View frustum back face Occlusion

Literature Review cont. Potentially visible set Algorithm Run-time / pre-process calculating Indoor Scenes Cell and Portal Outdoor Scenes 5/28/2010 7 Outdoor Scenes

Methodology 1. Building a virtual walkthrough prototype system for both acceleration algorithms (PVS - partitioning) 2. Applying both algorithms on two virtual cities with different urban patterns (non structured – well planned) 5/28/2010 8 planned) 3. Measuring performance 4. Analyzing results and outcomes

Prototype Implementation System Architecture Overview PVS module Partitioning module Make Partitions 5/28/2010 9 Make Partitions

Prototype Implementation cont. System Architecture Overview PVS module Partitioning module Make Partitions 5/28/2010 10 Make Partitions

2D View Cell Analyzer View Cell Manipulator Prototype Implementation: PVS Module 5/28/2010 11

Prototype Implementation: PVS Module 2D View Cell Analyzer Non-structured city. 5/28/2010 12

Prototype Implementation: PVS Module 2D View Cell Analyzer Well-planned city. 5/28/2010 13

2D View Cell Analyzer View Cell Manipulator Prototype Implementation: PVS Module 5/28/2010 14

2D View Cell Analyzer PVS Calculating Prototype Implementation: PVS Module 5/28/2010 15

Prototype Implementation: PVS Module 5/28/2010 16

2D View Cell Analyzer PVS Calculating Prototype Implementation: PVS Module 5/28/2010 17

Prototype Implementation cont. System Architecture Overview PVS module Partitioning module Make Partitions 5/28/2010 18 Make Partitions

Walkthrough Generator 1 Prototype Implementation: PVS Module 5/28/2010 19

Walkthrough Generator 1 Prototype Implementation: PVS Module 5/28/2010 20

Walkthrough Generator 1 Routing Map Prototype Implementation: PVS Module 5/28/2010 21 When the user enters a view cell

Prototype Implementation cont. System Architecture Overview PVS module Partitioning module Make Partitions 5/28/2010 22 Make Partitions

Partitioning Tool Find Polygon/Partition Center Prototype Implementation: Partitioning Make Partitions 5/28/2010 23

Partitioning Tool Find Polygon/Partition Center Prototype Implementation: Partitioning Make Partitions 5/28/2010 24

Prototype Implementation: Partitioning Make Partitions Partitioning Tool Create Partitions 5/28/2010 25

Prototype Implementation: Partitioning Make Partitions 5/28/2010 26

Prototype Implementation: Partitioning Make Partitions 5/28/2010 27

Prototype Implementation cont. System Architecture Overview PVS module Partitioning module Make Partitions 5/28/2010 28 Make Partitions

Walkthrough Generator 2 Prototype Implementation: Partitioning 5/28/2010 29

Prototype Implementation cont. System Architecture Overview PVS module Partitioning module Make Partitions 5/28/2010 30 Make Partitions

Outline so far: Motivation Objective Contribution literature review 5/28/2010 31 Methodology Experiments and Results Future Work

Experiments and Results Dataset description 5/28/2010 32 Well planned : Al Ahram Garden 277 building Non structured: Wasat El Delta 277 building

Navigation Patterns Experiments and Results cont. 5/28/2010 33 Random Walk (RW) Spiral Pattern (SP) Changed Circular Pattern (CCP)

Experiment #1 Sub Experiment 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 The view cell size against the number of loaded objects in the non-structured urban pattern city when applying the PVS algorithm Experiments and Results cont. 5/28/2010 34 View Cell No. 2 4 8 16 32 View cell size 800 X 300 400 X 300 400 X 150 200 X 150 200 X 75 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5

132.75134 182 201 161 150 200 250 NumberOfLoadedObjects Non-Structured City – PVS Algorithm Experiments and Results: Experiment #1 5/28/2010 35 112 132.75 116.875 81.4375 55.96875 90 78 58 26 26 112 0 50 100 800 X 300 400 X 300 400 X 150 200 X 150 200 X 75 Average No Of Objects Min No. Of Objects Max No. Of Objects View Cell Size NumberOfLoaded

Experiment #2 The view cell size against the number of loaded objects in the well planned urban pattern city when applying the PVS algorithm Experiments and Results cont. Sub Experiment 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 5/28/2010 36 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 View Cell No. 2 4 8 16 32 View cell size 800 X 350 400 X 350 400 X 175 200 X 175 200 X 75

203 172.25 160 246 246 219 206 162 200 250 300 NumberOfLoadedObjects Well Planned City – PVS Algorithm Experiments and Results: Experiment #2 5/28/2010 37 150.75 124.5625 98.3125 160 121 83 42 46 162 0 50 100 150 800 X 350 400 X 350 400 X 175 200 X 175 200 X 75 Average No. Of Objects MinNo. Of Objects MaxNo. Of Objects View Cell Size NumberOfLoaded

250 300 No.ofloadedObjects Well planned Max No of objects Non structured Max No of objects Experiments and Results cont. Experiments #1 and #2 conclusions 5/28/2010 38 0 50 100 150 200 280k 240k 120K 140k 70k 60K 35k 30K 15k No.ofloadedObjects View Cell Size

200 250 No.ofloadedObjects Well planned Avg no of objects Non structured Avg no of objects Experiments and Results cont. Experiments #1 and #2 conclusions 5/28/2010 39 0 50 100 150 200 280k 240k 120K 140k 70k 60K 35k 30K 15k No.ofloadedObjects View Cell Size

140 160 180 No.ofLoadedObjects Well planned Min No of objects Non structured Min No of objects Experiments and Results cont. Experiments #1 and #2 conclusions 5/28/2010 40 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 280k 240k 120K 140k 70k 60K 35k 30K 15k No.ofLoadedObjects View Cell Size

Experiment #3 The view cell size against the frame rate in the well planned urban pattern city when applying the PVS algorithm. Experiments and Results cont. Sub Experiment 2-1 2-2 2-3 2-4 2-5 5/28/2010 41 View Cell No. 2 4 8 16 32 View cell size 800 X 350 400 X 350 400 X 175 200 X 175 200 X 75

29.49078181 29.96435728 30.13162235 28.68523507 29.84108181 24.93212933 22.74909175 22.97267238 23.20343061 24 26 28 30FrameRate Experiments and Results: Experiment #3 5/28/2010 42 19.15718977 19.63045629 18.46098643 19.20655074 16.91969015 21.15675006 22.74909175 22.97267238 23.20343061 16 18 20 22 800 X 350 400 X 350 400 X 175 200 X 175 200 X 75 RW CCP SP View Cell Size FrameRate Well planned - PVS

Experiment #4 The view cell size against the frame rate in non structured urban pattern city when applying the PVS algorithm Experiments and Results cont. Sub Experiment 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 5/28/2010 43 View Cell No. 2 4 8 16 32 View cell size 800 X 300 400 X 300 400 X 150 200 X 150 200 X 75

28.08973607 27.52872754 27.50527764 22.78121455 29.24600028 29.7310093 28.76899778 30.99649029 23 28 33 FrameRate Experiments and Results: Experiment #4 5/28/2010 44 16.73338993 14.44401665 17.54001673 19.89686771 19.84795816 20.64370651 20.61034316 22.78121455 13 18 23 800X300 400X300 400X150 200X150 200X75 RW CCP SP View Cell Size FrameRate Non structured- PVS

Experiment #5 The partition size against the frame rate in well planned city when applying the partitioning algorithm Experiments and Results cont. Sub Exp. 5-1 5-2 5-3 5-4 5-5 5-6 5/28/2010 45 Partitions No. 2 4 8 16 32 64 Partitions size 400X610 400X305 200X305 200X155 100X155 100X77

16.04837325 14.63680569 15.6902127 16.33234097 20.1975404 20.67608491 15.10331206 17.66874392 15 20 25 FrameRate Experiments and Results: Experiment #5 5/28/2010 46 6.635846264 7.16564891 7.925545075 8.594371213 9.045524881 9.250304366 11.79780791 10.05555103 10.44367175 11.45429424 0 5 10 2 par 400X610 4 par 400X305 8 par 200X305 16 par 200X155 32 par 100X155 64 par 100X77 RW CCP SP Partition Size FrameRate Well planned - Partitioning

Experiment #6 The partition size and the frame rate in non structured urban pattern city when applying the partitioning algorithm Experiments and Results cont. Sub Exp. 6-1 6-2 6-3 6-4 6-5 6-6 5/28/2010 47 Partitions No. 2 4 8 16 32 64 Partitions size 375X500 375X250 190X250 190X145 100X145 100X75

22.69119622 24.62832275 22.73839676 27.53329429 30.6624535 33.04332916 33.47852866 27 32 FrameRate Experiments and Results: Experiment #6 5/28/2010 48 11.43958488 9.332535195 12.97570919 16.03335947 22.69119622 16.34198 15.31591728 18.54151373 20.94712329 22.27447554 23.2409737721.71500904 22.73839676 7 12 17 22 2 par 375X500 4 par 375X250 8 par 190X250 16 par 190X145 32 par 100X145 64 par 100X75 RW CCP SP Partition Size FrameRate Non structured - Partitioning

City Type Path type Partitioning Algorithm Potential Visible Set (PVS) 2 par 4 par 8 par 16 par 32 par 64 par 2 Sens 4 Sens 8 Sens 16 Sens 32 Sens structured RW 11.43958488 9.33254 12.9757 16.0334 22.6912 24.6283 16.7334 14.444 17.54 19.8969 19.84796 Experiments and Results cont. Results Matrix 5/28/2010 49 Non structured CCP 16.34198 15.3159 18.5415 20.9471 22.2745 23.241 20.6437 20.6103 28.0897 27.5287 27.50528 SP 21.71500904 22.7384 27.5333 30.6625 33.0433 33.4785 22.7812 29.246 29.731 28.769 30.99649 2 par 4 par 8 par 16 par 32 par 64 par 2 Sens 4 Sens 8 Sens 16 Sens 32 Sens Wellplanned RW 6.635846264 7.16565 7.92555 8.59437 9.04552 9.2503 19.1572 19.6305 18.461 19.2066 16.91969 CCP 16.04837325 14.6368 15.6902 16.3323 20.1975 20.6761 29.4908 29.9644 30.1316 28.6852 29.84108 SP 11.79780791 10.0556 10.4437 15.1033 11.4543 17.6687 24.9321 21.1568 22.7491 22.9727 23.20343

Conclusion and Discussion The highest number of occluded objects and frame rate can be obtained when applying PVS algorithm on non structure city PVS algorithm over perform partitioning algorithm in non structured city 5/28/2010 50

Future Work Providing a 3d visibility technique based on user predefined budget Studying performance for the developed algorithm compared to other algorithms Enhance the developed algorithm to be used in virtual 5/28/2010 51 Enhance the developed algorithm to be used in virtual cities with dynamic objects

Thank You Discussion 5/28/2010 52 Discussion

University of Alexandria Institute of Graduate Studies and Research Department of Information Technology Interactive Walkthrough in Virtual Cities and its Applications in Urban Design Master's Thesis Defense Presentation 2009 November 92009 November 9 Khaled Mohamed Ahmed Abd El Gawad Examination Committee: Prof.Dr. Ayman El-Dessouky Ibrahim Prof. Dr. Shawkat Kamal Guirguis Dr. Walaa Mohamed Sheta

Prototype Implementation Software Used Modeling Phase AutoCAD 3DS MAX Photoshop CS3 5/28/2010 54 AutoCAD 3DS MAX Simulation Phase Flash CS4 AS 3 VRML97 Vrmlpad Cortona player Scripting Photoshop CS3

For further information 5/28/2010 55 For further information see the following slides

Prototype Implementation cont. Interactive Walkthrough (well planned) PVS 5/28/2010 56

Prototype Implementation cont. Interactive Walkthrough (non structured) PVS 5/28/2010 57

Prototype Implementation cont. Interactive Walkthrough (Log file structure) PVS 5/28/2010 58 Tracking Loaded View Cells

Experiments environment Operating System Windows XP Professional (5.1, Build 2600) Service Pack 2 (2600.xpsp_sp2_gdr.070227- Experiments and Results cont. 5/28/2010 59 (2600.xpsp_sp2_gdr.070227- 2254) Processor Intel(R) Celeron(R) CPU 2.53GHz Memory 478MB RAM Display Devices SiS 661FX Display Memory 32.0 MB

Partitioning Tool Non-structured city. Prototype Implementation: Partitioning Make Partitions 5/28/2010 60

Partitioning Tool Well-planned city. Prototype Implementation: Partitioning Make Partitions 5/28/2010 61

Conclusion and Discussion 15 20 25 FrameRate Non structured city (RW) PVS 5/28/2010 62 0 5 10 280K 144K 70K 35K 15K FrameRate Partitioning

Conclusion and Discussion PVS 20 25 30 FrameRate Non structured city (CCP) 5/28/2010 63 Partitioning 0 5 10 15 280K 144K 70K 35K 15K FrameRate

Conclusion and Discussion Partitioning PVS 20 25 30 35 FrameRate Non structured City (SP) 5/28/2010 64 Partitioning 0 5 10 15 20 280K 144K 70K 35K 15K FrameRate

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