Integrating renewable energy to the grid

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Information about Integrating renewable energy to the grid

Published on March 6, 2014

Author: niamhmcgrath1210



Joe Corbett, Mainstream's Head of Technology presented to the Institution of Engineering and Technology on 27 February in London. The presentation seeks to examine the rationale and technical challenges to the Energy Bridge proposition. The presentation also focuses on the technology advances relating to the Supernode concept.

The Energy Bridge Ireland – UK Rationale and Technical challenges - Joe Corbett, Head of Technology London, 27 February 2014

In Construction/ In Operation Canada (onshore wind & solar) Pipeline:995MW Ireland (onshore wind) Knockaneden – 9 MW Carrickeeney – 8 MW In Development Scotland (offshore wind) Neart na Gaoithe: 450MW UK (offshore wind) Hornsea: 6,000MW Old Man wind farm 46MW Germany (offshore wind) Horizont: 1,200MW Ireland (onshore wind) Pipeline: 1200 MW USA (onshore) Pipeline: 1,265MW Chile (onshore wind & solar) Pipeline:1,200MW Negrete wind farm – 33MW Jeffreys Bay wind farm – 138MW De Aar solar park – 50MW Droogfontein solar park – 50MW 2 South Africa (onshore wind & solar) Pipeline: 4,854MW

Drivers for Change – Europe’s Electricity Fuel Mix (2008) Oil 3% • Energy Security Biomass Waste Solar PV Geothermal 1% 2% Wind 3% Coal 26% Hydro 15% • Sustainability • Economic Development • GHG Reduction Gas 24% Nuclear 26% Source: IEA

Debate? • • • • • Remove Coal Nuclear Debate Increase Renewables Secure Supplies Invest in Transmission S. & Cent. America 1% Azerbaijan 1% Kazakhstan 2% Western Europe 35% Russian Federation 33% Constraints • Regulation • Public Opposition • Onshore Wind • Overhead Lines Middle East 8% Turkmenistan 2% Africa 15% Europe Gas Sources 2010 Source: BP Uzbekistan 3%

Beyond Gate 3 (2025) – The Queue • Ireland 2020 targets • 4GW • Gate 3 = 3.9GW • Only require 55% • Future of PSO Contribution for wind beyond gate 3? • Currently 13.5GW in queue BEYOND Gate 3 •Not possible to absorb domestically •Curtailment / Constraint • Interconnector Exports?

Ireland & UK 2020 Targets Synergy Ireland UK ● Electricity from Renewables by 2020 – 40% ● Electricity from Renewables by 2020 – 30% ● ● ● ● Equates to 4 GW installed by 2020 2 GW already installed 0.25 GW p.a. required to reach target 16 GW waiting in Grid Queue! ● Only requires 12.5% of current grid queue to reach2020 target ● ● ● ● Equates to 35 GW installed by 2020 Currently 8.5 GW installed 3.3 GW p.a. required to reach target 22 GW in Grid Queue ● UK installed 0.7 GW in 2011 ● LCPD – coal decommissioning ● Irish Wind potential = 345 TWh p.a. ● Equates to 19 x market size ● Significant opportunity to Export

Political Stimulus ● Concept of export first raised at British Irish council 2011 ● Declarations of intent made by both ministers June 2012 to enact legislation ● UK Energy Bill Dec 2012 ● Provides for projects outside UK REZ to qualify for CfD’s ● Bi-lateral MoU now signed ● IGA Q1 2014

Mainstream Energy Bridge – 5,000MW Direct Export

Projects of Common Interest and SuperNode

Energy Bridge Context

Technology and Innovation 12

Cables Today ● AC Application ● SCFF - 500kV / 1,200 MW ● XLPE - 500kV / 1,000 MW ● DC Application ● Mass-Impregnated (MI) ● ● 500kV / 1,600 MW Installed 600kV / 2,200 MW Awarded ● Extruded (XLPE) ● ● 200kV / 400 MW Installed 320kV / 900 MW Awarded ● SCFF ● AC/DC ● Short Lengths 13

Grid Design Friends of the Supergrid Technical Working Group

DC Breakers •Resonance Ballistic Breaker™ •Power Electronics •Full Bridge Conversion •Ballistic Breaker •Superconductor •Hybrid •Plasma Roger Faulkner : Ballistic Breaker Corporation

Long Distance Transmission •HVDC •Overhead Lines •Permitting/Consent •Cables (>100 Years Old) •MI = 800kV •XLPE = 500kV •No. Joints •Drilling / Tunnelling •GIL •Elpipes •Research Baker Hughes Roger Faulkner: LONG DISTANCE UNDERGROUND HVDC TRANSMISSION VIA ELPIPES (ICHVE 2010)

Technology Development (Friends of the Supergrid – Technical Working Group) Today – 2015 (Supergrid Preparation Phase) 2015 – 2020 (Supergrid Phase 1) After 2020 (Supergrid Phase 2) ● Increased power ratings for VSC (1,000 MW at 320 kV DC) ● DC cables with extruded insulation >320 kV in operation ● Further Development of MI and MI-PPL Cables ● Demonstrators for DC side fault clearing (e.g. DC Circuit Breakers) ● MI-PPL 600kV cable in operation ● DC 320 kV cables with extruded insulation in operation at different onshore and offshore projects (500 MW per cable) ● Development of new extruded insulation compounds for HVDC cables ● HVDC cables with new extruded insulation compounds in operation ● DC cables with extruded insulation >320 kV developed ● MI-PPL 600kV (1.1GW per cable) developed and higher voltages in development ● MI >500 kV cable developed ● AC GIL in operation ● Standardization work for HVDC grids in CIGRÈ, CENELEC started ● MI >500kV in operation ● System for fast selective fault detection in HVDC networks ● DC side selective fault clearing and system reconfiguration ● Hierarchical control architecture for integrated AC and DC Grid in Europe ● Demonstrators for DC/DC Converter ● Superconducting cables ● DC GIL ● DC/DC converter

Control and Information SuperNode Control AC Control & Protection Smart Meter Source: Sustainable Energy Horizon Panel report

Mainstream Initiatives Friends of the Supergrid SuperNode • Low Voltage Model • Medium Power Pilot (H2020) • TEN-E-Funding • SuperNode Concept Design and Scale Model PowerTube International Bodies Working Groups

Inventing the Future We are on a once-off transition to sustainability Insanity: doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. — Albert Einstein— There are those who look at things the way they are, and ask why... I dream of things that never were, and ask why not? — Robert Kennedy — Source: Microsoft

Joe Corbett Head of Technology

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