Published on March 28, 2014
Master Gardener Training – Hygnstrom PSEP 1 What Is Organic Gardening? Photo: University of Florida Ontario’s Cosmetic Pesticides Ban • “Ontario’s lawns, gardens, school yards and parks are a lot healthier since the province’s cosmetic pesticides ban came into effect on Earth Day, April 22, 2009.” • Only bio‐pesticides, designated by Health Canada’s Pest Management Regulatory Agency Act, and certain lower risk pesticides are allowed. Photo: University of Nebraska • Concerns about pesticides: • Routine, unnecessary pesticide applications • Untrained pesticide applicators • Possible hazards, especially to children and pets Solution — Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Goals of IPM…. • Reduce human exposure to pesticides • Reduce environmental damage • Reduce the long‐term cost of managing pests Photo: University of Florida IPM Process Monitor Pest level threshhold Accurate ID Select control Evaluate Educate . Scouting • Favorable conditions • Signs of insects, weeds, diseases, abnormalities – Damage – Frass • The actual pest • Signs of natural enemies
Master Gardener Training – Hygnstrom PSEP 2 IPM Process Monitor Pest level threshhold Select control Accurate ID Evaluate Educate Complete Metamorphosis EGG LARVA PUPA ADULT Incomplete or Simple Metamorphosis Timing of control tactics • Many pests are susceptible at specific stages • Apply herbicides at proper weed growth stage – Preplant – Preemergence – Postemergence • Pest inside fruit, stem, or tree is inaccessible • Treat grasshoppers, CO potato beetle when small IPM Process Monitor Accurate ID Select control Evaluate Pest level threshhold Educate Thresholds – Potato psyllid • 1 nymph per 10 leaflets on pre‐ flowering plants • 3‐4 nymphs per 10 leaflets on plants in full flower or older.
Master Gardener Training – Hygnstrom PSEP 3 .umn.edu/ Thresholds‐ Tomato Hornworm • MN 0.5 young larvae/plant. • Treat when larvae are in the early instars. Late instars (>3/4") are difficult to kill. • Another Option: Pick them off Thresholds – Squash bugs MN – Ave. no. egg masses > 1 egg mass per plant – Control when threshold is reached or when wilting occurs due to squash bug and not other pests or environmental conditions. – Most critical growth stages to monitor: • seedlings • new transplants • flowering – when the most damage can occur. IPM Process Monitor Pest level threshhold Accurate ID Select control Evaluate Educate • Cultural control • Mechanical control • Biological control • Chemical control Pest Management Toolbox Cultural Controls • Manipulate planting, preparation of soil, and plant selection
Master Gardener Training – Hygnstrom PSEP 4 Cultural Control • Site selection • Use pest‐free plants • Use resistant varieties • Dig/till • Rotate crops*** • Fertilize/water • Alter planting/harvest • Garden sanitation • Mow Cultural Control of Weeds • Mulch – Prevent germination – block light – Smother – Burn (clear plastic) • Prevent seed production – Mow • Exhaust seed bank • Remove seed heads • Pulling may worsen ‐ Know your weed! Mechanical Control This can be labor intensive and time consuming. Mechanical Control • Barriers – Collars, mesh covers, mulches, screens, guards • Hand‐picking insects • Washing • Traps (beer traps) • Fly swatter Collars – MG of Virginia **Environmental Control** • Light – Black light – Light traps • Temperature – Compost – Hot water – Flaming University of Nebraska‐Lincoln
Master Gardener Training – Hygnstrom PSEP 5 Biological Control • Pit one organism against another – Predators – Pathogens – Parasites – Competitors – Companion planting Predators Predators –Bigger –Fewer –Faster –Slower at reproducing Praying Mantid Praying Mantis Predators Lacewing larvae ready to feed on aphids Lacewing eggs Predators – adult lacewing
Master Gardener Training – Hygnstrom PSEP 6 Parasitic insects ‐ Parasitoids • Very specialized • Develop from eggs laid in or on host • Very stealthy and often small • Leave a trail of bodies Healthy aphidsParasitized aphids Ovipositor M. E. Bagley Parasites Parasites Pathogens ‐ Microbials • Usually advertised as naturally occurring insect diseases caused by – bacteria – protozoa – viruses – fungi – nematodes • Very specific – Virtually harmless to non‐target species Pathogens ‐ Microbials • Leave a trail of bodies • May take a few days to provide control (lag time) • Kill, reduce rate of reproduction, reduce insect health Microbial Pesticides • Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) bacteria – Oral LD50 = 4,000 ‐10,000 mg/Kg • Small caterpillars, grubs, beetles, mosquito larvae • Specific types‐ read label
Master Gardener Training – Hygnstrom PSEP 7 Pathogens ‐ Microbials • Bt… Two ways it works? • When eaten, produces toxic protein crystals that cause the gut walls of susceptible insects to burst, stomach contents spill into body cavity, death by blood poisoning. • Gut paralysis Pathogens ‐ Microbials • Milky Spore • Fungal disease for Japanese beetles • Destroys digestive tract • Spinosad Bacteria (Actinomycete) • When ingested by insects, it affects the nervous system, causes paralysis & death • Controls beetles, caterpillars, thrips • LD50 >5,000 mg/kg Pathogens ‐ Microbials Pathogens ‐ Microbials • Nosema locustae ‐ protozoa • Inactive spore is incorporated into a bait • When eaten by grasshopper, protozoa consumes fat reserves. • Grasshopper nymphs don’t have energy to molt, prevents maturation and reproduction • MSDS = nontoxic Pathogens • Beauveria - fungus • Spores penetrate • Fungus multiplies • Destroys tissue • Emerges from body to produce spores Insect mummy covered with fungal spores Where do I get natural enemies and other aspects of biological control? • Buy them • Preserve what you have
Master Gardener Training – Hygnstrom PSEP 8 Purchasing natural enemies? • May compete with natives • May fly/walk crawl away • May eat each other (praying mantis) • Won’t prevent or eliminate insects from your garden • Help existing predators survive How to help the good guys • Reduce pesticide use, and use least toxic pesticides • Learn to ID the good from the bad • Use flowers in your garden that attract natural enemies – Provide pollen/nectar – Provide shelter/shade Flowers that attract the good guys • Dill • Fennel • Queen Anne’s lace • Echinacea (coneflower) • Sunflower • Tansy • Mustards • Lupine • Cilantro (coriander) • Gaillardia (blanketflower) • Milkweeds • Goldenrod • Alfalfa • Clover • Parsley Competitors – Cover Crops • Prevent weeds from growing • Recycle nutrients into the soil (green manure) • Legumes add nitrogen • Protect soil from wind/water erosion Rye in MI State garden Companion Planting ‐ ? • Trap crop – Nasturtiums lure aphids, flea beetles – Radishes lure flea beetles – Dill lures tomato hornworms – Eggplants lure potato beetles – Smartweed lure Japanese beetles Univ MN Extension Companion Planting ‐ ? • Mask or hide crop – Hard for insect to find your crop (scent) • Marigold Lavender • Mint Garlic • Basil • Habitat for beneficial insects • Repellent
Master Gardener Training – Hygnstrom PSEP 9 Chemical Control • Use only when nonchemical methods fail to control the pest • Use least hazardous first and more toxic only if others fail to control pest • Rotate types Inorganic Pesticides • Do not contain carbon compounds • Contain elements such as arsenic, boron, copper, sulfur, mercury, tin, or zinc • Among the earliest insecticides, fungicides • Do not degrade; some are now illegal Inorganic Pesticides • Insecticides ‐ abrasives and desiccants • Boric acid, oral LD50 > 10,000 mg/kg • Diatomaceous earth – no known ingestion hazard • Kaolin – barrier • Sulfur – adult mites, eggs. • Wood preservatives – CCA, oral LD50 = 2 – 5,500 mg/kg • Fungicides – caution if temps > 80 or 85 degrees – Sulfur, Bordeaux (lime and copper sulfate) – Copper Organic Pesticides • Contain carbon compounds • Would include soaps and oils • Synthetics – Sometimes based on naturally‐occuring Synthetic Pesticides • Do contain carbon compounds ‐ organic • Includes many common turf & garden pesticides – Carbamates • (Sevin, oral LD50 = 500 mg/kg) – Organophosphates • (malathion, oral LD50 = 885 mg/kg) – Pyrethroids ‐ “thrin” suffix • (cyfluthrin, oral LD50 = 500 mg/kg) – Neonicotinoids • (imidacloprid, oral LD50 = 424 mg/kg) Categorize Pesticides by Source • Naturally found in or derived from environment – Inorganics – Sulfur, kaolin, lime sulfur – Microbials – Specific to pest – Botanicals/oils – • Manufactured (synthetic) – “Chemical” pesticides ‐ Organic chemistry – Sometimes based on botanicals
Master Gardener Training – Hygnstrom PSEP 10 Insecticidal Oils • Petroleum or plant‐based carbon chains • Block breathing pores (spiracles) – Suffocate • Penetrate egg membranes – Water imbalance • Can be phytotoxic to some plants Insecticidal (Botanical) Oils • Repellents • Citrus 100% LD50 2,840 mg/kg • Clove 100% LD50 2,650 mg/kg • Garlic 100% LD50 1,360 mg/kg • Capsaicin 100% LD50 47.2 mg/kg – In products at much lower concentrations. – Potential to burn skin, eyes, etc. • D‐limonene, rosemary, jojoba oils – Oral LD50 >5,000 mg/kg Insecticidal (Botanical) Oils • Neem oil – From seeds of Neem tree • Insect growth regulator – inhibits molting hormone. • Broad spectrum insecticide, miticide, and fungicide. Toothpaste in India – Oral LD50 >5,000 mg/kg Horticultural (Mineral) Oils • Summer (lighter) oil used on green tissue during growing season • Dormant (heavier) oil used on woody plants (fruit trees) when dormant. – Sooty mold, aphids, mites, thrips, scale • Can damage plants if applied at high temps. Insecticidal Soaps • Contact materials for soft‐bodied insects and stages • Break down soft cuticle tissues • Destroy cell membranes Botanical Pesticides • Nicotine sulfate – derived from tobacco leaves, not used Oral LD50 = 50‐60 mg/kg • Rotenone – derived from stems and roots of flame tree, contact and stomach poison, kills fish, RUP. Not insecticide ‐ Parkinson’s Disease? Oral LD50 = 132 – 1,500 mg/kg
Master Gardener Training – Hygnstrom PSEP 11 Botanical Pesticides • Pyrethrum – naturally derived product, uncommon, one of oldest insecticides – Oral LD50 = 1,500 mg/kg • Caused rapid paralysis and apparent death, but insects recovered. Not persistent. • Synthesized with other compounds for better kill, more staying power. Botanical Pesticides • Corn gluten meal, herbicide derived from corn milling, inhibits root formation on germinating seeds – Oral LD50 = nontoxic – Two applications per year of 20 lbs/1,000 ft2 – At this rate, 50‐60% control of weeds IPM Process Monitor Pest level threshhold Accurate ID Select control Evaluate Educate IPM Process Monitor Pest level threshhold Accurate ID Select control Evaluate Educate What do you do with all this Information? • Read / follow each label • Use PPE • Leave shoes at door • Wash yourself • Washing clothing How to minimize exposure • Application timing • Application method – Minimize drift – Maximize placement and retention to target • Formulation – G vs L • Re‐entry • Protective Equipment/Clothing
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X. References Albert, S.W. and C.R ... 1991. Bionomics and integrated pest management of commensal rodents. In: Gorham, ... J.K. Walfron, and D.A. Rutz ...
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