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Evaluation of the Finnish science, technology and innovation environment:  Evaluation of the Finnish science, technology and innovation environment DM 36054 and 218475 10-2006 Copyright © Tekes According to WEF, Finland was ranked second in competitiveness in 2006. Switzerland was ranked first, Sweden third and Denmark fourth. IMD ranks Finland 10th in overall competitiveness in 2006. The three most competitive countries were USA, Hong Kong and Singapore. Based on the Lisbon Review, Finland was the most competitive country in the EU in 2004, followed by Denmark and Sweden. The dimensions of the Lisbon diamond are information society, innovation and R&D, liberalisation, networked industries, financial services, enterprise environment, social inclusion and sustainable development. Based on the comparison of the European Commission in 2005, Finland was among the leading countries in investing into knowledge-based economy and performance of the economy. 1/2 Sources: WEF, The Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007; IMD, The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2005; The Lisbon Review 2004; EU, Key Figures 2005 on Science, Technology and Innovation Evaluation of the Finnish science, technology and innovation environment:  Evaluation of the Finnish science, technology and innovation environment 2/2 The European Innovation Scoreboard 2005 shows that Switzerland, Sweden, Finland, Denmark and Germany are the leading innovative countries in the EU. In the Canadian Performance and Potential 2005-2006 comparison, Finland was among the four gold medallist countries when OECD countries were compared in light of a large set of economic, societal and environmental indicators. In a comparison made by the University of United Nations, Finland was ranked second in overall ranking. Finland was also ranked second in education, technology and information indices. According to the OECD PISA 2003 study, young Finns were among the OECD top in mathematics, science and problem-solving. Finland's position in competitiveness comparisons has been good, but comparisons also show signs of weakening in competitiveness. For instance, GDP per capita in Finland is average among the developed countries. Sources: The European Innovation Scoreboard 2005; Performance and Potential 2005-06, The World of Canada, Trends Reshaping Our Future, 2005; United Nations University, The Millennium Project 2001; OECD, Program for International Student Assessment PISA 2003 DM 36054 and 218475 08-2006 Copyright © Tekes Finland in international comparisons – Well-being and sustainable development:  Finland in international comparisons – Well-being and sustainable development Well-being Assessment is a method of assessing sustainability that gives people and the ecosystem equal weight. The Well-being Index (WI) is the combination of indicators related to human well-being (HWI, Human Well-being Index) and ecosystem Well-being (EWI, Ecosystem Well-being Index). Published in 2001, The Well- being of Nations surveys 180 countries. In this comparison Sweden ranks 1st and Finland 2nd. The Environmental Sustainability Index (ESI) evaluates the ability of countries to protect the environment. Finland is ranked first in ESI 2005 comparison because of its good water and air quality, high level of science and technology and efficiency of environmental governance. Norway, Uruguay, Sweden and Iceland are the other top countries in the comparison of 146 countries. The Human Development Index (HDI) ranks 177 countries by a composite measure of life expectancy, education and income level. Norway is at the top of HDI 2004, followed by Sweden, Australia and Canada. Finland is ranked 13th. Sources: Robert Prescott-Allen (2001), The Well-being of Nations. A Country-by-Country Index of Quality of Life and the Environment; WEF: Yale and Columbia Universities: 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index; UNDP, Human Development Report 2004 DM 36054 03-2005 Copyright © Tekes Competitiveness:  Competitiveness DM 36054 10-2006 Copyright © Tekes Total ranking 2005-2006 Sources: IMD, The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2006 and WEF, The Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007 2005 2006 1 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 10 8 14 5 3 1 17 26 15 21 2 12 18 4 25 7 4 7 3 5 1 10 6 11 9 14 17 8 16 23 13 Switzerland Sweden Denmark Singapore USA Japan Germany Netherlands Great Britain Hong Kong Norway Taiwan Iceland Israel Canada Finland 2 2 WEF Global competitiveness 4 7 5 11 1 9 2 6 8 10 14 21 13 19 15 3 Competitiveness in technology and science:  Competitiveness in technology and science DM 36054 10-2006 Copyright © Tekes Sources: WEF, The Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007 and IMD, The World Competitiveness Yearbook 2005 Sweden Singapore Israel Iceland Switzerland Great Britain Australia USA Luxembourg Denmark Netherlands Hong Kong Taiwan Norway WEF Technology IMD Technology Science Finland Global competitiveness:  Global competitiveness Source: WEF, The Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007 Total index: points according to WEF DM 36054 10-2006 Copyright © Tekes The Global Competitiveness Index Technological readiness:  Technological readiness Points according to WEF Source: WEF, The Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007 DM 36054 and 216475 11-2006 Copyright © Tekes The Technological readiness index covers laws relating to ICT, technology transfer, foreign direct investments, mobile phones, internet users and personal computers. Innovation:  Innovation Points according to WEF Source: WEF, The Global Competitiveness Report 2006-2007 DM 36054 and 218475 11-2006 Copyright © Tekes The Innovation index covers quality of research institutions, company spending on R&D, university and industry research collaboration, availability of scientists and engineers, utility patents and intellectual property protection. Investment and performance in the knowledge-based economy :  Investment and performance in the knowledge-based economy Country positions in 2002 Performance level Investment level 6,5 6,0 5,5 5,0 4,5 4,0 3,5 3,0 2,5 2,0 2,5 3,0 3,5 4,0 4,5 5,0 5,5 Portugal Finland Sweden Denmark Germany Austria Netherlands Great Britain France Belgium Ireland EU 15 Italy Spain Greece DM 36054 08-2005 Copyright © Tekes Source: EU Key Figures 2005 on Science, Technology and Innovation Country performance: Finland:  Country performance: Finland The Lisbon Diamond DM 36054 03-2005 Copyright © Tekes Source: WEF, The Lisbon Review 2004 7.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 3.0 2.0 Ranking of EU countries:  Ranking of EU countries DM 36054 03-2005 Copyright © Tekes Denmark Sweden UK Netherlands Germany Luxembourg France Austria Belgium Ireland Spain Italy Portugal Greece Information society Innovation and R&D Liberalisation Financial services Enterprise Social inclusion Sustainable development Network industries 1 3 2 6 4 7 5 9 8 11 10 14 12 13 15 1 4 2 6 7 3 13 5 9 8 10 11 12 14 15 1 2 6 3 5 8 4 7 10 9 12 11 13 14 15 4 1 2 8 7 3 5 6 9 10 15 12 13 11 14 1 3 4 2 7 8 5 6 10 11 9 12 13 14 15 3 2 5 1 7 10 6 9 12 8 4 11 15 13 14 2 1 2 8 4 12 5 9 7 6 10 11 13 14 15 1 4 3 7 6 2 8 9 5 10 13 12 11 14 15 The Lisbon review Source: WEF, The Lisbon Review 2004 Finland Total rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Comparing USA and EU:  Comparing USA and EU The Lisbon scores Source: WEF, The Lisbon Review 2004 DM 36054 03-2005 Copyright © Tekes EIS 2004 - Summary Innovation Index:  EIS 2004 - Summary Innovation Index DM 36054 01-2005 Copyright © Tekes Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2004 EIS 2004 - Estimated aggregate innovation performances over time:  EIS 2004 - Estimated aggregate innovation performances over time EU 15, USA and Japan Aggregate innovation performance Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2004 Aggregate innovation performance DM 36054 01-2005 Copyright © Tekes Leading countries in EU R&D investments in some countries:  R&D investments in some countries Sources: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators and Statistics Finland Percentage of GDP 5.0 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 DM 36109, 36054 and 38065 11-2006 Copyright © Tekes Est. Israel Sweden FINLAND Japan Iceland South Korea USA Denmark Germany Austria OECD France Singapore Canada Great Britain Norway China Share of R&D activities funded by the public sector:  Share of R&D activities funded by the public sector Sources: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators and Statistics Finland DM 36109 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes % Norway France Netherlands Austria EU 15 Great Britain USA Germany OECD Ireland FINLAND Denmark Sweden Japan Share of corporate R&D activities funded by the public sector:  Share of corporate R&D activities funded by the public sector % Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators. Finland 2003: Statistics Finland. DM 36109 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes France Norway USA EU15 OECD Great Britain Germany Sweden Netherlands FINLAND Canada Denmark Ireland Japan Total R&D funding in 2004:  Total R&D funding in 2004 Source: Eurostat DM 36109 and 36054 11-2006 Copyright © Tekes Percentage of GDP *) 2003 Public sector’s share of total R&D funding in 2003:  DM 36109 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes Public sector’s share of total R&D funding in 2003 Source: Eurostat % Companies’ share of total R&D funding in 2003:  Companies’ share of total R&D funding in 2003 DM 36109 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes Source: Eurostat % SMEs' share of corporate R&D:  SMEs' share of corporate R&D % DM 36109 and 36054 08-2005 Copyright © Tekes Source: EU Key Figures 2005 on Science, Technology and Innovation 2002 2001 2000 1999 1998 Services sector's share of corporate R&D:  Services sector's share of corporate R&D Source: EU Key Figures 2005 on Science, Technology and Innovation DM 36109 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes % 2001 2002 2003 Foreign affiliates’ share of total R&D funding in 2003:  Foreign affiliates’ share of total R&D funding in 2003 DM 36109 and 36054 11-2006 Copyright © Tekes Sources: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators and Eurostat Industrial R&D according to technology intensity :  Industrial R&D according to technology intensity Technology groups according to the OECD definition. DM 36109 and 36054 08-2005 Copyright © Tekes Source: EU Key Figures 2005 on Science, Technology and Innovation 1) 2003 2) 2002 3) 2001 Public funding for R&D in companies:  Public funding for R&D in companies Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators DM 36109, 36054, 58774 and 218475 09-2006 Copyright © Tekes % Public funding for R&D in companies in Finland is low in international comparison. Canada, Germany, Finland, USA = 2004, others = 2003 Public funding for R&D in companies:  Public funding for R&D in companies Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators DM 36054, 36109 and 58774 05-2005 Copyright © Tekes Share of corporate R&D in 2002 % 1) 2001 SMEs’ share of public funding of corporate R&D:  SMEs’ share of public funding of corporate R&D % DM 36054 and 58774 08-2004 Copyright © Tekes Source: EU, Science, Technology and Innovation Key Figures 2003-2004 Business enterprises funding of public R&D expenditure:  Business enterprises funding of public R&D expenditure DM 36109, 36054, 58774 and 218475 09-2006 Copyright © Tekes % Sources: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators Business enterprises funding of public R&D expenditure is above international averages in Finland. Alleviation of taxes for industrial R&D:  Alleviation of taxes for industrial R&D Percent of corporate R&D DM 36054 and 218475 08-2006 Copyright © Tekes % Source: OECD R&D investment in the state budget:  R&D investment in the state budget DM 36054 06-2005 Copyright © Tekes % Source: OECD Main Science and Technology Indicators Numbers from 2001-2004 SMEs participating in innovation cooperation:  SMEs participating in innovation cooperation % DM 36109, 36054, 58774, and 218475 09-2006 Copyright © Tekes Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2004 Industrial SMEs participating in R&D cooperation:  Industrial SMEs participating in R&D cooperation Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2003 % DM 58774, 36054 and 36109 08-2004 Copyright © Tekes Service sector SMEs participating in R&D cooperation:  Service sector SMEs participating in R&D cooperation % Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2003 DM 58774, 36054 and 36109 08-2004 Copyright © Tekes Innovating companies:  Innovating companies Source: B. Tether et al., 2001 Share of innovating companies of all companies and share of innovating large companies of all large companies (in bold) in EU in 1994-1996. DM 36109 and 36054 10-2004 Copyright © Tekes R&D activity:  R&D activity Source: B. Tether et al., 2001 Share of companies practicing R&D of all innovating companies in EU. DM 36109 and 36054 10-2004 Copyright © Tekes R&D expenditure in relation to value added and the share of high technology of exports:  Share of high technology of exports, % R&D intensity, % R&D expenditure in relation to value added and the share of high technology of exports DM 36054 and 36109 08-2004 Copyright © Tekes Source: OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2003 Share of R&D and turnover of foreign affiliates in manufacturing in 2001:  Share of R&D and turnover of foreign affiliates in manufacturing in 2001 Share of R&D expenditure Ireland Hungary Portugal Canada Spain Sweden Nether- lands Great Britain France Poland USA Czechia Germany Finland Turkey Japan % Source: OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2003 % Share of turnover DM 36109 and 36054 08-2004 Copyright © Tekes Patents in Europe and in the United States:  Patents in Europe and in the United States DM 36052, 36054 and 218475 09-2006 Copyright © Tekes Sources: Eurostat, structural indicators, USPTO and the European Patent Office (Est.). Patents and applications for patents per million inhabitants in 2004 Figure for European applications in the EU from 2002 and figure for patents in the US from 2004. European applications for patents (EPO):  European applications for patents (EPO) Applications per million inhabitants in 2002 DM 36052 and 36054 09-2004 Copyright © Tekes Source: OECD, Eurostat 2002 Great Britain European applications for patents (EPO):  European applications for patents (EPO) EU Netherlands Germany Sweden France FINLAND Ireland USA Italy Japan Norway Sources: European Innovation Scoreboard (1998-2002) and European Patent Office (2003-2004) * 2003 and 2004 are estimates based on information from EPO. Switzerland DM 31696 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes Applications per million inhabitants Applications for high technology patents in Europe:  Applications for high technology patents in Europe Source: OECD, Eurostat 2002 DM 36052 and 36054 09-2004 Copyright © Tekes Applications per million inhabitants in 2002 High technology EPO patent applications:  High technology EPO patent applications DM 36052 and 36054 08-2004 Copyright © Tekes Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2004 Great Britain Finland Sweden Netherlands USA Germany Japan Denmark EU France Ireland Austria Applications for patents per million inhabitants in 2002 Patents granted in high technology in the United States:  Source: OECD and Eurostat DM 36052 and 36054 12-2004 Copyright © Tekes Patents granted in high technology in the United States Patents granted per million inhabitants in 2002 Patents granted in the United States:  Patents granted in the United States DM 36052 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes Patents granted per million inhabitants in 2004 * = 2002 Sources: Eurostat, Structural indicators and USPTO 2002-2004 Patents granted in the United States:  Patents granted in the United States Sources: Eurostat, Structural indicators and USPTO 2002-2004 DM 36052 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes Patents granted per million inhabitants EU Norway Ireland USA Japan France Netherlands Germany Sweden FINLAND Denmark Switzerland Number of triadic patents per working age population and business-sector R&D intensity:  Number of triadic patents per working age population and business-sector R&D intensity Source: OECD, Main Science and Technology Indicators 2006 Number of triadic patents per million of working age population in 2001*) Business-sector R&D intensity, per cent of GDP in 2003 % *) Australia and Austria 2002 DM 36052, 36054 and 218475 09-2006 Copyright © Tekes 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 Public educational expenses in 2002:  Public educational expenses in 2002 % DM 36054 06-2005 Copyright © Tekes Percent of GDP Source: Eurostat Public university level educational expenses in 2001:  Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2004 Public university level educational expenses in 2001 DM 36054 06-2005 Copyright © Tekes Percent of GDP Covers public expenditure on educational institutions and public subsidies to households. 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 % Public and private university level educational expenses in 2001:  Public and private university level educational expenses in 2001 % 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 DM 36054 06-2005 Copyright © Tekes Percent of GDP Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2004 University level educational expenses per student in 2001:  University level educational expenses per student in 2001 Source: OECD Education at a Glance 2004 DM 36054 06-2005 Copyright © Tekes Dollars (corrected for purchasing power) Foreign PhD students:  Foreign PhD students Foreign PhD students as a percentage of total PhD enrolment in 2001 % DM 36054 01-2005 Copyright © Tekes 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 % Switzerland Great Britain Belgium USA Australia Sweden Denmark *) Canada **) Norway Austria Iceland Spain New Zealand Czechia Portugal **) FINLAND Turkey *) Slovakia Korea Mexico Italy *) 1999 **) 2000 Source: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook, 2004 Exports´ share of GDP in 2003:  Exports´ share of GDP in 2003 Source: Statistics Finland. DM 32186 and 36054 05-2005 Copyright © Tekes % *= 2002 Share of high tech exports in some OECD countries:  Exports of Finnish high tech products totalled 11.2 billion euros in 2005, i.e. 21.3 % of total exports of goods. Source: The National Board of Customs Share of high tech exports in some OECD countries Norway DM 32186 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes USA Great Britain Switzerland Japan Netherlands FINLAND France EU 15 Germany Denmark Sweden % of total exports of goods Figures are based on structural statistics on industrial companies and information from The National Board of Customs and the OECD. Share of high tech exports in some EU countries:  Exports of Finnish high tech products totalled 11.2 billion euros in 2005, i.e. 21.3 % of total exports of goods. Share of high tech exports in some EU countries DM 32186 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes Ireland Great Britain FINLAND France Netherlands EU 15 Austria Germany Denmark Sweden Estonia Italy Spain Norway Sources: The National Board of Customs and Eurostat Figures are based on information from Customs and Intrastat. % of total exports of goods Innovation inputs and outputs:  Innovation inputs and outputs DM 36054 and 218475 08-2006 Copyright © Tekes Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2005 According to indicators used by the EU, innovation inputs produce outputs in line with expectations in Finland. According to the new calculation method implemented by Statistics Finland in 2006, the annual level of Finland’s nominal GDP is ca. 1.5% higher than presented in these international comparisons. Correlation between innovation and GDP per capita:  Correlation between innovation and GDP per capita DM 36054 and 218475 08-2006 Copyright © Tekes Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2005 GDP per capita 2003, EU 25 = 100 Summary Innovation Index GDP per capita in Finland has lagged behind due to the recession of the early 1990s. 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 GDP per capita in 2006:  GDP per capita in 2006 Sources Maddison (2003); IMF and ETLA DM 36054, 36095 and 218475 11-2006 Copyright © Tekes USD, international prices in 2004 0 10,000 20,000 30,000 40,000 Volume index of industrial production:  Volume index of industrial production DM 36097, 36054 and 218475 08-2006 Copyright © Tekes Sources: Eurostat, Statistics Finland, 12 month moving average 1995=100 Industrial production has grown faster in Finland than in other developed nations. Volume index of industrial production:  Volume index of industrial production DM 36054 08-2005 Copyright © Tekes 2000=100 Source: Eurostat FINLAND EU 15 Japan Great Britain 2) USA Netherlands 1) Germany Sweden Ireland France 1) Prel. from 2003 2) Estimates Total productivity in some OECD countries:  Total productivity in some OECD countries Average annual growth, percent % DM 36097 and 36054 11-2006 Copyright © Tekes Source: OECD Productivity database The comparison is based on figures harmonized by prices of ICT products. Growth in labour productivity 1990-2004:  Growth in labour productivity 1990-2004 Source: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2005 % GDP per hour worked, annual change The whole national economy DM 36097, 36054 and 218475 11-2006 Copyright © Tekes 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 Labour productivity:  Labour productivity DM 36097 and 36054 06-2005 Copyright © Tekes Source: Statistics Finland GDP per hour worked, USA 2004 = 100 Labour productivity - GDP per hour worked 2002:  Labour productivity - GDP per hour worked 2002 Euros Corrected for purchasing power at going rates DM 36097 and 36054 12-2004 Copyright © Tekes Source: EU: Science, Technology and Innovation-Key Figures 2003-2004 *) 2001 Income and productivity levels in 2005:  Income and productivity levels in 2005 Percentage gap with respect to US GDP per capita = + -70 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 0 10 -30 -20 -10 0 10 1. Based on hours worked per capita. Source: OECD Compendium of Productivity Indicators, 2006 DM 3609, 36054 and 218475 11-2006 Copyright © Tekes Effect of labour 1 utilisation Percentage gap with respect to US GDP per hour worked Norway Ireland Switzerland Iceland Netherlands Denmark Canada Australia Austria Sweden Belgium Great Britain Finland Japan France Germany OECD Italy Spain New Zealand Greece South Korea Czechia Portugal Hungary Contribution to labour productivity growth by branch:  Contribution to labour productivity growth by branch Source: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2005 % DM 36097, 36054 and 218475 08-2006 Copyright © Tekes GDP per hour worked, annual change Average annual growth 1995-2003 -1.0 -0.5 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 Contribution of key sectors to labour productivity growth :  Contribution of key sectors to labour productivity growth DM 36097 and 36054 01-2006 Copyright © Tekes Contribution to average annual growth rates, 1990-2003 (Non-agricultural business sector) % Source: OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2005 4.5 3.5 2.5 1.5 0.5 -0.5 Labour productivity in industry:  Labour productivity in industry Source: GGDC, Groningen University, October 2005 Real value added per hour worked 1980-2003 Euro/hour worked In real prices, non-EU nations at 1999 exchange rates DM 36097, 36054 and 218475 09-2006 Copyright © Tekes Contribution of foreign affiliates to turnover and employment in manufacturing:  Contribution of foreign affiliates to turnover and employment in manufacturing DM 36054 01-2005 Copyright © Tekes Source: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook, 2004 80 60 40 20 0 % 0 10 20 30 40 50 % Share of foreign affiliates in manufacturing turnover Share of foreign affiliates in manufacturing employment 1) 2002, 2) 2000, 3) 1999, 4) 1997 1) 2002, 2) 2000, 3) 1999, 4) 1997 4) 3) 2) 1) 1) 2) 2) 3) 3) 4) 3) 2) 1) 1) 2) 2) 3) 3) 2001 Growth in turnover and employment of foreign affiliates in manufacturing:  Growth in turnover and employment of foreign affiliates in manufacturing Average annual growth rate, 1995-2001 DM 36054 01-2005 Copyright © Tekes Source: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Outlook, 2004 Venture capital investments in seed and start-up phases:  Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2004 Venture capital investments in seed and start-up phases 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1.0 DM 36104 and 36054 03-2005 Copyright © Tekes Average 2002-2003 Per thousand of GDP Venture capital investments:  Venture capital investments Average 2000-2003 Source: OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2005 DM 36104 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes Percent of GDP 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 High-tech venture capital investments:  High-tech venture capital investments DM 36104 and 36054 06-2005 Copyright © Tekes Per cent of total capital investments in 2003 Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2004 % Reserve of direct foreign investments:  Reserve of direct foreign investments Source: Invest in Finland % of GDP Sweden EU 25 Finland All nations United States DM 36054 and 218475 11-2006 Copyright © Tekes Enterprise survival rates:  Enterprise survival rates DM 90614 and 36054 04-2004 Copyright © Tekes % Source: OECD Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2003 -Towards a knowledge-based economy Entry and exit rates:  Entry and exit rates DM 36054 08-2004 Copyright © Tekes Exit rate Average 1997-2001 Entry rate Italy Portugal Spain Sweden Netherlands Great Britain Denmark Finland Belgium % % Industry Business services Exit rate Entry rate Portugal % % Belgium Source: OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2003 Great Britain Denmark Netherlands Spain Sweden Finland GDP and the Well-being Index :  GDP and the Well-being Index GDP per capita in 1999, (corrected for purchasing power) in US dollars Sources: Robert Prescott-Allen (2001): The Wellbeing of Nations: A Country-by-Country Index of Quality of Life and the Environment; Human Development Report 2001. The United Nations Development Program. WI=Well-being Index DM 36054 and 218475 08-2006 Copyright © Tekes Finland has had better success than other industrialised nations in combining higher income levels with well-being. Environmental sustainability index:  Environmental sustainability index DM 36054 03-2005 Copyright © Tekes Source: WEF, Yale and Columbia Universities: 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index Environmental quality and growth competitiveness:  Sources: WEF: Global Competitiveness Report 2005-2006; WEF, Yale and Columbia universities: 2005 Environmental Sustainability Index Environmental quality and growth competitiveness DM 36054 and 218475 09-2006 Copyright © Tekes ESI index (2005) Growth Competitiveness Ranking (2004) ESI = Environmental Sustainability Index In Finland, investment in the quality of the environment and competitiveness complement one another. Globalisation of countries:  Source: A.T. Kearney & Foreign Policy Magazine: Globalization Index Globalisation of countries DM 36054 05-2005 Copyright © Tekes Globalisation index measures the economic integration, technical connections, personal contacts and political cooperation in the country. Czechia Great Britain New Zealand Netherlands Switzerland Ranking in 2005 Singapore Croatia Norway Australia Sweden Denmark Austria USA Canada Finland Ireland Gender equality:  Canada New Zealand Netherlands Sweden Gender equality DM 36053 06-2005 Copyright © Tekes Source: WEF: Women's Empowerment: Measuring the Global Gender Gap Estonia France Great Britain Germany Denmark Finland Iceland Norway Australia Latvia Lithuania Ranking in 2005 The Global Gender Gap measures the extent of gender equality in economic and political participation, education, health and well-being. Countries with the least corruption:  Countries with the least corruption DM 36054 11-2006 Copyright © Tekes Source: Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2006 No corruption Totally corrupted Grade in 2006 IT-expenditures in percent of GDP:  IT-expenditures in percent of GDP In 2004 DM 36095 and 36054 03-2006 Copyright © Tekes Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2005 Broadband penetration rate:  Broadband penetration rate Per 100 inhabitants in 2004 Source: European Innovation Scoreboard 2005 DM 36095 and 36054 08-2006 Copyright © Tekes Size and growth of the ICT sector:  Size and growth of the ICT sector % Share of ICT value added in business sector value added in 2000 DM 36054 11-2004 Copyright © Tekes * 1999 ** 2001 Source: OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2003 Contribution of the ICT sector to employment :  Contribution of the ICT sector to employment % Share of the ICT sector in business sector employment in 2000 DM 36054 11-2004 Copyright © Tekes * 1999 ** 2001 Source: OECD, Science, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2003 ICT investment by asset in OECD countries:  ICT investment by asset in OECD countries Percentage of non-residential gross fixed capital formation, total economy % Source: OECD, Technology and Industry Scoreboard 2003 DM 36054 11-2004 Copyright © Tekes Pick-up in MFP growth and increase in ICT investment:  Pick-up in MFP growth and increase in ICT investment Source: OECD, Database on Capital Services and OECD, MFP growth DM 36054 11-2004 Copyright © Tekes Impact of access costs to diffusion of the Internet:  Impact of access costs to diffusion of the Internet Source: OECD and Telcordia Technologies DM 36054 11-2004 Copyright © Tekes Average price for 20 hours Internet access, in PPP dollars Internet hosts per 1 000 inhabitants, July 2001 Australia Austria Belgium Canada Czechia Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Iceland Ireland Italy Japan Korea Netherlands New Zealand Norway Poland Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey UK USA OECD Countries with low access costs have a greater diffusion of the Internet. Development of online services:  Development of online services 2003 2001 % Enabling two-way interaction Source: Cap Gemini Ernst & Young, Online availability of public services: How does Europe progress? DM 36095 and 36054 03-2005 Copyright © Tekes Overall maturity scores of eGovernment:  Overall maturity scores of eGovernment Source: Accenture 2004, eGovernment Leadership: High Performance, Maximum Value DM 36095 and 36054 03-2005 Copyright © Tekes The eEurope 2005 index:  The eEurope 2005 index Source: Insead/SAP 2004, eEurope 2005 The eEurope 2005 index is calculated from indicators on Internet usage, public on-line services, eCommerce activities, information security and broadband usage. DM 36095 and 36054 03-2005 Copyright © Tekes Inclination for entrepreneurship:  Inclination for entrepreneurship % Willingness for self-employment DM 36054 04-2005 Copyright © Tekes Source: Flash Eurobarometer 160, 2004 The survey is based on approx. 21 000 telephone interviews Cross-national comparisons in total entrepreneurial activity:  Cross-national comparisons in total entrepreneurial activity GEM 2004 DM 36054 12-2005 Copyright © Tekes % of adults Source: Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) 2004

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