Insomnia 1

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Information about Insomnia 1

Published on November 28, 2007

Author: Elliott


Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia:  Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Insomnia Martita Lopez, Ph.D. Department of Psychology University of Texas at Austin Sleep stages:  Sleep stages We cycle through the stages of sleep about every 90 minutes during the night, in the same order Most dreaming occurs during the second half of the night, as REM sleep lasts longer and longer Stage 1: Very light sleep Stage 2: Light sleep Stage 3: Deeper sleep Stage 4: Very deep sleep, most restorative Stage 5: REM sleep, when we dream Sleep throughout life:  Sleep throughout life Childhood and adolescence Sleep needs range from 18 hrs a day for infants to about 9 hrs a day for teenagers Adulthood Amount of deep sleep drops dramatically between age 20 and 40, and average sleep time is 7.5 hours Women’s reproductive cycles affect sleep Especially pregnancy (sleepier first trimester) Also affected by menstrual cycle (sleepier second half of cycle) Sleep in middle age:  Sleep in middle age Sleep becomes lighter and nighttime awakenings become more frequent and last longer Often wake up after 3 hours of sleep Menopause may lead to hot flashes that interrupt sleep repeatedly Breathing problems may begin, especially among overweight people Physically active adults sleep more soundly than their sedentary peers. About 20% of sleep time is spent in dreaming Sleep among older adults:  Sleep among older adults Little deep sleep, but dreaming still 20% Dozens of awakenings during the night Falling asleep takes longer Despite the above, over a 24-hour period older adults accumulate the same amount of total sleep as younger people Older adults more likely to nap during the day Older adults do need the same amount of sleep as they did when they were younger Insomnia: A common sleep problem:  Insomnia: A common sleep problem People with insomnia may have Trouble falling asleep Many awakenings during the night, with difficulty going back to sleep Fitful sleep Daytime drowsiness During the day, people with insomnia may be Anxious and irritable Forgetful, with difficulty concentrating Types of Insomnia:  Types of Insomnia Transient: Less than 2 weeks Intermittent: Repetitive episodes of transient insomnia Chronic: Continuing difficulty with sleep Chronic insomnia:  Chronic insomnia Complaint of poor sleep causing distress or impairment for 6 months or longer Average less than 6.5 hours sleep per day Or 3 episodes per week of: Taking longer than 30 minutes to fall asleep Waking up during the night for at least an hour Not accounted for by another sleep disorder, mental disorder, medical condition or substance use. How common is insomnia?:  How common is insomnia? More than half of adults in the U.S. said they experienced insomnia at least a few nights a week during the past year Nearly one-third said they had insomnia nearly every night Increases with age The most frequent health complaint after pain Twice as common in women as in men Conditions that can cause insomnia:  Conditions that can cause insomnia Hyperthyroidism Arthritis or any other painful condition Chronic lung or kidney disease Cardiovascular disease (heart failure, CAD) Heartburn (GERD) Neurological disorders (epilepsy, Alzheimer’s, headaches, stroke, tumors, Parkinson’s Disease) Diabetes Menopause Common drugs that can cause insomnia:  Common drugs that can cause insomnia Alcohol Caffeine/chocolate Nicotine/nicotine patch Beta blockers Calcium channel blockers Bronchodilators Corticosteroids Decongestants Antidepressants Thyroid hormones Anticonvulsants High blood pressure medications Additional Causes:  Additional Causes Psychiatric disorders Especially phobias and panic attacks, bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia Poor sleep habits Shift work Other sleep disorders Circadian rhythm disorders Restless legs syndrome Periodic limb movement disorder Sleep apnea Consequences of insomnia:  Consequences of insomnia Decreases in mental performance and motor functioning Accidents Inability to accomplish daily tasks Mood disturbance More sadness, depression, and anxiety Interpersonal difficulties With families, friends, and at work Sleeping pills:  Sleeping pills Most common treatment approach Drowsiness common the next day NOT meant for chronic insomnia Effective for short-term (a couple weeks) insomnia only Tolerance and dependency may develop Withdrawal, rebound, relapse may occur But commonly used, despite the above 5-10% of adults have used a benzodiazepine in past year as a sleep aid 10-20% of those over age 65 use sleeping pills Non-drug treatments:  Non-drug treatments Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) Stimulus control Cognitive therapy Sleep restriction Relaxation training Sleep hygiene How to keep track of your sleep:  How to keep track of your sleep Daily sleep diary or sleep log Bedtime Falling asleep time Nighttime awakenings Time to get back to sleep Waking up time Getting out of bed time Naps Cognitive Therapy:  Cognitive Therapy Identify beliefs about sleep that are incorrect Challenge their truthfulness Substitute realistic thoughts False beliefs about insomnia:  False beliefs about insomnia Misconceptions about causes of insomnia “Insomnia is a normal part of aging.” Unrealistic expectations re: sleep needs “I must have 8 hours of sleep each night.” Faulty beliefs about insomnia consequences “Insomnia can make me sick or cause a mental breakdown.” Misattributions of daytime impairments “I’ve had a bad day because of my insomnia.” I can’t have a normal day after a sleepless night.” More common myths about insomnia:  More common myths about insomnia Misconceptions about control and predictability of sleep “I can’t predict when I’ll sleep well or badly.” Myths about what behaviors lead to good sleep “When I have trouble getting to sleep, I should stay in bed and try harder.” Sleep Restriction - best if done with a professional:  Sleep Restriction - best if done with a professional Cut bedtime to the actual amount of time you spend asleep (not in bed), but no less than 4 hours per night No additional sleep is allowed outside these hours Record on your daily sleep log the actual amount of sleep obtained Sleep Restriction (cont’d):  Sleep Restriction (cont’d) Compute sleep efficiency (total time asleep divided by total time in bed) Based on average of 5 nights’ sleep efficiency, increase sleep time by 15 minutes if efficiency is >85% With elderly, increase sleep time if efficiency >80% and allow 30 minute nap. Stimulus Control - You can do this on your own:  Stimulus Control - You can do this on your own Go to bed only when sleepy Use the bed only for sleeping If unable to sleep, move to another room Return to bed only when sleepy Repeat the above as often as necessary Get up at the same time every morning Do not nap Relaxation training:  Relaxation training More effective than no treatment, but not as effective as sleep restriction More useful with younger compared with older adults Engage in any activities that you find relaxing shortly before bed or while in bed Can include listening to a relaxation tape, soothing music, muscle relaxation exercises, a pleasant image Healthy sleep habits (sleep hygiene):  Healthy sleep habits (sleep hygiene) Avoid alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, chocolate For several hours before bedtime Cut down on non-sleeping time in bed Bed only for sleep and satisfying sex Avoid trying to sleep You can’t make yourself sleep, but you can set the stage for sleep to occur naturally Avoid a visible bedroom clock with a lighted dial Don’t let yourself repeatedly check the time! Can turn the clock around or put it under the bed More healthy sleep habits:  More healthy sleep habits Expose yourself to bright light at the right time Morning, if you have trouble falling asleep at night Night, if you want to stay awake longer at night Establish a regular sleep schedule Get up at the same time 7 days a week Go to bed at the same time each night Exercise every day - exercise improves sleep! Deal with your worries before bedtime Plan for the next day before bedtime Set a worry time earlier in the evening More healthy sleep habits:  More healthy sleep habits Adjust the bedroom environment Sleep is better in a cool room, around 65 F. Darker is better If you get up during the night to use the bathroom, use minimum light Use a white noise machine or a fan to drown out other sounds Make sure your bed and pillow are comfortable If you have a partner who snores, kicks, etc., you may have to move to another bed (try white noise first)

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