Insight into reality: how things exist according to the Buddha.

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Information about Insight into reality: how things exist according to the Buddha.
Spiritual

Published on January 29, 2014

Author: kerryprest

Source: slideshare.net

Description

The root of all problems according to the Buddha is a fundamental mis-apprehension of how things actually exist. This is a brief overview of the Special Insight chapter of Tibetan Master Lama Tsongkhapa's "lamrim dring".

This talk was give at the Sawarswati Buddhist Group, in 2013.

See more at my YouTube channel here:
http://www.youtube.com/channel/UC3rtfBolaQvoY8Ffom0uBKg

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INSIGHT INTO REALITY Saraswati Buddhist Group June 2013

WHY STUDY EMPTINESS? Small scope Middle scope Great scope Tantra

“I CAN CHANGE, I CAN CHANGE” 1) Afflictions are based on wrong views 2) Antidotes can be developed limitlessly 3) All beings possess buddha nature

BRIEF PRESENTATION OF THE TATHAGATA ESSENCE Vs27: Because a perfect Buddha’s body is pervasive, Because suchness is without differentiation, And because a [Buddha] lineage exists, all embodied Are always in possession of a Buddha essence.

How to train in special insight, the essence of wisdom a) Prerequisites for special insight b) Divisions of special insight c) How to cultivate special insight d) The measure of having established special insight How calm abiding and special insight unite

SOURCE OF THE TRADITION

SOURCE OF THE TRADITION Shakyamuni Buddha Nagarjuna Disciple: Aryadeva Buddhapalita Bhavivaveka (SSM) Refuted C Said external objects exist in conventional terms Shantarakshita (YSM) Said external objects do not exist in conventional terms + mind ultimately without IE [but conventionally it is IE] Chandrakirti commenting on… Said external objects exist conventionally but not like other systems Atisha AUTONOMISTS - CONSEQUENTIALISTS Terms used by Tibetan scholars in later dissemination of Buddhism in Tibet MIDDLE WAY DIVIDED BY: • Asserting external objects (SSM & PM) • Not asserting external objects (YSM) or • How the view is ascertained (SM & PM) Kadampa Masters Je Tsongkhapa

HOW TO DELINEATE THE VIEW

How to delineate the view a) Identifying afflictive ignorance b) Showing it is the root of revolving in cyclic existence c) Showing that one wishing to abandon the apprehension of a self should seek the view of selflessness

IDENTIFYING AFFLICTIVE IGNORANCE Identify anger = able to apply an antidote Identify pride = able to apply an antidote Don’t identify ignorance = not able to apply an antidote

IGNORANCE WISDOM

IGNORANCE A consciousness apprehending a self of 1) Person 2) Phenomena How? To conceive that things exist inherently

CHANDRAKIRTI’S COMMENTARY “Those which exist only when the conceptuality [apprehending them] exists and do not exist when conceptuality does not are without question definite as not established by way of their own nature, like a snake imputed to a coiled rope.”

EXISTING AS ITS OWN REALITY IMPUTED BY CONCEPTUALITY

LAMA TSONGKHAPA “the object of negation – is to conceive [that objects] are not posited through the force of beginningless conceptuality but are established objectively by way of their own entity”

CONCEIVED OBJECT OF IGNORANCE “inherent existence” “self” OBSERVED OBJECT OF IGNORANCE “self” “mere I” “mind basis of all”

CONCEIVED OBJECT OF IGNORANCE “inherent existence” “self” Non-existence of that in person = ? Non-existence of that in phenomena = ?

SELF OF PERSON GRASPING AT A SELF OF PERSON

How to delineate the view a) Identifying afflictive ignorance b) Showing it is the root of revolving in cyclic existence c) Showing that one wishing to abandon the apprehension of a self should seek the view of selflessness

EYE, EAR, NOSE, TONGUE “abide in dependence on the body sense power” ATTACHMENT, ANGER, PRIDE etc. “operate in dependence on innate ignorance”

IGNORANCE HOLDS THE OBJECT TO BE ESTABLISHED BY WAY OF ITS OWN CHARACTER If apprehension If apprehension If apprehension agreeable disagreeable neither ANGER CONTINUATION OF SAME IGNORANCE DESIRE

How to delineate the view a) Identifying afflictive ignorance b) Showing it is the root of revolving in cyclic existence c) Showing that one wishing to abandon the apprehension of a self should seek the view of selflessness

REMOVING A THORN REALISING THE NON-EXISTENCE OF THE OBJECT AS IT IS APPREHENDED

Overcome ignorance LIBERATION Overcome unrealistic thinking Overcome afflictions Powerless rebirth overcome Actions motivated by afflictions are overcome “unerringly seek the view realising selflessness”

HOW TO GENERATE THE VIEW

How to generate the view a) The order of realisation b) Actual generation of the two views a) Selflessness of persons b) Selflessness of phenomena c) Presentation of the two truths

NAGARJUNA “As long as the aggregates are apprehended [as inherently established], So long thereby does the apprehension of “I” [as inherently established] exist.”

ENTERING INTO THE VIEW APPREHENSION OF A VIEW OF SELF OF PHENOMENA VIEW OF A SELFLESSNESS OF PERSON APPREHENSION OF A VIEW OF PERSON VIEW REALISING SELFLESSNESS OF PHENOMENA

How to generate the view a) The order of realisation b) Actual generation of the two views a) Selflessness of persons b) Selflessness of phenomena c) Presentation of the two truths

THE FOUR ESSENTIALS Reason of inherently one or different 1) Ascertaining the object of negation 2) Establishing the pervasion 3) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently one 4) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently different

• “I didn’t do that!” • “I really made a mess of things” • Getting angry at your body or mind • Something wonderful happened to you

SELF-INSTITUTING CONCRETE NEITHER MIND NOR BODY SOLID

THE FOUR ESSENTIALS Reason of inherently one or different 1) Ascertaining the object of negation 2) Establishing the pervasion 3) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently one 4) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently different

LAMA TSONGKHAPA “…the decision that if a person is inherently established, it must be established as either one entity with or a different entity from the aggregates and that there is no mode of establishment other than those two.”

THE FOUR ESSENTIALS Reason of inherently one or different 1) Ascertaining the object of negation 2) Establishing the pervasion 3) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently one 4) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently different

Self and the aggregates become synonyms  Assumer and discarder of the aggregates becomes unfeasible.  “my body” “my leg” “my mind” would be illogical  When the body ceases, the self would cease to exist

Many aggregates = many selves  Or then if the self is one, then the mind and body (plural) would become one.

Self would have production and disintegration  Present moments couldn’t depend on former moments. Past lives would be impossible.  Actions done would be wasted  One would meet with effects of actions not done by oneself

THE FOUR ESSENTIALS Reason of inherently one or different 1) Ascertaining the object of negation 2) Establishing the pervasion 3) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently one 4) Refuting that the self and the aggregates are inherently different

It would not have the characteristics of impermanent phenomena  Therefore the self would be permanent

If it is not the body and mind, it would have to be observed as something else

CONCLUSION There is no inherent self one with the aggregates There is no inherent self different from the aggregates “A person does not in the least have inherent establishment.” Pg. 84

CONCLUSION In addition, there can be no inherently existing “mine” Potter doesn’t exist The pot made by that potter can’t exist

APPEARANCE REALITY

LAMA TSONGKHAPA “Because all actions, agents and objects are feasible, this is not an annihilatory emptiness.”

LAMA TSONGKHAPA “Also, because phenomena, which from the primordial start have been empty in this way, are just being known as empty, this is also not a mentally fabricated emptiness.”

LAMA TSONGKHAPA “Furthermore, since all objects of knowledge are asserted this way, it is not a partial emptiness.”

LAMA TSONGKHAPA “It is not that the meaning of the profound [emptiness] is not suitable to be the object of any awareness.”

DEPENDENTARISINGS LACKING INHERENT EXISTENCE

How to generate the view a) The order of realisation b) Actual generation of the two views a) Selflessness of persons b) Selflessness of phenomena c) Presentation of the two truths

PHENOMENA • Five aggregates • Six elements • Six sense powers

PHENOMENA REASON OF INHERENTLY ONE OR DIFFERENT • Physical • • Directional parts, etc. Mental • Temporal parts

QUESTIONS OF ANAVATAPTA KING OF NAGAS SUTRA “Those which are produced from [causes and] conditions are not produced; They have no inherent nature of production. [Therefore] those which rely on [causes and] conditions are said [by the Conqueror] to be empty…”

DEPENDENT INDEPENDENT

RELYING ON CAUSES & CONDITIONS ABLE TO SET ITSELF UP UNDER ITS OWN POWER

NIHILISM Object of negation not delineated and gone too far SUPERIMPOSITION Object of negation not delineated and not gone far enough

SYLLOGISM THESIS SUBJECT PREDICATE five aggregates lack inherent existence REASON because they are a dependent arising

SYLLOGISM THESIS SUBJECT PREDICATE five aggregates lack inherent existence REMOVES EXTREME OF REIFICATION REASON because they are a dependent arising REMOVES EXTREME OF NIHILISM

REASON OF DEPENDENT-ARISING REFUTES APPREHENSIONS OF… • Oneness & difference • Four extreme types of production • Extremes of reification & nihilism

INHERENT EXISTENCE MERE EXISTENCE

ABSENCE OF EXISTENCE BY WAY OF ITS OWN CHARACTER NON-EXISTENCE

LOWER SCHOOLS IF IT EXISTS IF IT IS NOT INHERENTLY EXISTENT MUST BE INHERENTLY EXISTENT MUST BE NON-EXISTENT

How to generate the view a) The order of realisation b) Actual generation of the two views a) Selflessness of persons b) Selflessness of phenomena c) Presentation of the two truths

THE TWO TRUTHS a) The basis on which the two truths are divided b) The number of divisions c) The meaning of dividing them that way d) Explaining the meaning of the individual divisions a) Obscurational truth b) Ultimate truth

OBSCURATIONAL TRUTH a) Meanings of kun-dzob and den-pa b) Definition c) Divisions

ULTIMATE TRUTH a) Meanings of dön-dam and den-pa b) Definition c) Divisions

OBSCURATIONAL TRUTH Truth for a consciousness apprehending true existence ULTIMATE TRUTH True means non-deceptive

How to train in special insight, the essence of wisdom a) Prerequisites for special insight b) Divisions of special insight c) How to cultivate special insight d) The measure of having established special insight How calm abiding and special insight unite

THE THREE WISDOMS HH Dalai Lama, Kalachakra, Washington DC 2011 WISDOM THROUGH LISTENING Simply listening to words or reading words in a book. Not stable – can lead to doubt if meets with different views. WISDOM THROUGH REFLECTION Developed through ones own critical thinking, attaining certainly such that it won’t be shaken by other views. WISDOM THROUGH MEDITATION Developing the feeling found in the previous wisdom so that is becomes spontaneous.

THE THREE WISDOMS LRCM 1, chapter 6 “Proper attention is based upon prior study. Sublime wisdom, which takes reality as its object, arises from your cultivation of proper attention.” Maitreya – Ornament for the Mahayana Sutras  Listen / Study  Wisdom from listening / study (second-hand) Reflect Wisdom from reflection (firsthand) Meditate Wisdom from meditation (special insight) This is the path!

HOW TO CULTIVATE SPECIAL INSIGHT a) Special insight is cultivated in dependence on CA b) Hinayana or Mahayana? c) How to cultivate special insight

THE MEASURE OF HAVING ESTABLISHED SPECIAL INSIGHT MP PP BPP BMP

THE FIVE PATHS Path of accumulation Path of Preparation •First Special Insight observing emptiness: conceptual Path of Seeing •First Special Insight observing emptiness directly: non-conceptual (Arya being) Path of Meditation •8th ground – Arhat, Foe destroyer. Removed all ignorance and its seeds. Path of No More Learning •Buddha: abandoned appearance of inherent existence and the imprints of that appearance.

CHANDRAKIRTI “I offer homage to loving concern viewing transmigrators as empty of inherent existence, though they appear to exist inherently, like a reflection of the moon in water.”

CREDITS MUSIC "open the source" "through the night" "Looking for a way out" by Paolo Pavan http://www.jamendo.com/en/track/1033804/open-the-source Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported

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