Published on March 18, 2014
By: Felipe De la Garza IB S.E.H.S. 2013 Injuries in Connective Tissue
Cartilage cartilage is found in all moving joints in the body (synovial joints) and its role is to protect the bones by keeping the surfaces of the bones apart from each other, to absorb shock and to help make movement smooth
Cartilage Injury: Degenerative Joint Disease • aka: Osteoarthrosis • Degradation of joints • Wear and tear over time • especially when there is malalignment or instability in the joint • and/or if the subject is overweight.
Cartilage Injury: Degenerative Joint Disease Symptoms may include: • joint pain, •tenderness, •stiffness, •locking, •and sometimes an effusion.
Cartilage Injury: Degenerative Joint Disease • Recovery: • Repair Procedure (such as surgery) • Rehabilitation Therapy
Ligament A ligament is the fibrous tissue that connects bones to other bones
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury • The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) • An injury to the anterior cruciate ligament can be debilitating musculoskeletal to the knee • Non-contact tears and ruptures are the most common causes of ACL injury • It is an important ligament for proper movement. ACL injury more commonly • causes knee instability that does injury to other knee ligaments. • Injuries range from mild such as small tears to severe when the ligament is completely torn.
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury • There are many ways the ACL can be torn: • the ligament tears because it is overstretched. • The movements of the knee that can result in a tear is when the knee is straightened more than 10 degrees beyond its normal maximal position (hyperextension) - the lower leg is forced forward in relation to the upper leg. • Tears in the anterior cruciate ligament often take place when the knee receives a direct impact from the front of the thigh while the leg is in a stable position
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury • The rehabilitation process: • Phase 1: short-term management, i.e. management of pain and swelling while regaining movement. • Phase 2: patient will be ready to try more things on an unsteady knee. • Phase 3: phase 2 plus some more challenging ones. focus heavily on improving balance. • Phase 4: the patient will try to obtain full range of motion as well as increase resistance for the workouts. • Phase 5: emphasis on strengthening exercises, with increased concentration on balance and mobility. • Phase 6: This is the return to activity phase. At this point the patient will be able to start jogging and performing moderately intense agility drills.
Tendon A tendon (or sinew) is a tough band of fibrous connective tissue that usually connects muscle to bone and is capable of withstanding tension
Achilles Tendon Injury might be caused by: • Overuse • Stepping up your level of physical activity too quickly • Not stretching enough before exercise • Wearing high heels, which increases the stress on the tendon • Problems with the feet. An Achilles tendon injury can result from flat feet, also known as fallen arches or overpronation. In this condition, the impact of a step causes the arch of your foot to collapse, stretching the muscles and tendons. • Muscles or tendons in the leg that are too tight • You're more likely to tear an Achilles tendon when you start moving suddenly.
Achilles Tendon Injury
Achilles Tendon Injury Treatment: • Rest leg. Avoid putting weight on your leg as best you can. You may need crutches. • Ice your leg. • Compress your leg. • Elevate your leg. Prop you leg up on a pillow when you're sitting or lying down. • Take anti-inflammatory painkillers. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), like Advil, Aleve, • Use a heel lift. • Practice stretching and strengthening exercises as recommended by your health care provider.
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