Published on March 18, 2014
Swift A quick introduction March 2014 email@example.com
Index ● What is Object storage ● A quick look to Amazon S3 ● Swift use cases ● History & Architecture ● Swift features ● The API ● Demo using Cyberduck
What is object storage ● HTTP accessible storage of objects (files) in buckets (folders) ● Like FTP or WebDAV ● Added security access, metadata ● Everything is a URL ● Cheap and hassle-free ○ Notion of unlimited capacity ○ No fragmentation or integrity checks ○ No locks or concurrency problems ○ Support of partial reads or writes
What is object storage ● Designed for cloud-era requirements ○ Secure ○ Reliable ○ Scalable ○ Fast ○ Inexpensive ○ Simple
Quick look to Amazon S3
● Content storage and distribution ○ Serve static files or whole websites from S3 directly ● Better scalability for web server tier ○ Reduces ‘data gravity’, low I/O in the server, all HTTP ● Storage for data analysis ● Fine-grained access control to buckets ● Backup, archiving and disaster recovery ○ even if Amazon Glacier is a cheaper option ● ... but it’s not a Content Distribution Network ○ doesn’t optimize routing for lowest latency ○ is not optimized for content streaming ○ that’s why Amazon Cloudfront exists Some Amazon S3 use cases
The cost of Amazon S3 ● Main reason to use S3: price ● Example: 1 TB stored, modified 100GB per month ○ Storage cost: $85 / month ○ Data Transfer (Upload): $0 ○ Data Transfer (Download): $12, at $0.12/GB ● A cheaper option: reduced redundancy (99’9% instead of 99’999999999%) ○ Storage cost: $68 ● Even cheaper, but just for backups (very limited functionalities): Glacier ○ Storage cost: $10
Swift use cases ● Object Storage system ● Massively Scalable ● Runs on commodity hardware ● An S3-like solution What is it ● Hard drive or filesystem ● NFS / SMB share ● Block storage ● any SAN/NAS/DAS ● not even a CDN What is NOT
Swift use cases ● Multi tenancy ○ Ideal for Public or Private Clouds ○ Different URLs, groups of users, access codes, fine-grained privileges ● Backups ○ Write-Once, read-never (long term archiving). ○ Disaster recovery. ● Web Content ○ Write many, read many. ○ File-sharing websites (temporary access). ○ Static website or media-focused blogs (i.e. imgur). ● Large Objects ○ Medical/Scientific images. ○ Store your fancy images from the moon (i.e: nasa). ○ Store your VM from the cloud.
History ● Rackspace Cloud Files V1. ○ Distributed storage. ○ Centralized metadata. ○ PostgreSQL DB ● 2009: Rackspace Cloud Files V2 (Swift). ○ Full redesign and rewrite. Opensource. ○ API compatible with Amazon S3 ○ Worked closely with ops. ○ Distributed storage and metadata. ○ Logical placement, based on algorithm
● Highly available, distributed, eventually consistent object storage, using commodity servers ● Eventually consistent: a write is acknowledged before waiting for full replication confirmation ○ Referring the CAP theorem, Swift chose: ■ availability and partition tolerance ■ dropped consistency. ● 3 rings to replicate ○ Accounts ○ Containers ○ Objects Swift architecture
Swift architecture Proxy Proxy Proxy Proxy Storage Storage Storage Storage The Ring ● Multiple components, usually on 2 type of nodes ○ Proxy servers: Runs the swift-proxy-server processes which proxy requests to the appropriate Storage nodes. It also contains the TempAuth service as WSGI middleware. ○ Storage servers: Runs the swift-account-server, swift-container- server, and swift-object-server processes which control storage of the account databases, the container databases, as well as the actual stored objects.
Swift architecture Proxy Proxy Proxy Proxy Storage Storage Storage Storage The Ring ● Proxy tier ○ Handles Incoming Requests Scales Horizontally
Swift architecture Proxy Proxy Proxy Proxy Storage Storage Storage Storage The Ring ● The Ring ○ Maps data (accounts, containers, objects) to storage servers Example of 3-replication
Swift architecture Proxy Proxy Proxy Proxy Storage Storage Storage Storage The Ring ● Storage zones ○ Isolate Physical failures
Swift architecture Proxy Proxy Proxy Proxy Storage Storage Storage Storage The Ring ● Quorum writes ○ Proxy acknowledges after the 2nd replica is OK, no wait for 3rd Lookup
Swift architecture Proxy Proxy Proxy Proxy Storage Storage Storage Storage The Ring ● Single-disk reads Lookup
Swift architecture Proxy Proxy Proxy Proxy Storage Storage Storage Storage The Ring ● Replication ○ A process that runs continuously, checks integrity as well
Swift features ● ACL ○ Free form implemented by the auth system middleware ● Healthcheck ○ Simple healthcheck page for LB ● Ratelimit ○ Rate Limiting requests ● Staticweb ○ Provide index.html in containers ● TempURL ○ Temporary URL generation for objects ● FormPost ○ Translates a browser form post into a regular Swift object PUT ● Domain Remap ○ Pretty URL with domains based containers
The API ● Bindings for different languages: python, ruby, java… ● Multiple CLI tools: python-swiftclient, jcloud, fog
● Swift CLI: ○ delete, download, list, post, stat,upload,capabilities ○ post: Updates meta information for the account, container,or object ● Examples of metadata (HTTP Headers) ○ X-Account-Access-Control (for ACL) ○ X-Account-Sysmeta-Global-Write-Ratelimit (for ratelimit) ○ X-Object-Manifest (for dynamic large objects) ○ X-Versions-Location (for object versioning) ○ X-Container-Sync-* (used internally for container synchronisation) ○ X-Delete-At and X-Delete-After (for object expiration) ○ X-Container-Meta-Access-Control (for CORS) ● Other ○ crossdomain.xml (for cross-domain policies) The API
Demo using Cyberduck Connection templates here: https://trac.cyberduck.io/wiki/help/en/howto/openstack
BACKUP SLIDES (for Q&A)
Proxy Servers ● Swift public face ○ The entry point, and it has to do a lot of work too ● Determines the appropriate storage nodes ○ By using a logical map ● Coordinates responses ○ Ensures at least two replicas have succeeded writing the object to disk before confirming to the client
The ring ● Used by proxies and replication processes. ● Maps requests to storage nodes ● Availability zones ○ Ensure your objects are placed as far as possible ● Regions ○ Support for global clusters, multi-region replication ● Scale-out without affecting most entities ○ Only a fraction needs to be moved around ○ Still, it’s better to use the weighing system ● Up to you how to synchronise the ring
The ring Example: - partition power of 3 - 3 first digits are ring coordinates MD5 hash
Account / Container Servers ● Stored using SQLITE Database ● Simple schema ○ Table for listing ○ Table for metadata ○ Stats information ● Scaling ○ With high concurrency, SQLite gets you a lot of IO Wait, this is when you use ‘ratelimit’
Object Servers ● Use filesystem to store files ○ The file (object) is dumped on disk ‘as is’ ● Use ‘xattrs’ to store metadata ○ On ext4, xfs ● Files named by timestamps ○ Last write always win ○ Deletion is treated as a version of the file with a tombstone object ● Directory structures ○ /mount/data_dir/partition/hash_suffix/hash/object.ts
Replication ● N-factor, configurable. By default is 3 ● Asynchronous and peer-to-peer replicator process ○ Traverses the local filesystem to detect changes ○ Concurrently performs operations, balancing load across physical disks ● Push model system ○ Records and files are generally only copied from local to remote replicas ○ It’s the duty of a node holding data to ensure its data gets to where it belongs ○ Replica placement handled by the ring
● DB Replication ○ Hash comparison of DB files ○ Replicates whole database file using rsync, new unique id is assigned ● Object replication ○ Uses rsync for transport ○ Sync only subsets of directories ○ Hash based ○ Bound by the number of uncached directories it has to traverse Replication
● Standard WSGI ○ Pipeline composed of a succession of middleware, ending with one application. The last one, ● Usually provided by the proxy ○ But it can be provided by other server roles ● Auth is pluggable via middleware ○ swauth ○ keystone Middleware
Amazon S3 in initial slides: price of $0,085 per GB per month. ROI after 5-6 months http://www.slideshare.net/joearnold/7-steps-to-roll-out-a-private-open-stack-swift-cluster-joe-arnold-swiftstack-20120417 Swift cost estimation
Amazon S3 in initial slides: price of $0.085 per GB per month. ROI after barely 9 months ○ Monthly S3 cost for 145 TB = $10,600 ($8.5k if reduced redundancy) ○ Monthly S3 cost for 1.3 PB = $82,600 ($66k if reduced redundancy) http://www.slideshare.net/joearnold/7-steps-to-roll-out-a-private-open-stack-swift-cluster-joe-arnold-swiftstack-20120417 Swift cost estimation
Connecting to Swift (I) 1. (Example using a ca.enocloud.com account) 2. download your openrc.sh file 3. source it (i.e. source marcos.garcia-openrc.sh) 4. put your password 5. do “keystone catalog” to validate the keystone public URL 6. recover the object-store public URL (i.e. http://22.214.171.124: 8080/v1/AUTH_17698de747ea403283730999605716c9 ) 7. use swift CLI to validate (i.e. swift list) 8. in Cyberduck, setup a connection ‘Openstack Swift (Keystone HTTP)’, with tenant:username (i.e. marcos.garcia:marcos.garcia) and password, server ca.enocloud.com and port 5000
Connecting to Swift (II)
Connecting to Swift (III)
Connecting to Swift (IV)
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