InherentSafety Westray

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Published on December 10, 2007

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AN INHERENT SAFETY BASED INCIDENT INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY:  AN INHERENT SAFETY BASED INCIDENT INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY Attiq Goraya, Dalhousie University Paul Amyotte, Dalhousie University Faisal Khan, Memorial University Loss Prevention Symposium AIChE April 29, 2004 OUTLINE :  OUTLINE Introduction Incident Investigation Inherent Safety Principles of Inherent Safety Incident Investigation Methodology Case Study: Westray Mine Explosion Concluding Remarks INTRODUCTION:  INTRODUCTION Scope: Development of a methodology or protocol For incident investigation Explicitly incorporating principles of inherent safety via guidewords and checklist Motivation: Inherent safety focus within research group Also emphasis on use of case studies for validation In case of Westray, due to its extreme nature, use of case study for methodology development INCIDENT INVESTIGATION:  INCIDENT INVESTIGATION The process by which underlying causes of an incident are uncovered and steps are taken to prevent recurrence A well-recognized and vital part of Process Safety Management (PSM) Element 9 in CSChE PSM Guide (based on CCPS approach) INHERENT SAFETY :  INHERENT SAFETY How we deal with hazards: Inherent Safety Engineered Safety (add-on devices) Passive Active Procedural Safety (administrative controls) INHERENT SAFETY :  INHERENT SAFETY Early work done in late 1970’s by Trevor Kletz (ICI & Loughborough University) Regarded as the “father” of inherent safety What you don’t have can’t leak Leading proponent in US is Dennis Hendershot (among others, e.g. Mary Kay O’Connor Process Safety Center) Efforts worldwide: e.g. UK, Finland, Singapore, US, Canada CJChE, vol 81, pp. 2-16 (2003) INHERENT SAFETY :  INHERENT SAFETY From dictionary – “inherent” Belonging to the very nature of a person or a thing Stresses the inseparability of a part, element or quality Characteristics of a design which prevent hazards or mitigate consequences Utilize underlying physics and chemistry PRINCIPLES OF INHERENT SAFETY :  PRINCIPLES OF INHERENT SAFETY Four main principles of inherent safety are: Minimization Substitution Moderation Simplification PRINCIPLES OF INHERENT SAFETY :  PRINCIPLES OF INHERENT SAFETY Minimization: Minimize amount of hazardous material in use (when use of such materials cannot be avoided – i.e. elimination) PRINCIPLES OF INHERENT SAFETY :  PRINCIPLES OF INHERENT SAFETY Substitution: Replace substance with less hazardous material; replace process route with one involving less hazardous materials PRINCIPLES OF INHERENT SAFETY:  PRINCIPLES OF INHERENT SAFETY Moderation: Use hazardous materials in least hazardous forms; run process equipment with less severe operating conditions (e.g. T and P) PRINCIPLES OF INHERENT SAFETY :  PRINCIPLES OF INHERENT SAFETY Simplification: Simplify equipment and processes that are used; avoid complexities; make equipment robust; eliminate opportunities for error INCIDENT INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY:  INCIDENT INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY Combination of Syncrude Canada protocol CCPS guidelines Bird and Germain domino loss causation model Kletz’s layered model Stages Preparation and initial response Data gathering Data analysis Recommendation reporting, implementation and follow-up INCIDENT INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY:  INCIDENT INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY Integrated approach to loss management People Property (assets) Production (business interruption) Environment Incorporation of inherent safety Guidewords Checklist INCIDENT INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY:  INCIDENT INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY . Team Planning Incident Loss Notification to Activate Team On-Site Investigation Identification of Immediate Causes Identification of Basic Causes Lack of Management Control Factors Recommendations Implement Recommendations Follow-Up Inherent Safety Guidewords Inherent Safety Checklist Inherent Safety Guidewords People Property Production Environment Position People Parts Paper Immediate/ Technical Avoid Hazards Improve Management System INCIDENT INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY:  INCIDENT INVESTIGATION METHODOLOGY . Team Planning Incident Loss Notification to Activate Team On-Site Investigation Identification of Immediate Causes Inherent Safety Guidewords People Property Production Environment Position People Parts Paper Inherent Safety Checklist .:  . . Identification of Lack of Management Control Factors Recommendations Implement Recommendations Follow-Up Inherent Safety Checklist Identification of Basic Causes Inherent Safety Guidewords Immediate/ Technical Avoid Hazards Improve Management System INHERENT SAFETY GUIDEWORDS:  INHERENT SAFETY GUIDEWORDS Minimize: Use smaller quantities of hazardous materials when the use of such materials cannot be avoided. Perform a hazardous procedure as few times as possible when the procedure is unavoidable. Substitute: Replace a substance with a less hazardous material or processing route with one that does not involve hazardous material. Replace a hazardous procedure with one that is less hazardous. Moderate: Use hazardous materials in their least hazardous forms or identify processing options that involve less severe processing conditions. Simplify: Design processes, processing equipment, and procedures to eliminate opportunities for errors by eliminating excessive use of add-on (engineered) safety features and protective devices. INHERENT SAFETY CHECKLIST:  INHERENT SAFETY CHECKLIST INHERENT SAFETY CHECKLIST:  INHERENT SAFETY CHECKLIST CASE STUDY: WESTRAY MINE EXPLOSION:  CASE STUDY: WESTRAY MINE EXPLOSION WESTRAY:  WESTRAY Coal mining has been an integral part of Pictou County (Nova Scotia) history since the first commercial mine opened in Stellarton in 1807, to the closing of the Drummond mine in Westville in 1974. On September 11, 1991 Westray opened a new mine in Plymouth. At 5:20 am on May 9, 1992 after only eight months of operation, an explosion ripped through the mine killing 26 men who were underground at the time. INCIDENT:  INCIDENT There was an explosion in the Westray mine on the morning of May 9, 1992. Fuel Oxidant Ignition Source . Fire Triangle Ignition Source Fuel Oxidant LOSS:  LOSS Losses resulting from Westray explosion include: Deaths of 26 miners Destruction of mining equipment and the mine itself Bankruptcy of the parent company Default of millions of dollars in government loans ON-SITE INVESTIGATION:  ON-SITE INVESTIGATION The objectives of on-site activities are to gather information used for determining root causes. Position, People, Parts, Paper – IS Guidewords Methane: Methane layering provided a rich source of fuel for the explosion in the presence of an ignition source. Coal Dust: According to Richard (1997) coal dust at least ankle-deep accumulated on many of the underground roadways, making foot travel difficult. ON-SITE INVESTIGATION:  ON-SITE INVESTIGATION Non-Flameproof vehicles: According to Richard (1997) there were instances in which workers, supervisors and management employed non-flameproof vehicles underground. Fuel Storage: Fuel for mining machinery was improperly stored underground (Richard, 1997). Auxiliary Ventilation System: Westray used auxiliary fans in the exhaust mode (Richard, 1997). IMMEDIATE CAUSES:  IMMEDIATE CAUSES Immediate causes are divided into two broad categories: Substandard Practices IMMEDIATE CAUSES:  IMMEDIATE CAUSES Substandard Conditions BASIC CAUSES:  BASIC CAUSES Basic causes are divided into two broad categories: Personal Factors BASIC CAUSES:  BASIC CAUSES Job Factors LACK OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL FACTORS:  LACK OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL FACTORS Inadequate Program Elements: (adopted from Amyotte and Oehmen, 2002) Management commitment and accountability to safety matters Incident investigation Training (orientation, task-related, etc.) Task definitions and safe work practices and procedures Workplace inspections and more detailed hazard identification methodologies Program evaluation and audit LACK OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL FACTORS:  LACK OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL FACTORS Inadequate Program Standards: (adopted from Amyotte and Oehmen, 2002) Management’s concern toward safety matters Follow-through on inspections for substandard practices and conditions Action on hazard reports submitted by employees Job instructions for employees Equipment maintenance Scheduling of management/employee meetings to discuss safety concerns LACK OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL FACTORS:  LACK OF MANAGEMENT CONTROL FACTORS Inadequate Compliance with Standards: (adopted from Amyotte and Oehmen, 2002) Poor correlation between management actions and official company policy concerning the relationship between safety and production Compliance to industry practice and legislated standards concerning numerous aspects of coal mining: methane concentrations, rock dusting, control of ignition sources underground, etc. RECOMMENDATIONS:  RECOMMENDATIONS Immediate Technical Recommendations: Use of IS Guidewords Removal of coal dust accumulations would have immediate benefits. Relocation of the fuel and the vehicles to the surface would have an immediate positive effect. RECOMMENDATIONS:  RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations to Avoid the Hazard: Use of Principle Minimize Methane Degasification Adequate ventilation design and system Coal Dust Length of shift Non-flameproof equipment (ignition sources) Storing fuel underground RECOMMENDATIONS:  RECOMMENDATIONS Use of Principle Substitute Auxiliary ventilation system: forcing, rather than exhaust, system for adequate airflow to clear methane from the working face of the mine Main ventilation fan: alternate design and location so as not to pick up dust and other debris from the coal return conveyor belt RECOMMENDATIONS:  RECOMMENDATIONS Use of Principle Moderate Purchase of adequate rock dust inventory Implementation of rock dusting program Roadway consolidation RECOMMENDATIONS:  RECOMMENDATIONS Use of Principle Simplify Installation of a reliable, robust mine air monitoring system RECOMMENDATIONS:  RECOMMENDATIONS Recommendations to Improve the Management System: SYSTEM + ATTITUDE Program elements such as hiring procedures, training, safe work procedures, and hazard identification Program standards such as appropriate follow-through on inspection results Compliance issues relating to both internal and external standards. CONCLUDING REMARKS:  CONCLUDING REMARKS A methodology has been developed to enable the explicit use of inherent safety principles (minimize, substitute, moderate and simplify) in an incident investigation protocol. Application of the methodology to the Westray coal mine explosion has demonstrated how a lack of inherent safety considerations played a key role in the incident occurrence and severity. What can the CPI learn from a coal mine explosion?:  What can the CPI learn from a coal mine explosion? Westray was a process safety incident, not simply OH&S. “Worker safety not my responsibility, says ex-Westray engineer” (newspaper headline) is not an acceptable attitude. Management system deficiencies were at the core. “Lessons from Longford” by Andrew Hopkins (CCH Australia Limited, 2000) relates essentially the same story by drawing parallels between a coal mine explosion and a gas plant explosion in Australia. In Nova Scotia, the lessons learned have led to a new OH&S Act which is underpinned by the Internal Responsibility System. In Canada, the lessons learned have led to changes in the Criminal Code of Canada (Bill C-45) regarding criminal negligence charges for inappropriate corporate level behaviour. When educating ChE students at Dalhousie University, it is important to consider Westray as well as Flixborough, Bhopal,…

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