Inferno

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Published on December 12, 2008

Author: johnlemar_09

Source: authorstream.com

Slide 2: Author Durante “Dante” Alighieri 1265 (Florence) – 1321 ( Ravenna) . . . From Middle Class Florentine Family . . .Poet, Politician, Pharmacist/Doctor… . . . White Guelph Florentine Politics background Papal vs Imperial Authority Guelphs (Guelfi) vs Ghibillines (Ghibillini) White (Bianchi) vs Black (Neri) Guelphs Pope Boniface VIII Slide 3: general form & motifs Per me si va nella città dolente per me si va nell’eterno dolore, per me siva tra la perduta gente. Guistizia mosse il mio alto fattore: fecemi la divina potestate, la Somma Sapïenza e ’l Primo Amore. Dinanzi a me non fuor cose create se non etterne, e io etterna duro. Lasciate ogni speranza, voi ch’entrate. {La Divina Commedia} There are 3 Cantiche, each with 33 Canti (Actually 99 Canti + 1 additional Canto in Inferno which serves as an introduction.) Each Canto is divided into Terzine (tercets) or three lines in Terza Rima (3rd rhyme) ( ABA –BCB-CDC ) Form Per me si va nella città dolente per me si va nell’eterno dolore, per me siva tra la perduta gente. Slide 4: Most characters are based on real figures if not popular fictional characters (Gk Mythology). This intertextuality highlights Dante’s use of the work to illustrate the sins of the occupants in each particular circle without having to launch into a back story of the characters. Using this method also gives the work a more human quality, readers encounter historical figures instead of fictional characters whose sins would be mere fabrications. Also, this provides much humor since it reveals who Dante liked and disliked in his time, putting them either in heaven, purgatory, or hell. general form & motifs {La Divina Commedia} . . . an ALLEGORICAL work in verse . . . a COMEDY . . .written in the VERNACULAR Florentine Dialect Form Slide 5: Canto 1 cantos Setting: The Dark Wood of Error Dante gets lost in the wood and finds the path back blocked by 3 beasts. Driven back, he meets Virgil who tells him he must take another path. They begin the journey-the descent into hell. Characters: Dante. . .the Pilgrim Virgil. . .the Guide and Symbol of Human Reason Leopard of Malice and Fraud Lion of Violence and Ambition She-wolf of Incontinence +Beatrice is mentioned as the symbol of Divine Love+ Dante hesitates. Virgil describes the heavenly scene, his mission, and those who sent him: The Virgin Mary (Compassion) sends Saint Lucia (Divine Light) to aid the Pilgrim, who in turn sends Beatrice, who asks Virgil to guide Dante in reaching her. Another divine lady/force mentioned is Rachel (Contemplative Life). Canto 2 Slide 6: Canto 3 cantos Setting: The Vestibule: the Opportunists The Opportunists pursue a wavering banner and are pursued by swarms of wasps and hornets which sting them. These produce a constant flow of blood and putrid matter, feasted upon by worms and maggots. Characters: Charon – the ferryman of the Acheron Pope Celestine V- became Pope in 1294. He was convinced to renounce his papacy by a man named Benedetto who later became Pope Boniface VIII. Celestine’s guilt is his selfish terror for his own welfare, which allowed evil, in the guise of Boniface VIII, to enter the Church. Dante’s first swoon Setting: Circle 1 – Limbo:. Virtuous Pagans Born without the light of Christ’s revelation, they cannot come into the light of God, yet they are not punished. Their only affliction is that they possess no hope. Virgil is from this Circle. Here he first speaks of “The Harrowing of Hell.” Dante enters the Citadel of Human Reason where he sees the Master Souls of Pagan Antiquity, illuminated by the radiance of Human Reason. This is the highest state a man can reach without God. Canto 4 Slide 7: cantos Canto 7 Setting: Circle 4: The Hoarders and the Wasters Each soul carries a boulder-like weight (worldliness). They lacked moderation in expenses. No one is recognized since the souls are dimmed in their fruitless rages. Circle 5: The Wrathful and the Sullen. Black spring – marsh of Styx. The wrathful attack one another in foul slime while the Sullen lie beneath the mud, gargling the words an endless chant. The last Circle of the Upper Hell. Dame Fortune- ranked among the angels Setting: Circle 5 and Dis Characters: Phlegyas - Boatman of Styx Filippo Argenti – Dante gets mad at him. His disdain is approved by Virgil. Rebellious Angels – rebel against God. Virgil is powerless against them so he asks for divine intervention. Setting: Dis and Circle 6: The Heretics Countryside with tombs of every size , each has its lid lying beside it, wrapped in flames. They denied immortality believing that the soul dies with the body. Therefore, their punishment is a grave in the fiery morgue of God’s wrath. Characters: Infernal Furies (Eternal Remorse), Medusa Canto 8 Canto 9 Slide 8: cantos Setting: Circle 6: The Heretics Characters: Farinata degli Uberti – warchief of the Ghibellines. He gives the 2nd political prophecy. Cavalcante dei Cavalcanti Pope Anastasius - tomb where Dante and Virgil find shelter Virgil explains the division of Lower Hell. Setting: Circle 7 - Round 1 : Violent Against Neighbors The souls here are immersed in boiling blood. They are guarded by centaurs. Nessus guides Dante and Virgil across. Characters: Minotaur - as Virgil and Dante descend the rock wall, they encounter this creature. Chiron - chief centaur. Alexander the Great and Attila are in this circle. Setting: Circle 7- Round 2: Wood of the Suicides – Violent Against Themselves Souls are thorny trees whose leaves are eaten by Harpies. The only time they are able to speak is when there are open wounds. Those who destroyed their bodies are denied a human form. Characters: Pier delle Vigne, Jacomo da Sant Andrea, Lano da Siena, Florentine Suicide Canto 10 & 11 Canto 12 Canto 13 Slide 9: cantos Canto 14 to 17 Setting: Circle 7 - Round 3: Violent Against God, Nature and Art A great plain of burning sand where it rains fire (Sterility and Wrath) Blasphemers are stretched supine on the sand; the sodomites run in endless circles. Usurers crouch with Eláter purses around their necks, crying with eyes fixed on the purse. Characters: (14) Capaneus (15) Ser Brunetto Latino gives the 3rd prophesy about Dante’s sufferings at the hands of the Florentines. (16) Jacopo Rusticucci, Guido Guerra, Tegghia Aldobrandi (17) Geryon, the monster of Fraud (has face of an honest man but a body that ends with a scorpion stinger; in mythology he has 3 heads and 3 bodies) Dante and Virgil are carried to the Hell of the Fraudulent. Setting: Circle 8 : Malebolge (Great circle of stone that looks like an amphitheater, divided into ten concentric circles) Bolgia 1: Pimps, Panderers and Seducers. Souls walk in 2 files, driven by horned demons who hurry them along with lashes. The horns symbolize the sinners’ own vicious natures, their guilty consciences. Bolgia 2: Flatterers. Excrement-filled pit. Characters: (Bolgia 1) Venedico Caccianemico, Jason (Bolgia 2) Alessio Interminelli, Thais Canto 18 Slide 10: cantos Canto 19 Setting: Bolgia 3: The Simonists (Sellers of ecclesiastic favors &offices) Sinners are upside down in tube-like holes with the soles of their feet on fire. The heat is proportioned to their guilt. Characters: Pope Nicholas III Setting: Bolgia 4 – Fortune Tellers and Diviners Sinners’ heads are turned backwards on their bodies and they walk backwards, their eyes filled with tears. Characters: Amphiareus, Eurypylus, Tiresias, Manto Michael Scott Aruns, Guido Bonatti, Asdente Dante cries. Setting: Bolgia 5: The Grafters They are sunk in a sticky boiling pitch and guarded by Demons who tear them to pieces with claws and hooks. Characters: Senator of Lucca, Malacoda, Friar Gomita, Unidentified Navarrese, Michel Zanche Setting: Bolgia 6:– The Hypocrites They are wearing leaden robes, walking eternally round and round a narrow track. Characters: 2 Jovial Friars; Caiaphas (crucified to the floor by 3 great stakes) Canto 20 Canto 21 & 22 Canto 23 Slide 11: cantos Canto 24 & 25 Setting: Bolgia 7 : The Thieves Reptiles (Thievery) curl themselves about the sinners, binding sinners’ hands (agents of crime) behind their backs. Characters: Vanni Fucci (prophecy) 5 Noble Thieves of Florence (Agnello, Cianfa, Buoso, Francesco, Puccio Sciancato – Canto XXV) Setting: Bolgia 8: The Evil Counselors They move about endlessly, hidden from view inside flames. They abused gifts of the Almighty and worked in hidden ways, so are they hidden in flames of their guilty conscience. Characters: Ulysses, Count Guido da Montefeltro, Diomede Setting: Bolgia9: Sowers of Discord They are hacked and torn by a demon. As their wounds heal, they go back to the demon to be hacked once again. Characters: Religious discord – Mahomet, Ali, Fra Dolcino Political discord – Pier da Medicina, Tribune Curio, Mosca dei Lamberti, (Canto 29) Geri del Bello Discord between kinsmen – Bertrand de Born Canto 26 & 27 Canto 28 Slide 12: cantos Canto 29 Setting: Bolgia 10: The Falsifiers They are afflicted with disease, thirst, filth and stench. They are running through the pit, tearing others to pieces. 1st class – the Alchemists Characters: Griffolino D’Arezzo, Capocchio Setting: Bolgia 10 - 3 Remaining Classes: Evil Impersonators, Counterfeiters, False Witnesses Characters: Gianni Schicchi, Myrrha, Master Adam, Potiphar’s Wife, Sinon the Greek Dante is scolded when he shows fascination for the fight between Master Adam and Sinon. Setting: Central Pit of Malebolge – Cocytus: The Giants Characters: Nimrod, Ephialtes, Briareus, Tityos and Typhon, Antaeus Nimrod speaks gibberish, a representation of the confusion of languages caused by his construction of the Tower of Babel. Canto 30 Canto 31 Slide 13: cantos Canto 32 Setting: Round 1 - Caina: Treacherous to Kin Only the sinners’ necks and heads are out of ice, permitted to bow their heads to protect their face from the freezing gale Round 2 - Antenora: Treacherous to Country Sinners here can’t even bend their necks Characters: Allessandro and Napoleone degli Alberti Camicion, Bocca degli Abbati (Dante shows savagery) (Canto 33) Count Ugolino & Archbishop Ruggieri Setting: Ptolomea: Treacherous against ties of Hospitality Half their faces are above the ice, tears freeze in their eye sockets Characters: Friar Alberigo, Branca D’Oria Setting: Judecca- Treacherous to Masters Icy wind due to the beating of Satan’s wings. While other traitors are buried underneath the ice, the 3 greatest traitors are being chewed on by Lucifer. Characters: Judas Iscariot (center, only lower body is sticking out) Cassius and Brutus Dante and Virgil climb down a crack in the ice. Soon, now climbing upwards, they reach a winding path which brings them to the earth’s surface, where they see the stars. Canto 33 Canto 34 Slide 14: assessment “To bring man from the state of misery to the state of felicity” –in Inferno, we see that state of absolute and eternal, “perfect” misery. A Vivid and Organized Hell: a Hell organized according to Human Understanding (Reason) and Belief (Religion) Universalizing but at the same time a “Personal Experience” of Everyman

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