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Industrial Ergonomics

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Information about Industrial Ergonomics

Published on October 10, 2007

Author: Hvacmach

Source: slideshare.net

Description

Industrial Ergonomics and how tp apply them to your work
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Ergonomics Industrial

Session Objectives You will be able to: Understand the principles of ergonomics Recognize the risk factors, signs, and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders ( MSDs ) Understand our program for identifying, reporting, and controlling MSDs Know how to protect yourself from MSD injuries and reduce your risk

You will be able to:

Understand the principles of ergonomics

Recognize the risk factors, signs, and symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders ( MSDs )

Understand our program for identifying, reporting, and controlling MSDs

Know how to protect yourself from MSD injuries and reduce your risk

Musculoskeletal Disorder (MSD) Injuries 1.8 million MSD injuries each year 600,000 MSD injuries require Medical Treatment

1.8 million MSD injuries each year

600,000 MSD injuries require Medical Treatment

What Is Ergonomics? Modify jobs to fit capabilities of people Reduce MSDs Caused by Repetitive reaching, forceful exertions, bending and lifting, or working with vibrating equipment Engineering controls Safe work practices PPE

Modify jobs to fit capabilities of people

Reduce MSDs Caused by

Repetitive reaching, forceful exertions, bending and lifting, or working with vibrating equipment

Engineering controls

Safe work practices

PPE

What Are MSDs? Injuries to: Muscles Nerves Tendons—Tendinitis Ligaments Joints Spinal discs Image Credit: National Institutes of Health/NIAMS

Injuries to:

Muscles

Nerves

Tendons—Tendinitis

Ligaments

Joints

Spinal discs

MSD Characteristics Occur from a single event or many small injuries May Take weeks, months, or years to develop Produce no symptoms in early stages, but show symptoms after permanent injury has occurred Contributing causes may occur at home and work Same MSD may differ in severity from person to person doing a similar task

Occur from a single event or many small injuries

May Take weeks, months, or years to develop

Produce no symptoms in early stages, but show symptoms after permanent injury has occurred

Contributing causes may occur at home and work

Same MSD may differ in severity from person to person doing a similar task

General Signs of MSDs Less strength for gripping Less range of motion Loss of muscle function Inability to do everyday tasks

Less strength for gripping

Less range of motion

Loss of muscle function

Inability to do everyday tasks

MSD Symptoms Back and neck— shooting pain, stiffness Shoulders—pain, stiffness, loss of mobility Arms and legs— shooting pains, numbness Elbow and knee joints—pain, swelling, stiffness

Back and neck— shooting pain, stiffness

Shoulders—pain, stiffness, loss of mobility

Arms and legs— shooting pains, numbness

Elbow and knee joints—pain, swelling, stiffness

MSD Symptoms (cont.) Hands and wrists— swelling, numb, loss of strength Fingers—jerking movements, or loss of strength, mobility, and feeling Thumbs—pain at the base Feet and toes—numb, stiff, burning sensation

Hands and wrists— swelling, numb, loss of strength

Fingers—jerking movements, or loss of strength, mobility, and feeling

Thumbs—pain at the base

Feet and toes—numb, stiff, burning sensation

Outward Signs of MSDs Swelling or inflammation of joints Vigorously shaking hands Massaging hands, wrists, or arms Cradling arms Limping Stiff back

Swelling or inflammation of joints

Vigorously shaking hands

Massaging hands, wrists, or arms

Cradling arms

Limping

Stiff back

Common MSDs Carpal tunnel syndrome Low back pain Eye strain Tendinitis Trigger finger

Carpal tunnel syndrome

Low back pain

Eye strain

Tendinitis

Trigger finger

Risk Factors that Lead to MSDs Repetitive motions Forceful exertions Awkward postures Contact stress (pressure points) Vibrations

Repetitive motions

Forceful exertions

Awkward postures

Contact stress (pressure points)

Vibrations

Repetitive Motion Stress on muscles and tendons Contributing factors Duration and speed of repetitious movement Number of muscles involved Required force Raising and lowering the arm over and over again

Stress on muscles and tendons

Contributing factors

Duration and speed of repetitious movement

Number of muscles involved

Required force

Raising and lowering the arm over and over again

Forceful Exertions Inflammation of tendons, nerves, joints Contributing factors Type of grip Weight of object Body posture Type and duration of the task Repeatedly turning a screwdriver while pushing at the same time Image Credit: OSHA

Inflammation of tendons, nerves, joints

Contributing factors

Type of grip

Weight of object

Body posture

Type and duration of the task

Repeatedly turning a screwdriver while pushing at the same time

Awkward Postures Stress on muscles and tendons Contributing factors Reaching overhead Force the body must maintain to hold the position Holding fixed positions (static loading) Lifting while twisting, reaching, or turning

Stress on muscles and tendons

Contributing factors

Reaching overhead

Force the body must maintain to hold the position

Holding fixed positions (static loading)

Lifting while twisting, reaching, or turning

Contact Stress Pressing against or grabbing a hard object puts pressure on nerves, tendons, and blood vessels Contributing factors Repetition Duration of contact Grip strength required Wresting wrists on the keyboard while typing

Pressing against or grabbing a hard object puts pressure on nerves, tendons, and blood vessels

Contributing factors

Repetition

Duration of contact

Grip strength required

Wresting wrists on the keyboard while typing

Vibration Affects tendons, muscles, joints, nerves Contributing factors Prolonged grip Restricts blood supply to hands and fingers Tools without vibration dampening device Poor power tool maintenance Prolonged use of a grinder

Affects tendons, muscles, joints, nerves

Contributing factors

Prolonged grip

Restricts blood supply to hands and fingers

Tools without vibration dampening device

Poor power tool maintenance

Prolonged use of a grinder

What’s Wrong Here?

Ergonomics Management Job assessment MSD reporting and response system Designated coordinator MSD intervention and control system Training Encourage employee participation and reporting of MSDs

Job assessment

MSD reporting and response system

Designated coordinator

MSD intervention and control system

Training

Encourage employee participation and reporting of MSDs

Identifying and Controlling MSD Hazards Determine whether MSD hazards exist and degree of risk Devise a control strategy with your input Implement control measures Training

Determine whether MSD hazards exist and degree of risk

Devise a control strategy with your input

Implement control measures

Training

Control Methods Install engineering controls including workstation layout and proper tools Institute work practice controls including neutral postures for performing tasks Administrative controls including rescheduling to reduce frequency or duration of exposure to MSDs Personal protective equipment (PPE) to provide a protective barrier between worker and MSD

Install engineering controls including workstation layout and proper tools

Institute work practice controls including neutral postures for performing tasks

Administrative controls including rescheduling to reduce frequency or duration of exposure to MSDs

Personal protective equipment (PPE) to provide a protective barrier between worker and MSD

How to Protect Yourself Change positions often, take stretch breaks Maintain neutral posture whenever possible Eliminate or reduce MSD risk factors Use material handling aids Report MSD symptoms

Change positions often, take stretch breaks

Maintain neutral posture whenever possible

Eliminate or reduce MSD risk factors

Use material handling aids

Report MSD symptoms

Key Points to Remember Recognize MSD signs and symptoms Understand MSD hazards Take steps to control MSD hazards Report MSDs Participate in the Ergonomics Program

Recognize MSD signs and symptoms

Understand MSD hazards

Take steps to control MSD hazards

Report MSDs

Participate in the Ergonomics Program

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