Individual Behavior and Learning in business/ Organizations

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Information about Individual Behavior and Learning in business/ Organizations
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Published on February 17, 2014

Author: naeemiub

Source: slideshare.net

C H A P T E R Individual Behavior and Learning in business/ Organizations McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

MARS Model of Behavior and Performance Role Perceptions Motivation Individual Behavior and Performance Ability Situational Factors McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Employee Motivation Internal forces that affect a person’s voluntary choice of behavior:  Direction  Intensity  Persistence M R IBP A McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e S Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Employee Ability Natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task  Competencies -- personal characteristics that lead to superior performance  Person-job matching select qualified people develop employee abilities through training redesign job to fit person's existing abilities McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e M R IBP A S Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Employee Role Perceptions Beliefs about what behavior is required to achieve the desired results  Understanding what tasks to perform  Understanding relative importance of tasks  Understanding preferred behaviors to accomplish tasks M R IBP A McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e S Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Situational Factors Environmental conditions beyond the individual’s shortterm control that constrain or facilitate behavior  Time  People  Budget  Work facilities M R IBP A McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e S Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Types of Work-Related Behavior Joining the Organization Exhibiting Organizational Citizenship Types of Work-Related Behavior Performing Required Tasks McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Remaining with the Organization Maintaining Work Attendance Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Definition of Learning A relatively permanent change in behavior (or behavior tendency) that occurs as a result of a person’s interaction with the environment. McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Behavior Modification We “operate” on the environment  Alter behavior to maximize positive and minimize adverse consequences. Operant versus respondent behaviors Law of effect  Likelihood that an operant behavior will be repeated depends on its consequences McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

A-B-Cs of Behavior Modification Antecedents Behavior Consequences What happens before behavior What person says or does What happens After behavior Employee attends scheduled work Employee receives attendance bonus Example Attendance bonus system is announced McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Contingencies of Reinforcement Consequence is Introduced Behavior Increases/ Maintained Positive reinforcement Behavior Decreases Punishment No Consequence McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Consequence is Removed Negative reinforcement Extinction Punishment Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Behavior Modification Limitations Can’t reinforce nonobservable behavior Reinforcer tends to wear off Variable ratio schedule is a form of gambling Ethical concerns about perceived manipulation McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Learning through Feedback Any information about consequences of our behavior Clarifies role perceptions Corrective feedback improves ability Positive feedback motivates future behavior McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Giving Feedback Effectively Specific Relevant Credible McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Effective Feedback Frequent Timely Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Social Learning Theory Behavioral modeling  Observing and modeling behavior of others Learning behavior consequences  Observing consequences that others experience Self-reinforcement  Reinforcing our own behavior with consequences within our control McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Kolb’s Experiential Learning Model Concrete experience Active experimentation Reflective observation Abstract conceptualization McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Developing a Learning Orientation Value the generation of new knowledge Reward experimentation Recognize mistakes as part of learning process Encourage employees to take reasonable risks McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Courtesy of CREST Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

Action Learning Experiential learning in which employees are involved in a “real, complex, and stressful problem,” usually in teams, with immediate relevance to the company  Concrete experience  Learning meetings  Team conceptualizes and applies a solution to a problem McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

C H A P T E R Individual Behavior and Learning in Organizations McShane/ Von Glinow 2/e Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved.

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