Published on January 27, 2009
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net By Laveesh Bhandari Indicus Analytics Consumer Handbook - Introduction 1
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Introduction This chapter provides an overview into the state of the Indian economy, its growth, expenditures by households, income distribution as well as issues of ineuqlity. This is followed by an overview of some of the broad areas covered in this volume. The idea is to provide to the student and practitioner alike, a basic overview of the key demographic and macro-economic variables that affect consumer decisions in the short and long term. The discussion that follows then seeks to tie-in the key aspects that determine and reflect consumer behaviour in India. The Macro Picture During the post liberalization decade, from 1993-94 to 2003-04 the average annualized growth rate of India’s Gross Domestic Product was a little above 6% and has arguably since crossed the 8% mark on a long term basis. This has brought about a considerable increase in India’s personal disposable income. As a result, both saving and consumption expenditure in the household sector has had considerable growth. During 2003-04, India’s total personal disposable income was Rs. 2,358,503 crore and 24.6% of this income was directed into savings by the household sector. Table 1. Components of National Income at Current Prices,2003-04 Annualized Economic Total Per Capita Growth Rate Indicators (Refer between Box 1 for Rs. US$ $ PPP $ PPP 1993-94 and definition) Billion Billion terms Rs. US$ terms 2003-04 Gross Domestic Product 27,600 599 3,036 25,356 550 2,789 6.18 National Income 22,520 489 2,477 20,690 449 2,276 6.41 Net National Disposable Income 25,971 563 2,856 23,860 518 2,624 6.55 Private Income 25,296 549 2,782 23,240 504 2,556 6.73 Personal Income 24,219 525 2,664 22,250 483 2,447 6.59 Personal Disposable Income 23,585 512 2,594 21,667 470 2,383 6.57 Domestic Saving of Household Sector 5,799 126 638 5,328 116 586 9.77 Consumer Handbook - Introduction 2
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Source: CSO and author estimates High growth has contributed to greater incomes for Indian households which in turn has enabled Indian households to both save and spend more. We have in the past few years observed that household sector savings have in fact grown by far more than any of the other other macro-indicators. This is of course a desirable outcome. Greater incomes do imply greater expenditures in the short term, but greater savings (if translated into good quality investments) ensure long term growth of the economy, employment opportunities, and household incomes. Box 1: Definitions Gross Domestic Product: Total value of goods and services produced by a nation. Net National Disposable Income :(Net value of all goods and services produced in a nation's economy, including goods and services produced abroad at market prices) + (Other net current transfers from rest of the world) Private Income: (Income accruing to private sector from domestic product) + (Interest on public debt) + (Current transfers from govt. administrative departments) + (Other net current transfers from rest of the world) + (Net factor income from abroad) Personal Income: (Private income) – (Saving of private corporate sector net of retained earnings of foreign companies) – (Corporation tax) Personal Disposable Income: (Personal Income) – (Direct taxes paid by households and miscellaneous receipts of govt. administrative departments) Domestic Saving of the household Sector: Financial saving and saving in fixed assets by the household sector. Consumer Handbook - Introduction 3
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Income Distribution Even though India’s total household income and saving can be known from National Accounts Statistics, it does not provide the same information across economic groups. Therefore, the pattern of distribution of total income and saving across households with different economic status is not known. Thus, “What share of India’s total personal disposable income comes from the richest 10% of the households?” or “Do the poorest 10% of the households save anything at all?” – these questions remain unanswered from government data. Moreover, per household income or savings, for households with different economic status is also not known. This typically requires using data from household surveys. The problem with using survey data to estimate aggregates on a all India basis is that surveys – no matter how well they have been conducted – tend to under-report incomes and expenditures. As a consequence, we require various types of quantiatiative excercises to correct for this under- reporting. Using data from NSSO, CSO, National Data Survey on Savings Patterns of Indians (NDSSPI), and a host of other databases, a team at Indicus Analytics was able to estimate the distribution of incomes at an all India level. Income and expenditure distributions rarely differ too much from each other. Comparison with Other Data We compare individual income such as National Sample Survey conducted by CSO or the Market Information Survey of Household (MISH) conducted by NCAER. In order to do that we estimated income across various quintile groups generated on the basis of the following: • Per capita income • Per earner income • Per household income The comparative results are put below in Table 3. We find that whatever be the unit, and whether economic classification of households is based on expenditures or incomes, whether at the household level or per person level, the distribution of Indian households across economic groupings are similar and generally within 5 percentage range. Consumer Handbook - Introduction 4
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Table 2. Pattern of Income Distribution(%) in India: 1993 to 2004 Income Shares Quintile1 Quintile5 Or Or Bottom 20% Quintile2 Quintile3 Quintile4 Top 20% Top 10% Top 5% Top 1% Per Capita NDSSP 2003-04 5.2 9.5 15.1 20.0 50.3 34.4 23.1 9.0 NSS 1993 4.0 8.6 13.4 21.2 52.9 36.3 24.2 8.5 1999 3.8 7.5 11.8 19.6 57.4 41.0 28.4 10.7 NCAER - MISH 1993 6.3 10.1 14.2 20.8 48.6 33.7 23.4 10.4 1998 6.3 10.5 15.3 22.2 45.7 30.1 19.7 7.6 Per Earner NDSSP 2003-04 4.6 8.2 12.3 20.1 54.8 38.1 26.1 10 NSS 1993 3.8 7.8 11.8 19.4 57.3 38.6 24.2 7.5 1999 3.5 6.6 10 17 62.9 43.5 28.7 10.3 NCAER-MIMAP 1994 4.4 7.4 11.9 20.9 55.5 34.5 22.1 7.5 Per Household NDSSP 2003-04 6.1 10.5 14.9 21.9 46.5 30.6 19.6 7.3 NSS 1993 4.1 8.7 13.6 22.3 51.3 33.7 21.5 6.9 1999 4.0 7.9 12.2 20.6 55.3 37.9 25.1 8.9 NCAER-MIMAP 1994 5.7 9.4 13.4 20.7 50.9 34.6 22.7 8.0 Source: Bhalla, Surjit Singh. (2004), Reforming Personal Income Tax in India, Oxus Research & Investments, New Delhi, India.. NCAER, NDSSP: National Data Survey on Saving Patterns, NSS: National Sample Survey, NCAER-MISH: National Council for Applied Economic Research - Market Information Survey of Household and Indicus Estimates Consumer Handbook - Introduction 5
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Changes in distribution over time A study by Debroy and Bhandari (2007) supports the argument that inequality is in fact increasing in India. The most used measure for inequality is the Gini coefficient, the higher the value of the Gini, the greater the inequality levels. The table below shows rural and urban inequality levels state-wise since 1983. The broad insight is, that across almost all the states, ineuqlity levels have increased. Table 3a: Gini Ratios based on per capita consumption expenditure States/UTs 1983 1983 1993-94 1993-94 2004-05 2004-05 Rural Urban Rural* Urban* Rural* Urban* Andhra Pradesh 0.294 0.327 0.290 0.323 0.294 0.375 Arunachal Pradesh - - 0.306 0.279 0.280 0.248 Assam 0.192 0.276 0.179 0.290 0.199 0.320 Bihar/Jharkhand 0.256 0.301 0.225 0.309 0.213 0.355 Goa 0.287 0.297 0.313 0.278 0.322 0.419 Gujarat 0.256 0.172 0.239 0.291 0.273 0.310 Haryana 0.272 0.313 0.311 0.284 0.339 0.366 Himachal Pradesh 0.264 0.312 0.284 0.462 0.310 0.326 Jammu & Kashmir 0.222 0.238 0.241 0.286 0.247 0.249 Karnataka 0.303 0.334 0.269 0.319 0.266 0.369 Kerala 0.33 0.374 0.301 0.343 0.381 0.410 Madhya Pradesh/Chhattisgarh 0.295 0.306 0.281 0.331 0.277 0.407 Maharashtra 0.285 0.337 0.307 0.358 0.312 0.378 Manipur 0.269 0.169 0.154 0.157 0.160 0.177 Meghalaya - - 0.281 0.245 0.162 0.263 Mizoram 0.141 0.187 0.173 0.182 0.201 0.249 Nagaland - - 0.165 0.201 0.229 0.242 Orissa 0.267 0.296 0.246 0.307 0.285 0.353 Punjab 0.279 0.319 0.282 0.281 0.294 0.402 Rajasthan 0.343 0.304 0.265 0.293 0.250 0.371 Sikkim - 0.332 0.212 0.255 0.273 0.257 Tamil Nadu 0.325 0.348 0.312 0.348 0.322 0.361 Tripura - - 0.243 0.283 0.219 0.342 Uttar Pradesh/Uttarakhand 0.29 0.319 0.282 0.326 0.291 0.367 West Bengal 0.286 0.327 0.254 0.339 0.274 0.383 Andaman & Nicobar Islands 0.303 - 0.254 0.404 0.336 0.376 Chandigarh 0.254 - 0.246 0.468 0.253 0.360 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 0.244 - 0.259 0.325 0.355 0.301 Daman & Diu 0.287 0.297 0.261 0.212 0.264 0.261 Delhi 0.314 0.332 0.277 0.406 0.282 0.336 Lakshadweep - - 0.257 0.306 0.317 0.394 Pondicherry 0.275 0.383 0.304 0.301 0.348 0.316 All India 0.298 0.33 0.286 0.344 0.305 0.376 Source: * - Author Estimates from NSS 1993-94 & 2004-05 Consumption Expenditure Rounds. Consumer Handbook - Introduction 6
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net This of course has many ramifications for consumer markets. Greater inequality levels reflect that the higher economic segments are rising relatively faster than the lower ones. But it is not that the poorest segments are necessarily becoming worse off, as the following discussion shows. For both rural and urban India, the highest increase in average per earner income has been for the relatively poor (the bottom 20%) and the relatively rich (the top 20%), with the middle (particularly the third quintile) becoming squeezed. This is a trend that is more marked for urban India than for rural India. Table 4b, which shows the shares of the quintiles in total income, reinforces the picture. The share of the top 20% in total income has increased, particularly sharply for urban India. However, subject to some differences between rural and urban India, the squeeze in incomes has primarily been for the second, third and fourth quartiles, not so much for the bottom 20%. The squeeze is also more for urban India than for rural India. Table 3b: Average annual per capita income for wage and salary earners (in constant 2004-05 prices) Quintiles 1993-94 2004-05 Annualized growth b/ w 1993-94 2004-05 Rural Income Quintiles RQ1 – Lowest 20% in rural areas 4,226 11,808 9.8% RQ2 8,347 21,562 9.0% RQ3 12,262 31,032 8.8% RQ4 17,203 44,496 9.0% RQ5– Highest 20% in rural areas 43,827 129,945 10.4% Total 17,172 47,767 9.7% Urban Income Quintiles UQ1 – Lowest 20% in urban areas 7,889 23,285 10.3% UQ2 18,854 47,771 8.8% UQ3 32,258 75,890 8.1% UQ4 55,041 145,628 9.2% UQ5 – Highest 20% in urban areas 109,979 378,040 11.9% Total 44,802 134,113 10.5% Source: Author Estimates from NSSO 1993-94 and 2004-05 Employment & Unemployment Rounds. Notes: Since survey data typically under-report incomes and expenditures the reported incomes have been appropriately adjusted using the ratio of reported aggregate expenditures in NSSO and total household expenditures in NAS, as the adjustment factor. The percentage change pattern is not affected significantly due to this adjustment though the quantum is. All figures are in 2004-05 prices calculated on the basis of CPI-AL for rural and CPI-UNME for urban, at the state level. RQI/UQ1 refers to bottom-most quintile in rural/urban areas and RQ5/UQ5 refers to upper-most quintile in rural/urban areas. The point being made is that increasing inequality does not mean that poverty is rising, there is incrotovertible evidence that poverty levels in India have been Consumer Handbook - Introduction 7
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net falling in almost all the states. Currently, among the larger states, J&K, Punjab and Himachal have the lowest poverty levels. Among the smaller states, Meghalaya, Manipur and Mizoram follwed by Arunachal tend to have poverty levels in the single digits. Orissa, Bihar, UP and MP have amongst the highest poverty levels amongst the larger states. Note that these states also tend to have low inequality levels, indicating that overall these states are poor with high levels of deprivation. Table 4: State-wise Poverty Ratios (%) 50th Round States 61st Round Percentage point (1993-94) (2004-05) change b/w 1993-94 & 2004-05 Large States Assam 41.40 20.38 -21.02 Himachal Pradesh 28.63 9.83 -18.80 Bihar + Jharkhand* 54.92 41.98 -12.94 Tamil Nadu 35.45 22.79 -12.66 West Bengal 37.02 24.73 -12.29 Haryana 25.02 13.57 -11.45 Kerala 25.02 14.80 -10.23 Karnataka 32.89 24.34 -8.55 Jammu & Kashmir 13.18 5.06 -8.12 Uttar Pradesh + Uttarakhand* 40.79 33.03 -7.77 Gujarat 24.20 16.96 -7.24 Andhra Pradesh 21.82 14.79 -7.03 Maharashtra 36.99 30.59 -6.40 Rajasthan 27.46 21.44 -6.02 Madhya Pradesh + Chhattisgarh* 42.57 38.92 -3.65 Punjab 11.27 8.14 -3.13 Orissa 48.69 46.61 -2.09 Small States Arunachal Pradesh 37.00 9.90 -27.10 Meghalaya 21.29 3.11 -18.18 Sikkim 29.38 14.33 -15.05 Manipur 15.54 3.35 -12.19 Goa 14.93 10.92 -4.01 Mizoram 4.26 1.69 -2.57 Nagaland 1.68 - -1.68 Tripura 21.29 30.52 9.23 All India 35.86 27.47 -8.38 Source: Estimates by Amaresh Dubey from NSS 2004-05 Consumption Expenditure Rounds. Notes: * - Undivided States Consumer Handbook - Introduction 8
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net A comparison of the State level GDP growth and poverty reduction shows that indeed, those states that have had higher levels of growth have been able to reduce poverty levels much more than those with lower GDP growth. This is an important learning for policy and marketers alike. Indeed, greater growth is a very good predictor of the rise in consumer buying power. Figure 1: Poverty reduction and GSDP growth between 1993-94 and 2004-05 (Large States) % Growth in GSDP WB 7 Kar HP Guj Har 6 AP Ker Raj Mah 5 TN JK Bih Ori Pun UP MP 4 Asm 3 0 5 10 15 20 Percentage point reduction in poverty Notes: Bihar includes Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh includes Chhattisgarh and Uttar Pradesh includes Uttarakhand. Consumer Handbook - Introduction 9
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net The above data use state level insights. (See Debroy and Bhandari (2007)) But if we bring occupation also into the analysis, a highly interesting set of insights are derived. There is an interesting link between the percentage reporting themselves as self-employed and the level of inequality. This is partly obvious from the following figures. About 52% of the Indian work force reports itself as self-employed. Table 6 below shows Gini coefficients across employment categories. Gini coefficients are lower for the self-employed category. Stated differently, self-employment is a dampener on inequality and it is also probably the case that in countries where inequality has not shot up, a facilitating environment has been created for self-employment to thrive and foster. This is also true of India in the inter-State comparison, a proposition reinforced by Figure 2, which plots the percentage of self-employed in States against the level of inequality. In States where self-employment is high, inequality tends to be lower. In other words, higher levels of inequality are observed when there is greater dependence on wage based occupations. Table 5: Gini coefficients across employment categories GINI based on incomes of salaried/ wageearmers– 2004-05 Employment Categories All India Rural 0.305 All India Urban 0.376 All India Total 0.363 Self Employed Rural 0.294 Self Employed Urban 0.362 Self Employed Total 0.333 Employed Rural 0.313 Employed Urban 0.384 Employed Total 0.394 Agriculture (self-employed+ employed)- Rural 0.281 Self employed agriculture- Rural 0.284 Employed agriculture- Rural 0.233 Source: Author estimates from NSS 2004-05 Employment & Unemployment Round. Consumer Handbook - Introduction 10
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Figure 2: Percentage Self Employed Households and Gini (based on NSS 2004-05 Consumption Expenditure Round) 45.00 40.00 35.00 Gini (expenditure based) 30.00 25.00 20.00 30.00 35.00 40.00 45.00 50.00 55.00 60.00 65.00 70.00 75.00 80.00 % Indiv. in Self Employed Households Table 6: Average annual income growth across education categories for wage and salary earners (in constant 2004-05 prices) General Education 1993-94 2004-05 Annualized growth b/w 1993-94 & 2004-05 Not literate 13,171 32,362 8.5% Literate below primary 18,220 42,709 8.1% Primary 21,377 49,962 8.0% Middle 28,144 62,271 7.5% Secondary 46,634 103,602 7.5% Higher Secondary 55,789 139,600 8.7% Graduates & above 85,515 270,103 11.0% Total 24,980 73,145 10.3% Source: Author Estimates from NSSO 1993-94 and 2004-05 Employment & Unemployment Rounds. Notes: Since survey data typically under-report incomes and expenditures the reported incomes have been appropriately adjusted using the ratio of reported aggregate expenditures in NSSO and total household expenditures in NAS, as the adjustment factor. The percentage change pattern is not affected significantly due to this adjustment though the quantum is. All figures are in 2004-05 prices calculated on the basis of CPI-AL for rural and CPI-UNME for urban, at the state level. Consumer Handbook - Introduction 11
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Table 7 shows the average annual income growth across education categories and highlights the lack of education/skills as perhaps the single most important source of income differentials. The impact of reforms in creating greater opportunities is not the issue; the issue is related to the ability of the available human resources to benefit from such opportunities. The poor educational regime both at the primary and higher levels is aiding the other forces that push towards increasing inequalities. Differences in relative growth aside, it is quite apparent that economic growth has led to high levels of income growth across the board. This has created greater opportunitiesfor all kinds of marketers, whether oriented at the bootm of the pyramid, or at niche commodities aimed at the higher income segments. This Volume This volume contains the following sections, each of which reflects an integral and important aspect of consumer markets in India. These are briefly reviewed .below Consumption and National Accounts: The national accounts provide an overview of the Indian economy and how it is growing over time. A good aggregate picture is found in the estimates of India’s GDP, national income, and how these translate into savings and expenditures. High growth enables households to both save more and spend more, as the Indian experience since the 1990s has shown. IN fact savings are growing more rapidly than any other macro- indicator. However when compared with China, our achievements are not as impressive. Consumer Demography is the cornerstone around which most marketers build their strategies. This section provides insights into age distribution and the famed demographic dividend that India is enjoying, and going to benefit from in the next few decades. It shows the historical growth of population and how India’s population density is rising rapidly. For instance, India had a population density that was about twice that of China in 1961, but is much higher now. Life expectancy is also rising though slowly. The section also looks at family structures, and marriage status, apart from the overall population break-ups to provide a better overview of the state of Indian demography. Consumer Handbook - Introduction 12
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Education is an important aspect that reflects a range of insights on incomes and expenditures. Greater education levels affect long term incomes, and the trends there are quite apparent across time. Rural areas typically have lower education levels and so do females. However, we find that among the younger age groups the male-female differences have narrowed over time, having tremendous implications on not only economic variables but also lifestyles. The youth will drive the India of tomorrow and today’s youth are far better educated than the older age groups. The affluent and Income distribution is perhaps the most important determinant of market potential. We find that though the lowest income groups are the largest in terms of numbers, in terms of aggregate incomes it is the higher income groups that together earn much more. This in turn impacts the range of commodities that are available for the better off vis-à-vis the poor. Incomes also affect the savings potential, and though all income groups have positive savings, it is the highest income groups that not surprisingly save the most. The richest Indians in terms of incomes tend to be located in a few metros – Mumbai and Delhi being the most popular residences, and it is expected that if the IT boom continues Bangalore will catch up very fast. The Affluent sections have the highest incomes and the highest savings rate as well. They are more likely to be in urban areas, and save as much as a third of their incomes. This is true across both rural and urban areas. With greater economic growth, the number of affluent will grow much faster than that of the lower economic classes. For marketers of premium products, therefore the importance of this segment will only rise. Asset penetration and Activities and assets and Household Characteristics of a range of household items are best understood through their usage of household amenities including electricity and LPG. We find that hough a large number of households do have this access, many remain uncovered. Whether it is toilets or access to LPG or even basic electricity, there is a large segment of the population that is yet to access these services. Moreover, few number of rooms, lack of a kitchen also affect the ability of households to use many durables. As incomes gorw and government programs deepen the spread of electricity, and as the relative prices of durables reduce, such items will penetrate more and more into the Indian market. Consumer Handbook - Introduction 13
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Expenditure on food and other items reflect how different types of household differ in their consumption habits. It is well known that poorer households spend a larger share of their total budget on food and within food on cereals. Specific food items are consumed differently by different kinds of households; a large proportion of the Indian population is non-vegetarian, a very large proportion consumes green leafy vegetables on a regular basis, in some cases consumption habits differ between men and women and are very similar in the case of some items. Finance and Investment is a critical aspect for better understanding savings behaviour of Indian households. A large proportion of Indian households save in banks, post offices, insurance linked schemes, informal instruments and so on. The greater the education the greater the dependence on formal instruments such as commercial bank savings accounts. Increasingly equity and mutual funds are becoming more and more popular. The growth of these items is very well reflected in the growth of the investments by these organizations. Forecasts and Projections of economic variables provide a picture into how things are going to unfold in the foreseeable future. This in turn helps us to better understand the actions that need to be taken today for being well placed in the future. India’s population will continue to grow before starting to stabilize in the next few decades. Its GDP is also expected to continue its rapid upward trajectory through the next few decades. International comparisons show how India’s growth is expected to be vis-à-vis other large developing countries. Indices are created by aggregating many different quantitative variables. Each index seeks to reflect certain aspect of the state or city that it seeks to rate. We find that certain locations are among the best to reside in, but are not necessarily the best to invest in. Such ratings and rankings make it easier for the decisionmaker to prioritise their actions. Access to Media, Internet and Telecom usage is growing rapidly in the country, and is expected to eventually penetrate into every household in the country. Greater penetration of media, and telcom, it is well known changes households in many ways and affects a range of household activities; households getting access to internet for instance have been known to change their banking habits, entertainment habits, social communications and networking as well as a range of other lifestyle changes. Consumer Handbook - Introduction 14
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Consumer markets can be reported in many different ways, size of the market in terms of number of people or households, size of the market in terms of the total or aggregate disposable incomes in those markets, or the aggregate expenditure of people or households. Therev are 35 states and Union Territories in India; among cities there are more than 5000 cities and towns, but the top 100 odd cities account for a large majority of the urban population and an even larger share of household expenditures. These and many more insights are available from a range of tables culled from some of the most repected publications on Indian consumer markets. Per Capita Income & Savings 300 250 Amount (Rs.Thousand) 200 150 100 50 0 14 40 1 7 21 28 34 46 53 59 66 72 78 84 90 96 -50 Household Percentiles based on economic status Per Capita Income Per Capita Savings Consumer Handbook - Introduction 15
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Per Household Expenditure 700000 600000 500000 (Rs.Thousand) Expenditure 400000 300000 200000 100000 0 1 7 14 21 28 34 40 46 53 59 66 72 78 84 90 96 Percentiles Per Household Expenditure Consumer Handbook - Introduction 16
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Household Consumption Expenditure 600,000,000,000 500,000,000,000 400,000,000,000 300,000,000,000 Amount (Rs.) 200,000,000,000 100,000,000,000 0 41 46 51 71 76 96 1 6 11 16 21 26 31 36 56 61 66 81 86 91 Household Percentiles Cons. Services, taxes, entertainment, rent, fuel, toiletries and other misclleneous expenses Education Medical Clothing & Footwear Durables High Value Food Basic Food Consumer Handbook - Introduction 17
Indicus Analytics, An Economics Research Firm www.indicus.net Percentage share of expenditure on different items by each percentile 100% 80% % share of expenditure 60% 100% 40% 20% 0% 1 7 13 19 25 31 37 43 49 55 61 67 73 79 85 91 97 Household Percentile Cons. Services, entertainment, rent, fuel, toiletries and Misc. Education Medical Clothing & Footwear Durables High Value Food Basic Food Consumer Handbook - Introduction 18
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