Published on December 30, 2013
INDIAN HISTORY AND CULTURE PROJECT BSC MATHEMATICS HONS 1ST SEM. SECTION-B PARTH NAGPAL 11332576
ON A MAP, PLOT TEN TOWNS WHICH HAVE NOW BECAME BIG CITIES AND DISCUSS REASONS FOR THE SAME FOR TWO OF THOSE.
THE TEN CITIES • • • • • • • • • • Asansol Faridabad Ghaziabad Indore Jaipur Nashik Patna Pune Rajkot Surat
ASANSOL • Asansol is the second largest city and urban agglomeration in West Bengal after Kolkata and the 39th largest urban agglomeration in India. • Asansol is located in the Burdwan District of India. • According to a 2010 report released by the International Institute for Environment and Development, a UK-based policy research nongovernmental body, Asansol is ranked 11th among Indian cities and 42nd in the world in its list of 100 fastest-growing cities. • As per the recommendations of the Sixth Central Pay Commission, Asansol has been listed as a Y-category city for calculation of HRA (House Rent Allowance) for public servants. It happens to be the only non-Z category city in West Bengal apart from Kolkata which belongs to the X category.
FARIDABAD • Faridabad is the largest city in Haryana. • The district shares its boundaries with Delhi to its north, Gurgaon district to the west and Uttar Pradesh to its east and south. • The river Yamuna forms the eastern district boundary with Uttar Pradesh. • The Delhi-Agra National Highway No.2 passes through the centre of the district. • The city has many railway stations on the Delhi-Mathura double track broad-gauge line of the North Central Railway. • Faridabad is also a major industrial hub of Haryana.50% of the income tax collected in Haryana is from Faridabad and Gurgaon. • Faridabad is famous for henna production from the agricultural sector, while tractors, motorcycles, switch gears, refrigerators, shoes and tyres constitute its primary industrial products.
GHAZIABAD • Ghaziabad is a city in Uttar Pradesh,sometimes referred to as the "Gateway of UP" because it neighbours New Delhi and is the main route to Uttar Pradesh. • It is a part of the National Capital Region of Delhi. • It is a large and planned industrial city, well connected by roads and railways, and is the administrative headquarters of Ghaziabad District as well as being the primary commercial, industrial and educational centre of western Uttar Pradesh. • Recent construction works have led to the city being described by a City Mayors Foundation survey as the second-fastest growing in the world.
JAIPUR • Jaipur is the capital and largest city of Rajasthan. • It was founded on 18 November 1727 by Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, the ruler of Amber, after whom the city has been named. • The city is unusual among pre-modern Indian cities in the regularity of its streets, and the division of the city into six sector. • The urban quarters are further divided by networks of gridded streets. • The Palace quarter encloses the Hawa Mahal palace complex, formal gardens, and a small lake. • Nahargarh Fort, which was the residence of the King Sawai Jai Singh II, crowns the hill in the northwest corner of the old city. • The observatory, Jantar Mantar, is one of the World Heritage Sites. • Included on the Golden Triangle tourist circuit, along with Delhi and Agra, Jaipur is an extremely popular tourist destination in Rajasthan and India.
NASHIK • Nashik is located in the north-west of Maharashtra, 171 km (106 mi) from Mumbai and 210 km (130 mi) from Pune. • It is the biggest city of North Maharashtra and 11th most populated district in India with a population of 6,109,052. • Nasik is the highest producer of grapes in India along with onions. • The Nassak Diamond, derives its name from the fact that it long remained in the Trimbakeshwar Shiva Temple, near Nashik. • Subsequently ranked as fourth fastest growing city of India and sixteenth of the world, Nashik won Best Tourist Friendly City of India, • It is the third largest city of Maharshtra after Mumbai and Pune. • Nasik is shortlisted in Delhi Mumbai Industrial Corridor(DMIC) as an investment region for the circle Igatpuri-Nasik-Sinnar and is capable of changing face of the city.
PATNA • Patna is the capital of Bihar, its most populous city and the second most populous city in Eastern India. • It acts as a centre for almost whole of Bihar, and also serves the market for Northern and Western Jharkhand and villages of Eastern Uttar Pradesh. • It is the administrative, industrial and educational centre of the state. • Patna is one of the oldest continuously inhabited places in the world. • In June 2009, the World Bank ranked Patna second in India (after Delhi) for ease of starting a business. • As of 2004-2005, Patna had the highest per capita gross district domestic product in Bihar, at INR 31,441. • Using figures for assumed average annual growth, Patna is the 21st fastest growing city in the world and 5th fastest growing city in India by the City Mayors' Foundation. • Patna is also a sacred city for Sikhs as the last Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, was born here.
RAJKOT • Rajkot is the fourth largest city in Gujarat, after Ahmedabad, Surat, and Vadodara. • Rajkot is the 35th-largest urban agglomeration in India, with a population more than 1.6 million as of 2012. • Rajkot is also the 22nd-fastest-growing city in the world. • The city contains the administrative headquarters of the Rajkot District, 245 km from the state capital Gandhinagar, and is located on the banks of the Aji and Nyari Rivers. • Rajkot was the capital of the Saurashtra State from 15 April 1948 to 31 October 1956, before its merger to Bombay State on 1 November 1956. • Rajkot was reincorporated into Gujarat State from May 1, 1960.
SURAT • Surat, previously known as Surya, is a city in Gujarat. • It is also administrative capital of the Surat district. • The city is located 306 km south of Gandhinagar, and is situated on the left bank of the Tapti River (Tapi), the center being around 22 km (14 mi) from the river's mouth. • Surat is Gujarat's second largest city and India's eighth most populated city (in terms of population living what is known as the Municipal Corporation area), with a population of 4.5 million. • The city registered an annualized GDP growth rate of 11.5 per cent over the seven fiscal years between 2001 and 2008 • The city is largely recognized for its textile and diamond businesses. • It is also known as the diamond capital of the world and the textile capital/Manchester textile city of India, a distinction it took over from Ahmedabad. • 92% of the world's diamonds are cut and polished in Surat
REASONS FOR THE GROWTH OF INDORE AND PUNE
MADHYA PRADESH TOWN AND CITIES Indore has the highest development rate in compare to the other cities with respect to infrastructures and is the busiest & most advanced business hubs in India. Rank 1 2 3 4 5 6 13 14 22 29 Urban Agglomeration Greater Mumbai Kolkata Delhi Chennai Bangalore Hyderabad Nagpur Indore jabalpur bhopal Persons 1,63,68,084 1,32,16,546 1,27,91,458 64,24,624 56,86,844 55,33,640 30,22,965 24,39,044 20,90,486 18,76,598
EARLY SETTLEMENTS AND GROWTH PATTERN • Actually Indore was a resting place for a oldest pilgrimage route for Ujjain then Martha's used it as a route towards northern India • The city settlement initiated due to trade and commerce and thus it remains the dominant features of the city
PROCESS OF GROWTH & DEVLOPMENT OF THE CITY :-- • As a religious route • As a fertile agriculture land with farmer settlement And traders • As an industrial town • As a Commercial city of Madhya Pradesh Stage wise urban transformation No. year Area in kms popullation 1 1741 N.A N.A 2 1800 4.0 20000 3 1850 9.0 40000 4 1900 13.4 99.880 5 1950 17.2 3,10,859 6 2000 131.5 20,00000 7 2011 145 26,00000 8 2020 N.A 3200000
GRADUAL CHANGE FROM A VILLAGE INDARESHWAR TO A COMMERCIAL CITY INDORE. YEAR- 1850 Population:45,000.Area: 9.0 sq.km. 1. Development of the city as Military town,and later took shape of agricultural area. 2. In 1818 the Holkars shifted the capital from Maheshwar to Indore.Holkar’s capital at Indore provided new forces for development of the city. 3. Development of the market street (Aara Bazar).
YEAR- 1900 Population:99,880.Area:13.4 sq.km. 1. Further development of industrial area: textile,steel, oil producingstarted acting likemagnet. 2. Development of railway link joining the pilgrimage routes, trade and commerce grew upmaking the city commercially important. 3. Development of city accelerated with rail connection. 4. Development of State Highway helped in expansion of the city. 5. Development of city in all directions: expansion more in east-west direction. 6. Industries and their colonies started developing along the river bank. 7. In 1912 Shri H.V. Lancaster was invited by the local body to advice in respect of expansion and improvement of the city. 8. In 1918 Sir Patrick Geddes was invited by Maharaja Tukoji Rao Holkar for advice. He prepared sanitation and water supply schemes, industrial development schemes, suburban development,housing schemes and housing etc
Year- 1950 Population:3,10,859. Area:17.2 Sq.Km. 1. Development Of The Industrial Township At Northern Part: Sanwer, Pologround. 2. The City Started Expanding Towards The North And East-west Direction Due To The Development Of Industries In Dewas, Pithampur And Sanwer. 3. The Suburbs Developed Fast. 4. With Growing Industrialization And Better Connectivity, Rapid Development Of The City Took Place. This Resulted Into Large Scale Migration And Sudden Increase In Population. Year- 2000 Population: 20, 00000.Area: 131.0sq.Km. 1. The River Edges Became Close With Industrial Buildings And The River Was Lost To The City. 2. The Area Between Development Axis And Industrial Area On North Side Got Saturated. 3. Large Scale Slum-dwellers And Encroachments, Unthoughtful Changing In Landuses And Lack Of Management Of Resources has Resulted Into Fast Depletion Of Land And Water Resources.
Year- 2010 Population: 2600000 (Envisaged).Area: 145 Sq.Km. 1. City Considered Under Jnnurm For Urban Development. 2. Lot Of Encroachments Planned To Be Removed, still City And Periphery covered For Residential And Commercial Use Like Beehives. 3. Large Scale Residential And Commercial Development. 4. Roads Being Reconstructed Under Brts
POPULATION DENSITY OF INDORE • The average growth rate of Indore has been 40% which is higher as compared to the national growth rate @25.7 % Female population is 912 per 1000 males, which indicates difficult housing situation for working migrants. • An Urban Agglomerations denotes a continuous urban spread and normally consists of a town and its adjoining urban outgrowths or two or more physically contiguous towns together with well recognised outgrowths.
LAND USE DISTRIBUTION OF INDORE IN PRESENT SCENARIO Geographically Indore spreads in an area of 145 sq.kms. (Source : town planning deptt.) Land use Perca ntage % residential 4449 53% commercial 550 6% industrial 793 9% Public /semipublic 1071 13% recreational 279 3% transport 1273 15% waterbodies In the development plan-1991, 1500 hectares of land was provided for industrial purpose but according to master plan 2011, 2200 hectares of land is needed for the same. Hence 700 hectares additional land has to be additionally planned intelligently for industry. As far as location is considered, industries have been classified into four categories viz. general, obnoxious, agro-based, household Area (hectures) 128 1% Complexity in the planning can be observe in the centre as these were the areas with early settlement which were spontaneous and organic As with the development a better understanding was observe and roads started to be longer in length connecting to the major roads.
INDORE’S ECONOMIC CONDITION • Indore is the commercial capital of Central India with Large, Medium and Small scale industries. • These industries range from Automobiles to Pharmaceutical and from Petroleum Refineries to Textile. • Indore’s major source of income is from Education, Textile, Jewellery and Metal Works Industries. • With an establishment of automobile industry production of optical fiber for telecommunication also started which in past 5 yrs had generated a business of 3000 corers and thus giving direct or indirect employment to 35000 people’s. • Indore contributes to about 40% of the total productivity of the State and about 7% of the total investments in equity markets in India. • The surplus labour, which was unable to enter the formal market/sector was mainly absorbed in the informal sector. • Major industrial areas in and surrounding the city include the Pithampur Special Economic Zone and the Sanwer Industrial belt having about 2000 factories of various sizes. Pithampur is also known as ‘Detroit of India’
INFRASTRUCTURE AND DEVLOPMENT APPROACH In today’s development scenario Indore is the fastest developing cities of India Chatrasaal choraha Infrastructure in Indore facilitates production of goods, services and also the distribution of finished products to the market. Treasure market Indore is also good in basic social services such as hospitals and educational institution. Itis only city in india to have both the prime institution IIT & IIM. Indore medical college
WATER SUPPLY AND RESOURCES Source Approx. Daily Supply (Ml/day) MIN MAX Narmada Water Supply Project: 140 140 Yashwant Sagar Tank on Gambhir River: 18 Municipal Tubewells 13 18 Bilawali Tank 0 4.5 Water available (ML/day) 171 199.5 Theoretical percapita water availabilitybase d 30 % losses (2.22 million people) 72 litre/da y 84 litre/d ay 27 MLD - Mega Litre per day (1 Mega Litre = 1000 Kilo Litre) • The water supply in the city is unsatisfactory on account of high losses and inefficiencies in the system. • The growth of urban population, estimated at 4% to 5% per annum, and the rapid urbanisation has significant influence on water demand and exerting pressures on the available water sources, leading to over exploitation of groundwater resources. Around 68 per cent of city’s population receives water between one or two hours every alternative day, while the other areas augment supplies by water tankers. UN Habitat in co-ordination with Asian development bank is checking the present water supply situation in Indore. In view of the proposed new water augmentation scheme to supply more water to Indore through a new $240 million pipeline.
REFORMS AND DEVELOPMENT APPROACH Due to rapid urbanization ,people from the different parts of the country is migrating toward Indore in search of employment and thus they land up to the place with low rental (congested) places .SLUMS… Slum less Indore has still to remain pipeline …??.... The project under JNNURM has suffered due to IMC failure to utilize the funds before purpose of and escalation of the cost. Under SRRA the city should have become free from slum by march 2010 Target is not achieved, 5yr scheme of JNNURM is about to end Today 35 % of cities total population lives in slum and another 15 % in unauthorized colonies without any adequate infrastructure. Thus adding upto 50 % to informal sector To have a slum less Indore IDA had been indulging in large scale brutal demolition of slum without any prior management to rehabilitate them thus leaving the mass homeless.
CONNECTIVITY OF INDORE Indore city is well connected by an expressway, several national and state highways, whereas rail network bifurcates the city exactly from the center. The city transportation system is predominantly dependent on roadway systems. Indore to Bhopal express way
CONCLUSION Indore is a fast growing city as far as commerce, industry and population is concerned. For life of any successful urban centre: 1. Heart line is water supply system. 2. Brain line is the knowledge of residents. 3. Life line is accessibility and approach to the city. Indore’s road network is very strong. It is the biggest cross-section centre of India related to goods trading through road-ways. India’s first private radio channel (Radio-Mirchi) and first private land-line telephone service (Airtel) came to Indore as people of Indore have highest paying capacity in India. Major problem in Indore is Water, which is unable to meet the demand. Floating population is high due to Indore being educational hub of Central India, the same is maximum during summers when there’s load on resources as Indore doesn’t have any river passing by which can serve it with water.
OVERVIEW • Pune is the seventh largest city in India and second largest city in Maharashtra after Mumbai. • Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC) jurisdiction extends up to an area of 243.84 sq. km. housing 2.54 million populace within 144 wards. • Referred as ‘Detroit of India’, the city has experienced a long standing urbantradition: first as an historical centre of pre-colonial urbanism, then as an important military centre during British rule, after independence as a rapidly growing contemporary industrial centre, and today identified as a growing metropolis. • Pune, also known as an ‘Oxford of India’, houses six Universities with about 600 functional higher education centers catering to an estimated 5 lakh student population. • Additionally, Pune is popularly nicknamed as ‘Queen of Deccan’, ‘Pensioners Paradise’, ‘Cultural Capital of Maharashtra’, ‘Cyber City’ etc. owing to its location, pleasant climate, historical importance, vibrant culture and upcoming IT-BT centers.
PUNE METROPOLITAN REGION (PMR) • Urban development in PMC is greatly interlinked and supported by its surrounding areas. • Considering this, boundaries of PMR were defined in early 1967. • Spread out over an area of approximately 1,340 sq. km. in Haveli Taluk of Pune District, PMR consists of Pune Municipal Corporation (PMC), Pimpri Chinchwad Municipal Corporation (PCMC), Pune Cantonment (PC), and Khadki Cantonment (KC) and close to 100 other census towns and villages.
URBANIZATION AND POPULATION GROWTH TREND • Urbanization and urban population growth are pointers towards the change in the occupational pattern of the community, from agriculture and allied livelihoods to industrial and other non-agriculture occupations. • The population growth for PMR is shown in Figure 3.3. • PMC has a population of 2.54 million (2001) which accounts for 35 percent of the total urbanpopulation in Pune District and 60 percent of total PMR population. • The PMC’s population has grown from 1.57 million in 1991 to 2.54 million in 2001, and in the last decade experienced a compounded annual growth rate (CAGR) of 4.94 percent. • PMC’s growth is not limited to few but influenced by various factors: • It is the most preferred destination for many citizens in Maharashtra for job, education,healthcare treatment, real estate investment, better quality of life etc. as Mumbai is already crowded complied with comparatively high cost of life. • Rapid growth of the city however mainly attributed to industrialization of PMC/PCMC after 1960 and expansion of information technology (IT) industry in the last decade.
AREA AND POPULATION DENSITY • PMC jurisdiction extends up to an area of 243.84 sq. km. which constitutes approximately 20 percent of the total PMR area. • Since 1951, PMC area has to almost doubled from 125.75 sq. km. to 243.84 sq. km. • An average population density as per Census 2001 for PMC is 10,410 persons/sq. km. • Population density ranges from as low as 1,476 persons /sq. km. to as high as 182,049 persons/sq. km. The Urban Development Plans • Formulation and Implementation (UDPFI) guideline indicate average density of around 15,000 persons/sq. km. for the city, whereas in PMC, almost 60 percent of the wards have higher densities than the prescribed norm. • Population densities are higher in the old city wards, and wards along major transport corridors.
WORKFORCE PARTICIPATION • Workforce participation ratio for PMC at 34.08 percent (Census 2001) has shown an increase from Census 1991 value of 31.88 percent (Table 3.2). • Since work category wise break up is not available for Census 2001, Census 1991 figures are evaluated here. • Employment is mainly seen in the service sector, which also includes IT sector (30 percent of the total working population) followed by manufacturing and processing industry (25 percent) and trade and commerce activities (22 percent).
INDUSTRY • The growth of PMC is being driven by various industry segments. • Table 3.3 gives details on major existing and proposed industrial establishments in and around PMR. • Except Kharadi Knowledge Park, which is located with in PMC limits, all other industries are located outside PMC in PMR or close to PMR towards North-West, North and NorthEast. PCMC houses a majority of the industrial developments.
PCMC MIDC. • PCMC saw a spate of industrial development following the setting up of Explosives units at Khadki during World War II. • The next milestone was the entry of Kirloskar Oil Engines Ltd. into the city in the forties with which PCMC emerged as a known hub for diesel engine manufacturers. • In 1960, MIDC set up a huge industrial estate at Bhosari. It was in fact this development, which is made PCMC the hometown for production. • This development of PCMC an auto-hub has been particularly evident in the period 1960-1990. • The MIDC in PCMC is an active industrial hub, hosting close to 3,200 units in production. • With many highly rated clients such as Bajaj, Tata Motors, DGP Hinoday, Philips India Ltd. and Centura Enka to its credit, the PCMC MIDC has been instrumental in facilitating the development of the Small and Medium Enterprises in the area that are today suppliers to the bigger established players there. • Given the proximity of the PMC and the PCMC, some of the suppliers to the players in the PCMC have set up industrial operations in the PMC areas such as Hadapser or Kondwa. • In fact, one finds a lot of spilling over between the two corporation limits, whether in terms of industry logistics, talent pool or commercial business support systems.
RANJANGAON INDUSTRIAL AREA • A recent study by Maratha Chamber of Commerce Industries and Agriculture (MCCIA) reveals that in the past 5 years, nearly 25 percent of the proposed investments by medium and large scale manufacturing units in Pune are along the Nagar road belt (Shirur taluka) at Supa, Sanaswadi or Ranjangaon. • This is partly to do with the MIDC that has been developed at Ranjangaon. • Ranjangaon MIDC is given status of ‘5-star industrial area’ and avails the benefits of ‘C’ PSI zoning. • Ranjangaon is getting to be popular as a White Goods hub, primarily because of the presence of players like LG, Anchor Daewoo, National Panasonic and Whirlpool. • Some South Korean vendors of LG such as Nainko have also established operations at Ranjangaon. • This has helped in giving an MNC touch to the Ranjangaon MIDC.
CHAKAN INDUSTRIAL AREA. • MCCIA study also states that an additional 15 percent of proposals for setting up manufacturing operations are in Chakan MIDC. • At a distance of 30 km. from PMC and 20 km. from PCMC, Chakan MIDC is suitable for its strategic location. • Due to its proximity to PCMC MIDC, automobile and auto - related manufacturing operations are been set up in Chakan MIDC.
IT INDUSTRIES • PMC is emerging as a major IT centre, with sprawling software parks mushrooming all over the city and PMR area. • According to the Software Technology Parks of India (STPI), software exports from Pune has increased by 48 percent, touching the US$2 billion-mark, even surpassing Mumbai’s exports. • Today, PMR houses more than 100 IT industries, one forth of which are multinationals, who are involved in research and development, engineering services and embedded technology-related work. • The biggest IT Park in PMR is MIDC promoted Rajiv Gandhi InfoTech Park (Phase I and II) at Hinjewadi, which has witnessed a spectacular growth. • Currently spread over 305 Ha., it is likely to be expanded (additional 750 Ha.) in the next few years. Followed by Hinjewadi, Kharadi and Talawde IT Parks are also rapidly developing. • In addition to IT Parks developed by MIDC, and since GoM as permitted several private developers to establish IT Parks, a series of IT parks are coming up in residential areas such as Kharadi, Magarpatta, and Kalyani Nagar etc.
OBSERVATIONS FROM POPULATION AND EMPLOYMENT PROJECTION ANALYSIS I. PMC population will grow to 5.63 Mn. by 2031 II. PMC employment will grow to 2.36 Mn. by 2031 to have workforce participation rate of around 42 percent III. PMC average population density in 2007 will be 12,173 persons/sq. km., in 2011 will be 13,718 Persons/sq. km., in 2021 will be 18,064 persons/sq. km. and in 2031 will be 23,102 persons/sq. km. IV. Population density will be more than twice of population density in 2001. V. PMR population will grow to 11.41 Mn. by 2031. VI. PMC employment will grow to 4.85 Mn. by 2031 to have workforce participation rate of around 43 percent.
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