indian goosbbery

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Published on July 11, 2008

Author: manvendrapayak

Source: authorstream.com

INDIAN GOOSEBERRY AMLA : INDIAN GOOSEBERRY AMLA BY MANVENDRA SINGH PAYAK M.B.A.-( A & FB ) 2nd sem. AMITY INSTITUTE OF ORGANIC AGRICULTURE a known fruit to 1 billion of the Indian Population : a known fruit to 1 billion of the Indian Population Consumed as Fruits, Pickles, Chutney’s, Salted and Sugared Fruit. A commonly used ingredient in most of the Ayurvedic preparations, used as Fresh Fruits Dried Fruits Fruit Pulp Extract Form Immuno enhancer for both Children and Elders Health tonic - CHAYAVANAPRASH constitutes 70% Indian Gooseberry ORIGIN & HISTORY : ORIGIN & HISTORY Amla is worshipped as an auspicious fruit from the ancient time and respected as a symbol of good health. Amla tree are socially and religiously propagated among people and cultivated for promotion of good health. Amla (Phyllanthus emblica [Emblica officinalis], (Euphorbiaceae), is native to the tropics of southeastern Asia, specifically India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, and China. The Hindus worship this tree as the Mother Earth. Scientific classification : Scientific classification Kingdom - Plantae Division - Flowering plant Class - Magnoliopsida Order - Malpighiales Family - Phyllanthaceae Tribe - Phyllantheae Subtribe - Flueggeinae Genus - Phyllanthus Species - P. emblica Biological Name: Emblica officinalis Other Local Name: Indian Gooseberry, Emblic Myrobalan Amla, Amalaki. BOTANY OF PLANT : BOTANY OF PLANT Amla is a medium-sized deciduous tree with gray bark and reddish wood which successfully grows in variable agro-climatic and soil conditions. The amla tree is a deciduous tree growing to a height of 60 ft (18 m). The leaves are very fine and small, only 1/8 in (3 mm) wide and 1/2 to 3/4 in (1.25-2 cm) long The flowers are small, greenish-yellow and borne in compact clusters in the axils of the lower leaves. The fruits are round or oval, with smooth textured skin. There are ~6 to 8 pale visible lines, appearing as ridges. Contd… : Contd… unripe fruits are light green turning a yellow to red at maturity. The stone is tightly set in the center of the flesh and contains 6 small seeds. Parts Used: Fresh Fruit, Dried fruit, the nut or seed, leaves, root, bark and flowers. Ripe fruits used generally fresh, dry also used. Chemical Constituents: The major chemical constituents of Amla are Phyllemblin, Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C), Gallic acid, Tannins, Pectin etc. INDIAN SCENARIO : INDIAN SCENARIO THE area under amla (Indian gooseberry) has been expanding rapidly in the last couple of years- early of 1980 - 3,000 hac. 2000 - 25,000 hac. late of 2004 - 50,000 hac. 2006 - 1,00,000 hac. This hardy plant is suited for being raised in wasteland,arid, semi-arid, salt affected, coastal or ravine areas. Intensive cultivation is being done in the salt-affected districts of Uttar Pradesh including the ravenous area in Agra, Mathura, Etawah, Fatehpur and semi-arid tracks of Bundelkhand. Contd… : Contd… It is spreading rapidly in the semi-arid regions of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu and the Arawali ranges in Haryana, Kandi area in Punjab. Uttar Pradesh tops in area, production and productivity followed by Gujarat, Tamil Nadu . According to the Aonla Growers Association of India (AGAI), there is a wide gap in the price of fresh amla – North India - 400 Rs / quintal South India - 3000-4000 Rs / quintal It is reported that around 5000 to 10000 kg per month of fruit are exported from Tamil Nadu to Singapore and Malaysia on an average. The demand is for fruit from theEuropean countries also Cultivation practice : Cultivation practice Varieties - Banarasi, Chakaiya, Francis, Krishna, Balwant, NA-6, NA-7, NA-9, Anand-2 and BS-1. SOIL – Light  as well as  medium heavy soils except  purely sandy soil is ideal for amla  cultivation. The tree is well adopted to dry regions and can also be grown in moderate alkaline soils. Ph of soil should be 6.0 - 8.0 The tree is well adopted to dry regions and can also be grown in moderate alkaline soils. Slide 10: Climate- It is a tropical plant. Annual rainfall -- 630-800 mm Mature plant can tolerate temp. -- 0*c to 46*c. Protect plant up to 3 year from -- Hot wind in May June -- frost during winter months Fruit set in spring, the fruits remain dormant through summer without any growth thus makes it highly suitable crop for arid zone. Planting – Grafts are planted in the beginning of monsoon in June-July. Spacing of 8 to 10 m both ways is recommended. Pits of 1 Cubic m are dug and allowed to weather in summer for a fortnight. Each pit is filled with 3 to 4 baskets of fYM mixed with dug soil. After first rain the plants are planted in the centre of the pit and staked properly. Slide 11: Harvesting:- Commercial crop starts fruiting after 6-8 years of planting. Productive life of trees is estimated to be 50-60 years under good management. Generally harvested in November- December Yield:- A matured tree of about 10 years will yield 50-70 kg of fruit. Slide 12: Nutrition: N - 90 kg/ acre P2O5   - 120 kg/acre K2O    -     48   kg/acre 15 kg FYM and 0.5 kg phosphorus  at the time of planting in each pit .    Spray 0.6% Borax   - 3 time in the month   of sept. oct.     Irrigation:- Aonla trees are hardy and stand very well against drought. Young plants require watering during summer months at 15 days interval till they are fully established. PLANT PROTECTION : PLANT PROTECTION INSECT PEST:= Gall Caterpillar: (Betonra Stytophora Swinhoe):- Young caterpillars bore into the aptical portion of the shoot during rainy season and make tunnel . Due to this, aptical growth is checked. Control:- Cut the infected apices and give a prophylectic spray of systemic insecticide like rogor 0.03%. Leaf rolling caterpiller:(Garcillaria acidula):- The caterpillar rolls the leaf and feed inside reducin photosynthetic capacity of leaves Control;- Spray 0.08% Malathion or 0.04% Mono crotophos. Slide 14: Dark Eating Caterpillar :- It damages stem and branches of grown up trees by eating bark. Control:- Few drops of kerosene should be applied in holes to keep this in control. DIEASES : DIEASES Ring rust (Ravenella emblica Syd.):- Ring rust appears as circular or semi-circular reddish solitary or gregarious spots on leaves from August infection on fruit follow. Control:- 0.2% Dithane, Z-78, at interval of 7-28 days during July-September. Fruit rot:(Pencillium):- Water soak lesion on fruit surface develops and enlarges in size followed by development of colonies of pathogen. Control ;- Treatment of fruits with borax. Sapling stage Amla cultivation Flowering stage Fruiting stage Bunch of fruits Harvested amla : Sapling stage Amla cultivation Flowering stage Fruiting stage Bunch of fruits Harvested amla Health Benefits of Amla : Health Benefits of Amla Very helpful in skin diseases. Prevents premature graying of hairs and dandruff. Act as natural hair conditioner and provides good nourishment. helpful in improving liver function. Helps in lowering cholesterol and blood sugar level. works as brain tonic and helps to alertness and memory. Improving eyesight. improves general health weakness and makes our body’s immune system strong Slide 18: THANK YOU

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