Published on March 26, 2008
Early Civilization in India: Early Civilization in India The Land of India - Geography: The Land of India - Geography India’s geography is very diverse The _______, the highest mountains in the world, are in the north Two major river valleys are the ______ River valley and the _______ River valley The Land of India – The Monsoon: The Land of India – The Monsoon The monsoon is a seasonal _______ ________ in southern Asia. One monsoon blows warm, moist air from the southwest during the summer. Another monsoon blows cold, dry air from the northeast during winter. The southwest monsoon brings heavy _______. How does the monsoon affect Indian farmers? Answer: India’s First Civilization: India’s First Civilization Early Indian civilizations started in river valleys – just like they did in Mesopotamia and _________. Economies were based on ______. Indus valley civilization traded with city-states in Mesopotamia. Much of the trade occurred by ship via the ________ ______. The Arrival of the Aryans – Who Were The Aryans?: The Arrival of the Aryans – Who Were The Aryans? Natural disasters weakened the Indus civilization and the _______ brought its final end. The Aryans were a group of ________ people who moved through India around 1500 B.C. They were excellent at the art of _____ and eventually, they controlled all of India. The Arrival of the Aryans – Aryan Ways of Life: The Arrival of the Aryans – Aryan Ways of Life Aryans were pastoral nomads before they arrived in India. In India, they gave up the pastoral life to become _________. As nomads, the Aryans had no written ________. When they settled in India, they developed their first ________ system, Sanskrit, around 1000 B.C. The Arrival of the Aryans – Aryan Ways of Life: The Arrival of the Aryans – Aryan Ways of Life Writing enabled the Aryans to record their traditions, legends, and rituals. Early Sanskrit writings tell us that Aryan _______, or princes, attacked each other’s fortresses and seized ________, cattle, and ________. Society in Ancient India – The Caste System: Society in Ancient India – The Caste System The caste system was a set of rigid social categories that determined not only a person’s job and economic potential, but also his or her position in __________. It was partly based on ______ ______. There were five major castes in ancient times. The top two classes were the priests and the warriors; they were the rulers. Assignment10 minutes!: Assignment 10 minutes! According the Rig Veda, the ancient Hindu book, the primal man - Purush - destroyed himself to create a human society. The different castes were created from different parts of his body. The Brahmans were created from his head; the Kshatriyas from his hands; the Vaisyas from his thighs and the Sudras from his feet. Directions: Using your textbook and your imagination, draw an artistic representation of each of the 5 castes within the Caste System. Use whatever means your imagination takes you to use (crayons, markers, pencil, abstract art, etc). Make sure and label each caste with the name and with a number, Brahmans #1, Kshatriyas #2, Vaisyas #3, Sudras #4, and the Untouchables #5. Have fun with this!! Society in Ancient India – Family Life: Society in Ancient India – Family Life Families were __________ – the oldest male in the house had legal authority over the entire family. Marriages were ________. Children were expected to take care of their ________ as they grew older. Hinduism: Hinduism Hinduism had its origins in the religious beliefs of the Aryans. Early Hindus believed in the existence of a single force in the universe. This force is known as Brahman. Every individual’s duty is to seek to know this force. After death, the individual would become one with Brahman. Hinduism: Hinduism By the sixth century B.C., ____________ had appeared. Reincarnation is the belief that a person’s soul is _______ in a different form after death. After this happens several times, the soul eventually becomes one with Brahman. ________ is the force that determines how a person will be reborn in their next life. ________, the divine law, requires everyone to do their duty. Duties vary, depending on a person’s caste. Hinduism: Hinduism In order to achieve oneness with God (Brahman), Hindus developed yoga, a ______ of _______ designed to lead to a union with God. Most Indians wanted a more concrete view of God, so they developed more than 33,000 gods. ___________ is the religion of most Indian people. Buddhism – The Story of the Buddha: Buddhism – The Story of the Buddha Buddhism appeared in northern India in the sixth century B.C. The founder of Buddhism was Siddhartha Gautama. He is known as the Buddha, or “Enlightened One.” Buddha was born in what is now Nepal. His family was very ________. In his late twenties, however, he gave up all of his ________ and set off to find the true ________ of life. Buddhism – The Story of the Buddha: Buddhism – The Story of the Buddha Buddha began to practice asceticism, the practice of self-denial to achieve an understanding of ultimate reality. After nearly dying of starvation, Buddha began a period of intense _________. During this time, he reached enlightenment as to the meaning of life. He spent the rest of his life ________ what he had discovered. Buddhism – Basic Principles: Buddhism – Basic Principles The physical surroundings of humans are illusions. Pain, poverty, and sorrow are caused by a person’s ________ to the things of this world. Once they let go of these things, pain and sorrow can be forgotten. Next, a person achieves wisdom. After wisdom, a person achieves nirvana – ________ _______ – and they are united with the Great World Soul. Buddhism – Basic Principles: Buddhism – Basic Principles Buddha accepted the Hindu idea of reincarnation, but he rejected the ________ system. He taught that all humans could reach nirvana. This made Buddhism more appealing to members of the lower castes. Slide18: Early Chinese Civilizations pg. 88-97 The Geography of China: The Geography of China The Yellow River stretches across China for more than 2,900 miles. The Yellow River valley became one of the great food-producing areas of the ancient world. The Shang Dynasty: The Shang Dynasty China under the Shang Dynasty was a mostly farming society ruled by an _________ whose major concern was ____. Aristocracy – an upper class whose wealth is based on ______ and whose power is passed from one _________ to another The Shang Dynasty: The Shang Dynasty The king and his family were at the _____ of society. Oracle Bones Early Chinese people had a strong belief in life after ______. Ancestor ________ developed during this time. The Zhou Dynasty: The Zhou Dynasty The Zhou Dynasty was the ______-_______dynasty in Chinese history. It lasted for almost 800 years. Like the Shang Dynasty, the Zhou Dynasty was also ruled by a King. During this time, the Chinese began to develop a theory of government called the Mandate of _______. The Zhou Dynasty – The Mandate of Heaven: The Zhou Dynasty – The Mandate of Heaven The Mandate of Heaven said that the Zhou Dynasty kings had direct _______ from heaven to rule and to keep ______ in the universe. Kings were expected to rule according to the Dao. Dao – the proper “____” Filial Piety: Filial Piety At the heart of the concept of family in China was the idea of filial piety. Filial Piety describes a system in which every family member had his or her place. Male supremacy was a key element in the social system. The male was important because he was responsible for providing food for his family. Women raised children and worked in the home. On occasion, women were involved in politics. The Chinese Philosophies: The Chinese Philosophies Confucianism – the system of political and ethical ideas formulated by the Chinese philosopher Confucius toward the end of the Zhou Dynasty It was intended to help restore order to a society that was in a state of confusion. The Qin Dynasty: The Qin Dynasty The first Qin emperor (Qin Shihuangdi) unified the Chinese world. He created a single monetary system and began building a system of roads. The first Qin emperor began building the Great Wall of China to protect against invaders. The Han Dynasty: The Han Dynasty The Han Dynasty was a period of great prosperity (good fortune). Confucianism became the basis for a new government philosophy. The population of China increased rapidly, and China began expanding into nearby areas of Asia. Inventions: iron casting technology led to the invention of steel. And paper was developed at this time. Culture in Qin and Han China: Culture in Qin and Han China Farmers discovered an army of terra-cotta warriors in 1974. It is believed to be a re-creation of the first Qin emperor’s royal guard and was meant to travel with him to the next world. Along with the figures are horses, wooden chariots and bronze weapons. They were slightly larger than life-size.