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Information about IndiaChina

Published on February 7, 2008

Author: Candelora


Ancient India:  Ancient India The Land of India:  The Land of India The Indian subcontinent is located along the southern edge of Asia. Its diverse geography: North: the highest mountains in the world, the Himalaya. Rich valley of the Ganges River, one of the most important regions of Indian culture. West: Relatively dry Indus River Valley. It runs through modern-day Pakistan. The Land of India:  The Land of India The Deccan lies south of these two river valleys. Lush plains, most densely populated Hilly and dry plateau extends from the southern Ganges valley to the southern end of India. populated regions in India, lie on the east and west coasts. The Land of India:  The Land of India The monsoons are the most important feature of the Indian climate. Monsoons are seasonal wind patterns. The southwest monsoons bring the heavy rain on which Indian farmers have depended to grow their crops. If the rains are too light or heavy, early or late, crops are destroyed and thousands of Indians likely starve. Slide6:  Early civilization in India developed in the Indus River valley. A civilization flourished there from 3000 to 1500 B.C. Archaeologists have found remains of over a thousand settlements in this area. Two sites have ruins of the major cities Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro. The advanced civilization that flourished for hundreds of years in these cities is called the Harappan or Indus civilization. India’s First Civilization Slide7:  Indus Civilization Cities had around 35,0000 people were carefully planned. Grid of streets Divided into walled neighborhoods. Houses as high as three stories Buildings constructed of mud bricks. Public wells supplied water Bathrooms used an advanced drainage system. A chute system took household trash to public garbage bins. Slide8:  Indus Government Careful structure of cities suggests a well-organized government. As in all ancient civilizations, religion and political power were linked closely. Rulers based their power on a belief in divine assistance. Priests probably performed rituals to a fertility goddess to guarantee a good annual harvest. Slide9:  The economy depended on agriculture. The chief crops were wheat, barley, and peas. Traded extensively with Mesopotamia.  copper, lumber, and various luxury goods Sumerian textiles and food.  Much of the trade was by ship through the Persian Gulf, which lies between present-day Saudi Arabia and Iran. Indus Economy Slide10:  The Arrival of the Aryans Aryan invaders conquer the Harappans to end the civilization of the Indus River Valley. The Aryans were a nomadic Indo-European people living in central Asia.  Around 1500 B.C. they moved south across the Hindu Kush mountain range into northern India. The Aryans:  The Aryans created a new Indian society.  Like other nomadic people, the Aryans excelled at war.  By 1000 B.C. they had extended their control throughout India.  The Aryans Aryan change:  Aryan change In India these nomadic warriors gave up the pastoral life for regular farming. The introduction of iron helped make this change introduction of the iron plow, which could be used to clear the dense jungle growth along the Ganges. Slide13:  Irrigation systems turned the area into productive farmland. Wheat, barley, and millet were grown in the north. Rice was grown in the fertile river valleys.  Vegetables, grains, cotton, and spices such as cinnamon and pepper were grown in the south. Aryans Agriculture Slide14:  As nomads, the Aryans had no written language. They developed their first written language, Sanskrit, around 1000 B.C. Used for recording religious rituals, legends, and chants. Aryan Writing Slide15:  Below this were the Sudras Made up most of the Indian population. They were the darker-skinned natives the Aryans had conquered. Most were peasants who did manual labor, and their rights were limited. Aryan Society Early Aryan writings also reveal that leaders known as rajas (princes) controlled India. Each carved out a small state and fought other Aryan chieftains. Slide16:  The Untouchables made up the lowest Ievel of Indian society. (about 5%) They performed jobs considered degrading(collecting trash,handling the dead.) Untouchable lives were difficult. They were not considered human, and their presence was considered harmful. They lived in separate areas. When they traveled, they had to tap sticks together so others would know they were coming and could avoid them. Aryan Society (cont) Slide17:  Basic unit of society. The ideal was to have an extended family of three generations under one roof. The oldest male had legal authority over the entire family, which made the family unit patriarchal. Generally, only males could inherit property and were educated. Aryan Family Slide18:  Women could not be priests. Marriages were arranged. Men married after 12 years of study. Girls married young because they were an economic drain on the family. Divorce was forbidden, but men could take a second wife if the first was not able to bear children. Children were important primarily because they were to take care of their aging and elderly parents. Aryan Family (cont) Slide19:  Perhaps the strongest instance of male domination in India was the ritual of suttee. In India the dead were burned on funeral pyres. Suttee required a wife to throw herself on her dead husband’s funeral pyre and die herself. Those who refused were disgraced. Death Ritual Slide20:  Hinduism The religion of Hinduism is based on Aryan religious beliefs.  We know about Aryan religious beliefs from the Vedas, a collection of hymns and ceremonies.  The Vedas make up the oldest Hindu sacred text. Slide21:  Hinduism (cont.) Hinduism is the religion of most of the Indian people.  Early Hindus believed in an ultimate reality (God) called Brahman.  The individual self, or atman, had the duty to come to know this ultimate reality.  Then the self would merge with Brahman after death. Slide22:  The idea of reincarnation came into Hinduism by the sixth century B.C.  Reincarnation is the idea that after death the individual soul is reborn in a different form.  After many existences the soul may unite with Brahman, the goal of all individuals. Hinduism (cont.) Painting of a Reincarnation Vision Website:  Himalayan Academy Slide23:  Karma is an important part of this process.  Karma refers to the idea that people’s actions determine their form of rebirth and the class into which they are reborn, if reborn as a person.  The divine law, or dharma, rules karma.  This law requires all people to do their duty.  Duties vary with one’s caste. The higher the class, the higher the social duties and expectations. Hinduism (cont.) Slide24:  The system of reincarnation provided a religious basis for the caste system.  For example, the fewer privileges of the lower classes were justified by saying they were less deserving due to their karma.  Reincarnation also gave hope to the lower classes, however.  They had a way to move up in the caste system. Hinduism (cont.) Slide25:  Yoga (“union”) was developed as a practice to achieve oneness with God.  This union was a kind of dreamless sleep.  Hinduism has hundreds of deities.  The three chief ones are Brahma the Creator, Vishnu the Preserver, and Siva the Destroyer.  The many gods and goddesses give ordinary Hindus a way to express their everyday religious feelings. Hinduism (cont.) Through devotion at a temple, they seek not only salvation but also a way of getting the ordinary things of life. Slide26:  Buddhism In the sixth century B.C., a new doctrine called Buddhism appeared in northern India and rivaled Hinduism.  Its founder was Siddhartha Gautama, known as the Buddha (“Enlightened One”).  Slide27:  Buddha Siddhartha lived a privileged, sheltered life among great wealth. Then he became aware of life’s sufferings– death, disease, and old age. He gave up his rich life to find the meaning of life and the cure for human suffering. At first he was an ascetic and practiced self-denial. Abusing his body did not bring Siddhartha enlightenment, however. He entered a period of intense meditation and one evening reached enlightenment. He spent the rest of his life teaching what he learned. Slide28:  The physical realm is illusion. Desire’s attachments to the physical cause suffering. Giving up these attachments leads to wisdom, or bodhi. Achieving wisdom is a key step in achieving nirvana, or ultimate reality, in a reunion with the Great World Soul. Teachings of Buddha The essential Buddhist teachings concern the Four Noble Truths and the way to achieve these truths by taking the Middle, or Eightfold, Path. Slide30:  Buddha accepted reincarnation but rejected the Hindu caste system. For this reason Buddhism appealed to those in the lower castes. After Siddhartha’s death in 480 B.C., his followers spread the message throughout India. Monasteries were established to promote Buddhism. Buddhism v. Hinduism Slide31:  The Mauryan Dynasty After 400 B.C., India faced new threats from the west–first from Persia, then from Greece and Macedonia, under Alexander the Great. Alexander invaded northern India in 327 B.C. He left quickly, but his invasion gave rise to the first Indian dynasty. Slide32:  The Mauryan Dynasty (cont.) Chandragupta Maurya, who ruled from 324 to 301 B.C., founded the new Indian state. This first Indian Empire was highly centralized and governed by an ideal of exercising power impartially. The empire was divided into provinces, ruled by governors. The king had a large army and secret police. Slide33:  The Mauryan Empire flourished under the reign of Asoka, Chandragupta Maurya’s grandson.  Most consider Asoka the greatest Indian ruler ever.  He converted to Buddhism and governed in accordance with Buddhist ideals.  His kindness was legendary.  He set up hospitals for people and animals, and he ordered a system of shade trees and shelters for travelers. The Mauryan Dynasty (cont.) Slide35:  India flourished economically under Asoka.  It became an important crossroads in a commercial network from the Pacific Rim to Southwest Asia and the Mediterranean Sea.  Asoka died in 232 B.C.  The empire then declined.  The last Mauryan ruler was killed in 183 B.C., and India fell into disunity. The Mauryan Dynasty (cont.) Slide36:  In the first century A.D., nomadic warriors established the Kushan kingdom in what is now Afghanistan.  It spread south as far as the central Ganges Valley. The Kushan Kingdom and the Silk Road Kushan Kingdom (c. 100 B.C.-200 A.D.): Xiongnu :// 11india_and_china_of_late_antiquit.htm Slide37:  The Kushans prospered by the trade that went through their country.  Most of the trade was between the Roman Empire and China, along a 4,000 mile route called the Silk Road.  It reached from Changan in China to Antioch in Syria on the coast of the Mediterranean Sea. The Kushan Kingdom and the Silk Road (cont.) Slide38:  Because camel caravans were dangerous and expensive, merchants shipped only luxury goods on the Silk Road.  Chinese merchants traded silk, spices, tea, and porcelain.  Indian merchants shipped ivory, jewels, and textiles.  The Romans traded glass, jewels, and clothes. The Romans especially desired silk.  The Roman name for China was Serica, or “Land of Silk.” The Kushan Kingdom and the Silk Road (cont.) Slide39:  Persian invaders ended the Kushan kingdom in the third century A.D. Chandragupta, a local prince, established a new kingdom in 320.  The Kingdom of the Guptas His son, Samudragupta, expanded the empire.  He was famous for his physique and exploits in war. Slide40:  The Kingdom of the Guptas (cont.) The kingdom of the Guptas became the dominant political force in northern India.  It created a new age of Indian civilization, especially under its greatest ruler, Chandragupta II, who ruled from 375 to 415.  A Chinese Buddhist monk named Faxian spent several years in northern India, and he admired the Gupta rulers, their tolerance of Buddhism, and the region’s economic prosperity. Slide41:  The Gupta Empire prospered principally from mining and trade.  The Gupta rulers owned gold mines, silver mines, and vast lands.  They traded salt, cloth, and iron domestically and as far away as China and the Mediterranean. The Kingdom of the Guptas (cont.) Slide42:  The Gupta Empire profited greatly from religious trade with pilgrims.  Pilgrims travel to religious sites to worship.  Cities famous for their temples and as religious centers rose up along the main Indian trade routes. The Kingdom of the Guptas (cont.) Slide43:  Later Gupta rulers lived extravagantly, which weakened the people’s loyalty.  In the fifth century A.D., invasion by nomadic Huns from the northwest weakened the empire.  It finally died out completely by the end of the seventh century.  North India would not be reunited for hundreds of years. The Kingdom of the Guptas (cont.) Slide44:  India has one of the richest cultures in world history.  Indian civilization has made contributions in the arts and sciences.  Consider literature, architecture, and science.  The Vedas are the earliest known Indian literature.  These Aryan texts are religious.  Originally passed down orally, eventually they were written down in Sanskrit. The World of Indian Culture Slide45:  The World of Indian Culture (cont.) With writing came the early Indian epic poems, the Mahabharata and the Ramayana. Both recount the legendary deeds of great warriors.  The Mahabharata was probably written around 100 B.C.  It is the world’s longest written poem.  It describes a war between cousins for control of the kingdom. Slide46:  The most famous part of the poem is the Bhagavad Gita, in which the god Krishna on the eve of a battle expresses an important idea of Indian society: When deciding how to act, do not consider success or failure, but only the action’s morality. The World of Indian Culture (cont.) Slide48:  The Ramayana recounts how the fictional ruler Rama is banished from his kingdom and has to fight a demon that kidnapped his wife.  This text also teaches moral lessons.  Rama stands as the ideal Aryan hero, and Sita embodies perfect wifely loyalty to her husband.  These books remain important in Indian culture to this day. The World of Indian Culture (cont.) Slide49:  Kalidasa is one of ancient India’s most famous authors.  His poem, The Cloud Messenger, remains one of the most popular poems in Sanskrit.  Early Indian architecture flourished during the Mauryan Empire, especially under Asoka.  He wanted to spread the ideas of Buddhism, and so he built many religious structures. The World of Indian Culture (cont.) Slide50:  The three principal religious structures were the pillar, the stupa, and the rock chamber.  The pillars marked sites pertinent to the Buddha’s life.  A carving with a Buddhist message topped these huge pillars.  Stupas were built like burial mounds and held relics of the Buddha, such as a lock of hair.  Stupas rose quite high, and each was surrounded by a spire. The World of Indian Culture (cont.) Slide52:  Legend said that in order to spread Buddhism, Asoka ordered the construction of eighty-four thousand stupas.  Rock chambers carved out of mountainsides served as houses for monks and halls for religious ceremonies.  Ancient Indian scientists were most known for astronomy.  They charted the movements of the heavenly bodies, recognized that Earth was a sphere, and believed rightly that Earth rotated on its axis and revolved around the sun. The World of Indian Culture (cont.) Slide53:  Ancient Indian mathematicians were very important.  Aryabhata was the Gupta Empire’s most famous mathematician.  He was one of the first scientists known to have used algebra.  Indian mathematicians also introduced the concept of zero. The World of Indian Culture (cont.) Ancient China:  Ancient China Slide55:  One of the greatest food-producing areas of the ancient world developed in the valleys of two rivers in China–the Huang He (Yellow River, so named for its rich, yellow silt) and the Chang Jiang (Yangtze River).  The Geography of China The Huang He, which flows from Mongolia to the Pacific Ocean, is more than 2,900 miles long.  The Chang Jiang, which stretches across central China to the Yellow Sea, is about 3,400 miles long. Slide57:  The Geography of China (cont.) Only 10 percent of China can be used for agriculture.  Mountains and deserts cover much of the remaining countryside.  These forbidding features isolated the Chinese from other Asian people.  The Mongolian, Indo-European, and Turkish peoples who lived along China’s frontiers often warred with the Chinese. Slide59:  Chinese history begins with the Xia dynasty over four thousand years ago.  Not much is known about this dynasty.  The Xia was replaced by the Shang dynasty (about 1750 to 1122 B.C.).  An aristocracy–an upper class whose wealth is based on land and whose power is passed on from one generation to another–dominated this farming society. The Shang Dynasty Slide60:  The Shang Dynasty (cont.) The king ruled over a system of territories run by aristocratic warlords and was expected to defend the empire.  There was a strong central government.  The king’s importance is shown by the ritual sacrifices performed at his death. Corpses of servants were placed in the king’s tomb. Slide61:  The Shang Dynasty (cont.) The Chinese believed that supernatural forces could help with worldly life.  To get this help, priests read oracle bones.  A king’s question to the gods would be etched on a bone.  The bones were heated until they cracked.  Priests would interpret the meaning of the cracks.  These bones are a valuable source of information about the Shang period. Slide62:  The Shang Dynasty (cont.) Most of the Shang were peasants, with much smaller groups of artisans, merchants, and slaves.  The Chinese believed strongly in life after death.  This belief is the basis for the Chinese veneration of ancestors, known in the West as “ancestor worship.”  The Chinese believed that the spirits of family ancestors could bring good or bad fortune to the living family, so they treated the spirits well. Slide63:  The Shang Dynasty (cont.) The annual festival called Qingming (“Clear and Bright”) was for the ancestors.  Families cleaned the family graves and brought food for their ancestors’ spirits.  The Shang’s bronze objects are among the most admired creations of Chinese art. Slide64:  The leader of the Zhou territory revolted against the Shang king and established the Zhou dynasty, which lasted from 1045 to 256 B.C., making it China’s longest dynasty.  The Zhou king continued the Shang political structure and royal duties, but the bureaucracy expanded.  The king was believed to connect Heaven and Earth. Among the king’s most important duties was performing rituals to strengthen the link between Heaven and Earth. The Zhou Dynasty Slide66:  The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) The Chinese began to develop a theory of government.  The Zhou dynasty claimed it ruled by the Mandate of Heaven.  This view stated that Heaven, an impersonal law of nature, kept order in the world through the Zhou king.  This concept became a basic part of Chinese political theory. Slide67:  Under the Mandate of Heaven, the king was expected to be virtuous and to rule with goodness and efficiency.  The king was expected to rule according to the proper “Way,” called the Dao.  If he did, the gods would be pleased. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) Slide68:  Events like a bad harvest were signs that the gods were not pleased and grounds for overthrowing the king.  The Mandate of Heaven, then, set forth a right of revolution.  It also implied that the king himself was not divine.  The Mandate of Heaven was closely tied to the dynastic cycles that governed Chinese history from its beginning to A.D. 1912. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) Slide69:  Later Zhou rulers were weak and corrupt. Civil war finally broke out in 403 B.C.  Thus began the period known as the “Period of the Warring States.”  Warfare had changed in China. Armies used iron weapons and were divided into infantry and cavalry.  Cavalry was armed with the powerful crossbow, which the Chinese invented. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) Slide70:  Peasants worked on land owned by the aristocracy, along with a little land of their own.  Artisans and merchants lived in walled towns.  The merchants were the local lord’s property.  Slaves also existed.  Trade was principally local but grew to include imports such as salt, cloth, iron, and luxury goods. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) Slide71:  By the sixth century B.C., farmers were using large-scale water works for their fields.  Using iron plowshares increased food production because farmers could cultivate more land.  The Chinese population reached fifty million people in the late Zhou dynasty, in part due to the increased food production. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) Slide72:  Silk was one of China’s most important exports.  Chinese silk from this period has been found all over central Asia and as far as Athens, Greece. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) Slide73:  The Chinese had, and have, strong beliefs about the family.  It was both the basic economic unit and a symbol of the social order.  Most important to Chinese family life is the concept of filial piety.  Filial piety refers to the duty of family members to subordinate their needs to the male head of the family and the older generations.  It is an important Confucian concept. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) Slide74:  Men dominated Chinese society.  Men were considered so important because they were responsible for providing food for the family and caring for their parents later in life.  Men governed society, and were warriors and scholars.  Women raised children and stayed at home. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) Slide75:  Perhaps the most important cultural contribution of ancient China is the Chinese written language.  It was primarily pictographic and ideographic. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) Slide76:  Pictographs are picture symbols, called characters.  Ideographs combine two or more pictographs.  Each character is associated with a sound.  Generally, this step leads cultures to replace character writing with phonetic (sound) writing.  The Chinese language, however, has not completely abandoned its original form. The Zhou Dynasty (cont.) Slide77:  From 500 to 200 B.C., three schools of thought about human nature and the universe developed in China–Confucianism, Daoism, and Legalism.  The Chinese Philosophies Chinese philosophers were concerned with how to live best in this world.  Confucius was known to the Chinese as the First Teacher.  He was born in 551 B.C. Motivated by Chinese society’s moral decay and violence, Confucius tried to convince those in power to follow his ideas; his followers wrote down his sayings in the Analects. Slide78:  Confucianism Confucianism, the system of Confucius’s ideas, has been a basic part of Chinese history.  Confucius tried to show the Chinese how to restore order to society.  His ideas were political and ethical, not spiritual.  If people followed the Dao (Way) and acted in harmony with the universe’s purposes, people would prosper. Slide79:  Confucius’s ideas of duty and humanity are perhaps his most important.  Duty dictates that individuals subordinate their needs to the needs of family and community.  Further, everyone should be governed by the Five Constant Relationships Most important is duty to parents.  Finally, rulers must set a good example if society is going to prosper. Confucianism Slide80:  Confucius’s idea of humanity emphasizes compassion and empathy towards others because “all men are brothers.”  One of Confucius’s most historically important political ideas was that government service should not be limited to the rich and noble, but of those with superior talent and virtuous character. Confucianism (cont) Slide82:  Daoism was a system of ideas based on the teachings of Laozi.  Daoism’s chief ideas are in the book Tao Te Ching (The Way of the Dao).  It expresses the proper forms of behavior for people on Earth.  Daoists believe that the way to follow the Dao is inaction, not action.  People should act spontaneously and let nature take its course. Daoism Slide83:  Legalism was a third philosophy.  Unlike Confucianism or Daoism, Legalism believed human beings were essentially evil.  Legalism’s formula for social order was having a strong ruler and harsh, impersonal laws, both of which made people obedient through fear. Legalism Slide84:  The Qin dynasty emerged in 221 B.C. from China’s bloody civil wars between 400 b.c. and 200 B.C. Qin Shihuangdi established the dynasty.  The Qin Dynasty (221–206 B.C.) The Qin dynasty adopted Legalism.  Political opponents of the regime (the government in power) were imprisoned or executed.  Books that opposed the official views were burned. Slide86:  The Qin Dynasty (221–206 B.C.) (cont.) The Qin made the central government stronger.  The government was divided into three ministries: the civil, the military, and the censorate.  Members of the censorate checked on government officials to make sure they were doing their jobs.  Future Chinese dynasties adopted this practice and kept this structure. Slide87:  Qin Shihuangdi unified the Chinese world by creating a monetary system and a road system.  He extended the empire south to modern-day Vietnam.  The harsh rule of the Qin dynasty angered many people.  The dynasty fell in 206 B.C. The Qin Dynasty (221–206 B.C.) (cont.) Slide89:  The Qin emperor was concerned with the Xiongnu, a nomadic people who lived near the Gobi.  The Xiongnu had mastered warfare from horseback.  They attacked the Chinese living in the north.  To protect these people, Qin Shihuangdi built a system of walls called the Great Wall of China.  The Great Wall standing today was built 1,500 years later. The Qin Dynasty (221–206 B.C.) (cont.) Slide91:  The Han dynasty was one of China’s greatest dynasties.  The Han Dynasty (202 B.C.–A.D. 220) It emerged in 202 B.C. and was founded by Liu Bang, who was of peasant origin.  He replaced Legalism with Confucianism.  He kept the division of the central government into three ministries and the division of the empire into provinces. Slide93:  The Han Dynasty (202 B.C.–A.D. 220) The Han rulers continued to choose government officials by merit and not birth.  The Han instituted the civil service examination and established schools to train candidates for government service.  This system for training officials influenced China for two thousand years.  Students learned Confucius’s teachings, Chinese history, and Chinese law. Slide94:  Han Wudi added land to the south to the empire, as far as the South China Sea, in what is today northern Vietnam.  The free peasants suffered during the Han period.  Military service and a month’s forced labor each year were required.  The tripling of the population shrank the size of the individual farm plot to about one acre a person–barely enough to survive. Free farmers became tenant farmers. The Han Dynasty (202 B.C.–A.D. 220) (cont.) Slide95:  Technology progressed under the Han.  There were advances in textile manufacturing, water mills, and iron casting, the latter leading to the invention of steel.  The invention of the rudder and fore-and-aft rigging made sailing into the wind possible for the first time.  Chinese traders were able to sail into the Indian Ocean, expanding trade tremendously. The Han Dynasty (202 B.C.–A.D. 220)(cont.) Slide96:  Paper was developed in the Han period.  Over time, Han rulers too involved with pleasure weakened the government.  The aristocratic families filled the power void, often corruptly and brutally.  Peasant revolts became common.  The Han dynasty fell in A.D. 220.  Civil wars followed, and the next dynasty was not established for four hundred years. The Han Dynasty (202 B.C.–A.D. 220)(cont.) Slide97:  The Qin and Han dynasties were known for their cultural achievements.  The key Confucian works were printed in a set.  Generations of Chinese schoolchildren learned the forms of proper behavior from these texts. Culture in Qin and Han China Slide98:  The most remarkable artistic discovery was of a burial pit containing thousands of life-size, lifelike, terra-cotta (hardened clay) soldiers.  Archaeologists believe they are replicas of Qin Shihuangdi’s imperial guard accompanying him to the next world.  Their most striking feature is the individuality of the faces, which reflect the different ethnic types in the army. Culture in Qin and Han China (cont.) Terracotta Soldiers:  Terracotta Soldiers Slide100:  Chapter Summary Chinese and Indian civilizations are remarkable for their achievement and innovation. The chart below shows their accomplishments in several areas. Slide101:  1. Aryan leaders known as _______________ (princes) fought other Aryan chieftans and seized their property. 2. The belief that the individual soul is reborn in a different form after death is _______________. 3. In Buddhism, reaching _______________, or ultimate reality, is the end of the self and a reunion with the Great World Soul. 4. According to Confucius, the key to proper behavior was to behave in accordance with the _______________ (Way). 5. The Qin bureaucracy had civil and military divisions and a _______________. Insert the key term that best completes each of the following sentences. Using Key Terms Slide102:  Geography  Describe the diverse geography of the Indian subcontinent. The Indian subcontinent has mountain ranges, river valleys, a dry interior plateau, and fertile coastal plains. Slide103:  History  Identify the physical changes that occurred in the Indus River valley that contributed to the collapse of the once-flourishing civilization there. Floods, earthquakes, changes in climate, and the river’s course in the Indus Valley all contributed to the collapse of the civilization. Slide104:  Culture  Discuss the connection between the Four Noble Truths and the Eightfold Path. The Buddha’s message was based on the Four Noble Truths, the fourth of which is to follow the Middle Path. Because it consists of eight steps, it is also called the Eightfold Path. Slide105:  Science, Technology, and Society Identify the ways in which warfare changed in China near the end of the Zhou dynasty. Iron weapons that replaced bronze, foot soldiers (infantry) and soldiers on horseback (cavalry), and the development of the crossbow are all examples of how warfare changed in China. Slide106:  The philosophy of nonviolence has been espoused by many Hindus. How do you reconcile this fact with the fact that Hindu India has been involved in many wars and armed struggles? Armies from outside India have attacked, and not all Hindus believe in nonviolence. Slide107:  Papermaking in Han China The ancient Chinese were responsible for four remarkable inventions that were crucial to the development of modern technology: the magnetic compass, paper, printing, and gunpowder. How to make paper was one of their early discoveries. Read the excerpt on page 102 of your textbook and answer the question on the following slides. Slide108:  Describing What did the Chinese use to make paper? The Chinese used hemp or linen rags soaked in water, then mixed with potash. The End:  The End

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