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Published on April 23, 2008

Author: Riccardino


Unit 8: Motivation & Emotion:  Unit 8: Motivation & Emotion University High School AP Psychology 2007-08 Journal Responses:  Journal Responses physical needs hunger, thirst, physical exhaustion “I play basketball because I love it ... I love being in shape, and it’s challenging.” “I do a lot of stuff to try and impress pretty girls.” Journal Responses:  Journal Responses social needs peer pressure “I like praise from my parents, acceptance by my peers, and all of the other typical psychobabble stuff.” “What motivates most of my behavior at home is the desire to escape my family.” “fear of damnation of the fires eternal” Journal Responses:  Journal Responses achievement needs “good grades  good college  good job  money  good spouse  good family  good life” “I think that, being human, most people try to move forwards and upwards, not necessarily with an ultimate goal in mind, but because that’s what we do. I don’t know where I’m going, all I know is that it’s forward.” Motivation & Emotion Overview:  Motivation & Emotion Overview Motivation Sources of motivation Hunger Sexual motivation The need to belong Motivation in the workplace Emotion feeling emotion expressing emotion experiencing emotion The Power of Motivation:  The Power of Motivation the story of Aron Ralston thirst, hunger, exhaustion, social connectedness, desire to become father, etc. motivation: a need or desire that energizes and directs our behavior Sources of Motivation:  Sources of Motivation 1. instinct: inherited tendency to produce unalterable responses to stimuli e.g. birds flying south for winter, salmon swimming upstream to spawn rooted in evolutionary theory became popular to label all human behaviors as instincts; theory collapsed Sources of Motivation:  Sources of Motivation 2. drives and incentives drive-reduction theory: physiological needs  drive to meet those needs intended to restore homeostasis: tendency to maintain a balanced, constant internal state thermostat analogy e.g. body temperature, hunger, thirst incentives: external stimuli that motivate behavior e.g. smell of freshly baked bread Sources of Motivation:  Sources of Motivation 3. optimum arousal: desire to avoid stimuli that are too boring or too arousing best performance at intermediate level of arousal (Yerkes-Dodson law) predicts preferences for patterns, art, music Sources of Motivation:  Sources of Motivation 4. priorities among needs Maslow’s hierarchy of needs: fundamental needs (bottom of pyramid) need to be met before moving up problems with Maslow’s theory Hunger:  Hunger Class Project: The UHS Weight Loss Plan:  Class Project: The UHS Weight Loss Plan Our job: come up with a plan for controlling weight 1. Why do we eat? 2. What types of interventions are necessary to control our appetite? The Physiology of Hunger:  The Physiology of Hunger How do we know when we are hungry? feedback from stomach, intestines, liver brain monitors available food-related resources glucose: sugar that is a major source of energy filling rats’ stomach with saltwater diminishes hunger less than milk important role of hypothalamus Hypothalamus & Hunger:  Hypothalamus & Hunger 2 relevant portions of hypothalamus 1. lateral hypothalamus: initiates hunger stimulation in well-fed animals = hunger lesioned = no interest in food 2. ventromedial hypothalamus: suppresses hunger stimulation = stop eating lesioned = continuous eating, increased fat production The Psychology of Hunger:  The Psychology of Hunger not just a physiological phenomenon amnesiacs sometimes repeat meals over and over memory of last meal = part of knowledge about when to eat Taste Preferences:  Taste Preferences body chemistry factors e.g. stress, anxiety lead to cravings for starchy, carbohydrate-filled foods carbohydrates boost serotonin (calming effects) experience factors conditioning, taste aversion cultural factors evolutionary factors spicy recipes inhibit bacteria hot climates = food spoils quickly  more spices e.g. India averages 10 spices per meat recipe (Finland = 2) Eating Problems: Overeating:  Eating Problems: Overeating eating when the body does not need additional energy cognitions can overwhelm hypothalamic mechanisms eat because we’re bored, lonely, upset, it’s time to eat, habits, etc. can lead to obesity Obesity:  Obesity can lead to diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, high blood pressure, gall bladder disease 3 commonly proposed reasons for obesity: personality factors genetics environment Obesity & Personality:  Obesity & Personality idea: certain personality characteristics  unable to resist food little to no evidence for “obese personality” (Nilsson et al., 1998; Poston et al., 1999) But... Andrews & Jones (1990): obese tend to overeat when experiencing positive or negative arousal (not just stress) “fidget factor” Obesity & Genetics:  Obesity & Genetics idea: genetic predisposition for obesity variations in weight as much as 70% heritable? (Berthoud, 2002) serotonin involved with satiation (Blundell, 1977, 1984, 1986) mice that lack certain serotonin receptors = obesity (Tecott et al., 1995) serotonin receptor blockers in humans = weight gain (Fitton & Heel, 1990) serotonin receptor enhancement in humans = less hunger, weight loss (Sargent et al., 1997) Obesity & Genetics:  Obesity & Genetics gene “ob” controls release of leptin: hormone released by fat cells more fat = more leptin in bloodstream may serve to maintain constant level of body fat (decreases food intake, increases energy expenditure) extremely obese = defective ob gene (Berthoud, 2002; Mantzoros, 1999) Obesity & Environment:  Obesity & Environment idea: environmental factors encourage overeating high cultural variability in obesity suggests important role of environment Obesity & Environment:  Obesity & Environment What aspects of environment might contribute to American obesity? fast food = cheap, high in fat, portions growing larger (not in most of Europe though...) less exercise (driving to work, school, etc.) sedentary amusements (TV, internet, etc.) Solving Obesity?:  Solving Obesity? most commonly recommended diet for obese: cutting normal food intake in half (Stallone & Stunkard, 1994) can be effective for weight loss, but psychological side effects physical changes: less sleep, greater noise & light sensitivity, less cold tolerance cognitive changes: obsessed with food, hoarding of food (and other items!) social changes: reduced sexual drive, less interest in social interaction, increased irritability, anxiety, depression, & argumentativeness Solving Obesity?:  Solving Obesity? likely requires a multifaceted approach traditional approaches (reduced caloric intake, exercise) are a good start may not be helpful for certain genetic predispositions genetic therapy? “environmental cures”? smaller portions greater availability of foods low in fat, calories increased exercise, activity Eating Disorders:  Eating Disorders compulsion to eat (or not eat) in a way that disrupts physical and/or mental health anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa = most common types possible explanations: personality, culture & media, family, genetics, etc. Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa:  Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa refusal to maintain even a low normal weight, and an intense fear of gaining weight marked by body image distortion, obsessive thinking about food most common among adolescents; 9 out of 10 cases = female among anorexia hospitalizations, 10% die of anorexia-related causes (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa:  Eating Disorders: Anorexia Nervosa “Yesterday, I had a grapefruit and black coffee for breakfast, and for dinner I had the salad I eat every night. I always skip lunch. I had promised myself that I would only eat three-quarters of the salad since I’ve been feeling stuffed after it lately - but I think I ate more than the three-quarters. I know it was just lettuce and broccoli but I can’t believe I did that. I was up all night worrying about getting fat.” (Siegel et al., 1988) Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa:  Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by some attempt to prevent weight gain purging type: intentional vomiting, laxatives nonpurging type: fasting, excessive exercise most common among women in late teens, early 20s bouts of depression, particularly during & after binges (Johnson et al., 2002) Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa:  Eating Disorders: Bulimia Nervosa “If I had one bite of bread, just one, I felt as though I blew it! I’d stop listening to whomever was talking to me at the table. I’d start thinking, ‘How can I get rid of this?’ I’d worry about how fat I’d look, how I couldn’t fit into my clothes. My head would be flooded with thoughts of what to do now ... I had to undo what I’d done. The night was blown. I was a mess.” (Siegel et al., 1988) Explaining Eating Disorders: Genetics & Neurobiology:  Explaining Eating Disorders: Genetics & Neurobiology 56% of identical co-twins likely to have anorexia if their twin did 5% for fraternal twins bulimia: 23% for identical, 9% for fraternal high levels of serotonin associated with anorexia (Kaye et al., 2005); low levels with bulimia (Pirke, 1995) link to obsessive-compulsive disorder Explaining Eating Disorders: Personality:  Explaining Eating Disorders: Personality perfectionists, low self-esteem (Fairburn et al., 1999; Tykra et al., 2002) irrational beliefs, expectations about body shape dichotomous, black-or-white thinking Explaining Eating Disorders: Family & Culture:  Explaining Eating Disorders: Family & Culture families often marked by: explicit focus and concerns about weight low self-evaluations perfectionist thinking concern about others’ perceptions little evidence of popular notion that childhood sexual abuse = good predictor of eating disorders (Smolak & Murnen, 2002; Stice, 2002) Explaining Eating Disorders: Family & Culture:  Explaining Eating Disorders: Family & Culture cultural variations in ideal body size powerful Western cultural norms re: body size cultural ideals of beauty, especially for women (models, advertising, etc.) more symptoms of eating disorders among US immigrants from less weight-conscious cultures as they assimilate (Bilhuka & Utermohlen, 2001) Explaining Eating Disorders: Family & Culture:  Explaining Eating Disorders: Family & Culture Fredrickson et al. (1998): cultural objectification of female form IVs: men/women wore sweater/swimsuit (in private) while taking a math test DV: self-report feelings about own body (as compared to pretest), performance on math test results: women in swimsuit were only group to increase in body shame, revulsion, disgust with themselves Fredrickson et al. (1998):  Fredrickson et al. (1998) Explaining Eating Disorders: Family & Culture:  Explaining Eating Disorders: Family & Culture culture prescribes idealized body image, particularly for women Lever (2003): 9 in 10 women would rather have perfect body than mate with perfect body 6 in 10 men prefer the reverse women often ashamed, depressed, & dissatisfied with own bodies ...can lead to behaviors characteristic of eating disorders Journal Assignment: The Power of Culture:  Journal Assignment: The Power of Culture On a scale of 1-10, how much influence has your culture had over shaping the person you are today? 1 = little to no influence 10 = a huge influence Why did you pick the score that you did? Certain areas of influence? clothing? language? body image? friend preference? values & morals? etc. etc. etc... Sexual Motivation:  Sexual Motivation difficult topic to study sampling bias? reporting bias? Freud: “People in general are not candid over sexual matters, they do not show their sexuality freely, but to conceal it wear a heavy overcoat of a tissue of lies, as though the weather were bad in the world of sexuality.” Sexual Motivation:  Sexual Motivation sex vs. hunger necessity for individual survival? homeostatic, regulatory motives? effects of deprivation on motive strength? like hunger, a variety of sources: biological (hormonal) cognitive environmental, social Sexual Motivation: Physiology:  Sexual Motivation: Physiology important role of hormones androgens: male hormones (including testosterone) which cause male characteristics such as beard growth & low voice estrogens: female hormones which cause female characteristics such as bone structure of female pelvis relationship between hormones & motivation sexual motivation varies with menstrual cycle (Pillsworth et al., 2004)) study by “Anonymous” (1970) Evolutionary Perspective:  Evolutionary Perspective Buss & Schmitt (1993): men & women seek different things when it comes to sex, relationships e.g. short-term vs. long-term interests e.g. number of preferred sexual partners over lifetime Evolutionary Perspective: Buss & Schmitt (1993):  Evolutionary Perspective: Buss & Schmitt (1993) Buss & Schmitt (1993):  Buss & Schmitt (1993) “If the conditions were right, would you consider having sexual intercourse with someone you viewed as desirable if you had known that person for __________?” scale: -3 (definitely not) to 3 (definitely yes) Evolutionary Perspective:  Evolutionary Perspective Trivers (1972): men & women face different adaptive problems parental investment: “any investment by the parent in an individual offspring that increases the offspring’s chances of surviving (and hence reproducing), at the cost of the parent’s ability to invest in other offspring” greater investment = more choosy or discriminating about mating partners less investment = more competition for access to most desirable mating partners Buss & Schmitt (1993):  Buss & Schmitt (1993) Evolutionary Perspective:  Evolutionary Perspective adaptive for women to be conservative in mate selection interests: resources, support, long-term adaptive for men to be “liberal” in mate selection interests: short-term sex, less particular about mates different sources of romantic jealousy? men: sexual infidelity (100% certainty baby carries your genes?) women: emotional infidelity (100% certainty his time, energy, & resources for your children?) Journal Responses:  Journal Responses On a scale of 1-10, how much influence has your culture had over shaping the person you are today? 1 = little to no influence 10 = a huge influence n = 40 mean = 6.225 SD = 2.42 Journal Responses:  Journal Responses Journal Responses:  Journal Responses culture with vs. without family “My role models don’t come from typical cultural icons - they come from family and friends.” “Everything we do is defined in some way as a ‘culture’ ... the only true way to be completely unaffected by culture is to have never come into contact with any human person immediately from birth.” Journal Responses:  Journal Responses optimal distinctiveness fitting in: “Nobody wants to be cast out, and to fit in you have to conform to the culture. It leads to the best outcome in my social life.” “I just want to be happy and right now that means being accepted by the outside world.” standing out: “The social ‘norms’ of today disgust me and I will strive in any way to avoid them. Like jeans for example. I have always despised them and now that I am older, I see that EVERYONE wears them. Why would I want to be a sheep?” striking a balance: “I am certainly influenced [by culture] but equally certainly not controlled by it. I wear cheap, comfortable clothes, but I don’t try to break the mold or offend people.” Journal Responses:  Journal Responses a wide range of scope of influence “Whether a person is trying to conform or not, they are still influenced by their culture or society.” “I really don’t feel like American culture has affected me at all.” “Culture has a huge influence on me, though not in the way it has an effect on most people ... I change how I act and what I think to avoid being a part of what I see. The parts that I like, I let affect me positively.” “Also, I like foreign food a lot more than typical American food.” Sexual Orientation:  Sexual Orientation homosexuality in all known cultures, at all times early 90s: 3-4% of men, 1-2% of women = homosexual 2000 US Census: 2.5% of population = homosexual less than 1% = actively bisexual (Sandfort et al., 2001) active choice vs. biological predisposition inability to willfully change orientation (e.g. Myers & Scanzoni, 2005; Brown, 1989) “gay animals” (Bagermihl, 1999) Origins of Sexual Orientation: Brain Structure:  Origins of Sexual Orientation: Brain Structure LeVay (1991): portion of hypothalamus twice as small in homosexual men than heterosexuals “It’s important to stress what I didn’t find. I did not prove that homosexuality is genetic, or find a genetic cause for being gay. I didn’t show that gay men are born that way, the most common mistake people make in interpreting my work. Nor did I locate a gay center in the brain ... Since I look at adult brains, we don’t know if the differences I found were there at birth or if they appeared later.” Origins of Sexual Orientation: Brain Structure:  Origins of Sexual Orientation: Brain Structure also true of the 6-10% of sheep that display same-sex attraction (Larkin et al., 2002) hypothalamus structure typically smaller in women than men lesioned in monkeys = atypical sexual behavior role of pheromones? (Savic et al., 2005) Origins of Sexual Orientation: Genetics:  Origins of Sexual Orientation: Genetics mixed evidence for genetic component of orientation pro: genetic alterations to fruit fly (Demir & Dickson, 2005) Bailey & Pillard (1991): identical twins (52% concordance) vs. fraternal twins (22% concordance) representative sample? con: failure to replicate twins results Origins of Sexual Orientation: Genetics:  Origins of Sexual Orientation: Genetics critics: Why would a “gay gene” exist in the first place? homosexuality as maladaptive? responses: reallocation of resources to those who share genes direct selection? mother’s genes? Origins of Sexual Orientation: Prenatal Hormones:  Origins of Sexual Orientation: Prenatal Hormones exposure to certain hormones in the womb can alter orientation Dorner (1976, 1986): fetal rat + androgens “inverted” sexual orientation Money (1987): female sheep fetus + testosterone = homosexual behavior Origins of Sexual Orientation: Prenatal Hormones:  Origins of Sexual Orientation: Prenatal Hormones fingerprint patterns typically, more ridges on right hand difference between L and R smaller for women, gay men than for heterosexual men (Hall & Kimura, 1994) fingerprints completely developed by 16th fetal week  due to prenatal hormones? Lalumiere et al (2000): 20 studies show “homosexual participants had 39% greater odds of being non-left-handed” Origins of Sexual Orientation:  Origins of Sexual Orientation evidence for environmental factors? raised by homosexual parents not a predictor Storms (1981): segregation by gender when sex drive matures? Bogaert et al. (2002): homosexual men recall going through puberty earlier than peers bottom line: decent (though sometimes inconsistent) evidence for biological basis brain structure, genetics, prenatal hormones If there are environmental factors, we haven’t specifically identified and tested them yet... The Need To Belong: Class Assignment:  The Need To Belong: Class Assignment Assume: Individuals vary in their need for social connectedness. Assignment: Construct a questionnaire that measures an individual’s need to belong. (Hint: start by considering what exactly the need to belong is...) Page 1: the questionnaire itself, with no names Page 2: your explanation (with names), including: How does your scale capture the need to belong? Are there certain aspects of belongingness that are represented better than others? How many items does your scale have? Why that many? Why do you choose the response style that you did? How does your scale compare to the Leary et al. (2005) scale? The Need To Belong:  The Need To Belong deep-seated motive to feel social connectedness Baumeister & Leary (1996): “a pervasive drive to form and maintain at least a minimum quantity of lasting, positive, and significant interpersonal relationships” homeostatic balance of social/alone time Loneliness:  Loneliness sad emotional reaction to feeling deprived about existing social relations “Loneliness and the feeling of being unwanted is the most terrible poverty.” (Mother Teresa) most common in US among adolescents, early-mid 20s declines with age chronic loneliness associated with cancer, strokes, cardiovascular disease, poor sleep, depression, substance abuse often a result of shyness Shyness:  Shyness feeling of being socially awkward, inhibited, reluctant to approach others pervasive problem for people US: 49% describe self as shy Israel: 31% Germany: 40% Taiwan: 55% Japan: 57% often reject others, out of fear of rejection Shyness:  Shyness can be inborn personality trait (Kagan et al., 1994) Caspi (2000): inhibited, shy, fearful 3 year olds more likely to be socially isolated & depressed at age 21 than more outgoing 3 year olds can also be learned reaction to failed interactions with others (Leary & Kowalski, 1995) low self-esteem, expectations of failing in social interaction, blaming self for social failures  self-imposed isolation & loneliness Need To Belong Results: Total:  Need To Belong Results: Total Need To Belong: Item #1 (RS):  Need To Belong: Item #1 (RS) “If other people don’t seem to accept me, I don’t let it bother me.” Need To Belong: Item #2:  Need To Belong: Item #2 “I try hard not to do things that will make other people avoid or reject me.” Need To Belong: Item #3 (RS):  Need To Belong: Item #3 (RS) “I seldom worry about whether other people care about me.” Need To Belong: Item #4:  Need To Belong: Item #4 “I need to feel that there are people I can turn to in times of need.” Need To Belong: Item #5:  Need To Belong: Item #5 “I want other people to accept me.” Need To Belong: Item #6:  Need To Belong: Item #6 “I do not like being alone.” Need To Belong: Item #7 (RS):  Need To Belong: Item #7 (RS) “Being apart from my friends for long periods of time does not bother me.” Need To Belong: Item #8:  Need To Belong: Item #8 “I have a strong need to belong.” Need To Belong: Item #9:  Need To Belong: Item #9 “It bothers me a great deal when I am not included in other people’s plans.” Need To Belong: Item #10:  Need To Belong: Item #10 “My feelings are easily hurt when I feel that others do not accept me.” Isolation:  Isolation What happens when people are forced to live in solitude? European history: being exiled = death solitary confinement in prison? Philadelphia, 1829: Eastern State Penitentiary Isolation:  Isolation 1890: US Supreme Court Justice Samuel Freeman Miller “A considerable number of the prisoners fell, after even a short confinement, into a semi-fatuous condition, from which it was next to impossible to arouse them, and others became violently insane; others still, committed suicide; while those who stood the ordeal better were not generally reformed, and in most cases did not recover sufficient mental activity to be of any subsequent service to the community.” Supermax Prisons:  Supermax Prisons modern, highest-security prisons typically built specifically for purpose of isolating prisoners today hold more than 25,000 US prisoners (Mears, 2005) ADX Supermax in Florence, CO “the Alcatraz of the Rockies” currently holds Zacarias Moussaoui, John Walker Lindh, Ted Kaczynski, Robert Hanssen, Eric Rudolph Supermax & Isolation:  Supermax & Isolation general Supermax population: out-of-cell time 9 hours per week, with one other person even guard contact is limited isolation can be psychologically traumatizing, long-term hallucinations, anxiety attacks, problems with impulse control, self-mutilation, increased anger and violence Social Exclusion:  Social Exclusion being shunned, avoided, receiving silent treatment, etc. CyberBall studies depressed mood, anxiety, hurt feelings, eventual withdrawal performance deficits on aptitude tests Eisenberger et al. (2003): anterior cingulate & physical, social pain even intentionally-planned ostracism... social exclusion as cause of school shootings? (Leary et al., 2003) Violence In US Schools (1999-2007):  Violence In US Schools (1999-2007) Littleton, CO Conyers, GA Deming, NM Fort Gibson, OK Mount Morris Township, MI Savannah, GA Lake Worth, FL Baltimore, MD Santee, CA Williamsport, PA Granite Hills, CA Gary, IN Caro, MI New York, NY Tucson, AZ New Orleans, LA Red Lion, PA Cold Spring, MN Red Lake, MN Jacksboro, TN Essex, VT Bailey, CO Cazenovia, WI Nickel Mines, PA Tacoma, WA Blacksburg, VA Dover, DE Cleveland, OH Seung-Hui Cho: Virginia Tech shooter:  Seung-Hui Cho: Virginia Tech shooter diagnosed as child with depression, social anxiety disorder often bullied for speech impediment characterized as loner, socially awkward/aggressive Eric Harris: Columbine shooter:  Eric Harris: Columbine shooter “By now, it’s over. If you are reading this, my mission is complete. I have finished revolutionizing the neoeuphoric infliction of my internal terror. Your children who have ridiculed me, who have chosen not to accept me, who have treated me like I’m not worth their time, are dead.” What Is The Cause Of All These Shootings?:  What Is The Cause Of All These Shootings? people came up with “common sense” explanations media, society psychopathology, particularly depression very weak link between depression and aggression... What about social exclusion? Social Exclusion & Aggression (Twenge et al., 2001):  Social Exclusion & Aggression (Twenge et al., 2001) participants met other “participants”, rated each other for likeability, took bogus personality test IV: accepted/rejected by group members played multiplayer computer game, set level of noise blast for other player losing DV: noise intensity & duration Belongingness: A Fundamental Motive:  Belongingness: A Fundamental Motive problems associated with loneliness, shyness, isolation, social exclusion, etc. The need to belong is a fundamental motive that drives all people, to some extent. But why? Why A Need To Belong?:  Why A Need To Belong? stress, help in time of need external threats trigger fear, motivate affiliation Schacter (1959): participants waiting for electric shocks preferred to wait with nervous others But sometimes stress reduces affiliation need... Sarnoff & Zimbardo (1961): participants waiting for embarrassing behavior  little desire to be with others Why A Need To Belong?:  Why A Need To Belong? Reason #1: affiliate with others to reduce stress, when presence of others is helpful Schacter vs. Sarnoff studies Kulik et al. (1994): participants waiting to soak hand in ice-cold water preferred waiting with someone who had already done it cognitive clarity Why A Need To Belong?:  Why A Need To Belong? Kulik & Mahler (1989): patients waiting for open-heart surgery prefer post-operative patients as roommates those assigned post-op patients: less anxious about experience, quicker recovery time after surgery (Kulik et al., 1996) Why A Need To Belong?:  Why A Need To Belong? Reason #1a: adaptive value combat, hunting, protection bonds between children & parents aid survival social attachments  reproductive opportunity, likelihood of staying together to raise offspring Why A Need To Belong?:  Why A Need To Belong? Reason #2: belongingness = personal happiness Berscheid (1985): What is necessary for your happiness? What is it that makes your life meaningful? #1 answer: close, satisfying relationships with family, friends, romantic partners Why A Need To Belong?:  Why A Need To Belong? cultural universality Sheldon et al. (2001): happiness in American & South Korean cultures (What was your most satisfying moment in the last week?) most common themes: satisfaction of self-esteem and belongingness needs Zulu maxim: Umuntu ngumuntu ngabantu (“a person is a person through other persons”) Why A Need To Belong?:  Why A Need To Belong? Reason #2a: social acceptance, relationships motivation to maintain beneficial relationships, avoid loneliness Inglehart (1990): 16 countries: married people 2X as likely as divorced/separated people to rate self as “very happy” Why A Need To Belong?:  Why A Need To Belong? Reason #3: maintaining health having close friends = lower risk for mental illness, premature death married = less risk for depression, suicide, etc. Motivation at Work:  Motivation at Work Industrial-organizational (I/O) psychology: application of psychological concepts & methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces work as defining aspect of life for ourselves: goals, ambitions, life direction, etc. for others: “What do you do?” Job Satisfaction:  Job Satisfaction Inglehart (1990): employment status & life satisfaction N = 169,776 from 16 countries DV: percentage “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with life Job satisfaction more than employed vs. unemployed job attitudes? Job Attitudes:  Job Attitudes Wrzensniewski et al. (1997, 2001): individuals vary in attitudes toward work calling: fulfilling, socially useful activity career: opportunity to advance from one position to another job: make money, not particularly positive, fulfilling job satisfaction largely dependent on job attitude Job Satisfaction: General Social Survey (2006):  Job Satisfaction: General Social Survey (2006) Top 10: clergy (87%) firefighters (80%) physical therapists (78%) authors (74%) special education teachers (70%) teachers (69%) education administrators (68%) painters and sculptors (67%) psychologists (67%) security & financial services salespersons (65%) Bottom 10: waiters & servers (27%) freight, stock, & material handlers (26%) bartenders (26%) furniture & home-furnishing salespersons (25%) cashiers (25%) roofers (25%) food preparers (24%) handpackers & packagers (24%) apparel, clothing salespersons (24%) laborers, except construction (21%) Journal Assignment: Work:  Journal Assignment: Work Think about an activity that puts you “in the zone”, “in a groove” e.g. writing a paper, playing games/sports, performing music, reading a book, etc. What is your mindset when you are “in the zone”? Thinking a lot? Not very much? Different kind of thinking? Do you get “in the zone” right away? If not, what is the nature of the transition? Final Exam Info:  Final Exam Info period 5: Thurs., 12/20 @ 10:30-11:40 am period 6: Weds., 12/19 @ 10:30-11:40 am The Bad News: The final is cumulative. Format: multiple choice & essay MC: same as usual, just more of them slight emphasis, more detail: Unit 8 Essay: choice, integrative The Good News: cheat sheet 1 sheet of 8.5x11” paper (***No bigger!***) both sides, anything you want rescheduling? Getting In The Zone:  Getting In The Zone activities? swimming writing, reading cleaning exercise, working out video games dance performance sports driving drawing playing music photography tests, exams Getting In The Zone:  Getting In The Zone “My mindset is hard to explain, I feel powerful. I feel like nothing else matters at that moment, just me pushing through the water.” “When I work out I get in the zone. I stop thinking and go on auto pilot.” “...I am really focused on what I am doing without realizing it.” Getting In The Zone:  Getting In The Zone “It’s difficult to describe, you’re not really even thinking about your actions, it’s like it just comes to you.” “I kind of stop thinking and just let the facts flow or filter through my brain and onto the paper ... it’s very ‘zen’ - I don’t regulate or direct the flow consciously, as it just sort of happens.” Flow:  Flow Csikszentmihalyi (1990, 1999): higher quality of life when purposefully engaged flow: a completely involved, focused state of consciousness diminished awareness of self and time results from optimal engagement of one’s skills flow states observed among dancers, chess players, surgeons, writers, mountain climbers, sailors, famers among all ages, all cultures Flow:  Flow Pele: “I felt a strange calmness ... a kind of euphoria. I felt I could run all day without tiring, that I could dribble through any of their team or all of them, that I could almost pass through them physically.” Flow:  Flow Ayrton Senna: “I was already on pole, and I just kept going. Suddenly I was nearly two seconds faster than anybody else, including my teammate with the same car. And suddenly I realized that I was no longer driving the car consciously. I was driving it by a kind of instinct, only I was in a different dimension. It was like I was in a tunnel. Not only the tunnel under the hotel but the whole circuit was a tunnel. I was just going and going, more and more and more and more. I was way over the limit but still able to find even more.” Flow & Satisfaction:  Flow & Satisfaction (Csikszentmihalyi, 1999) beeped people at random times during day: report activity, level of enjoyment & life satisfaction vegetating, low activity = low satisfaction active, engaged flow state = high satisfaction flow states at work = higher levels of job satisfaction Achievement Motivation:  Achievement Motivation a desire for significant accomplishment mastery of things, people, or ideas attaining a high standard does predict actual achievement Goleman (1980): tracked 1528 California kids  top 1% in IQ 40 years later: difference between high & low success = motivation Achievement Motivation:  Achievement Motivation Duckworth & Seligman (2005): self-discipline = better predictor of school performance, attendance, graduation honors than intelligence “Discipline outdoes talent” Bloom (1985): outstanding scholars, athletes, artists  hours practicing every day achievement = “natural talent” + motivation Achievement Motivation:  Achievement Motivation individual difference characteristic low need for achievement: choose very easy tasks (guaranteed success) or very difficult tasks (failure expected, not embarrassing) high need for achievement: choose moderately difficult tasks (achievable, but challenging) need to consider domain assessing abilities depends on what people care about Journal Writing: Emotion:  Journal Writing: Emotion Make a list of the first 5 emotions that come to mind. What makes these emotions distinct from one another? How do you tell when you are experiencing one vs. another? What is an emotion anyway? Emotion:  Emotion What is an emotion? a positive or negative reaction to a perceived or remembered object, event, or circumstance, accompanied by a subjective feeling includes: 1. physiological arousal 2. expressive behaviors 3. conscious experience (thoughts and feelings) How do these pieces fit together? Types of Emotion:  Types of Emotion all emotional states a product of combinations of basic emotions Darwin (1872): cultural universality of emotional behaviors similar facial expressions for similar emotions blind people Inborn Emotions: Ekman & Friesen (1971):  Inborn Emotions: Ekman & Friesen (1971) Inborn Emotions: Ekman & Friesen (1971):  Inborn Emotions: Ekman & Friesen (1971) visited Fore tribe in New Guinea little to no exposure to White people able to identify happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, fear, and surprise some difficulty distinguishing fear and surprise Ekman (1984) dubbed these emotions the basic emotions Positive vs. Negative Emotions:  Positive vs. Negative Emotions positive & negative can occur at same time Cacioppo et al. (1997): separate questionnaires assessing positive & negative feelings about roommates score on one scale did not predict the other  feel positively & negatively at same time Davidson et al. (2000, 2002): EEG studies of positive, negative emotions approach emotions (love, happiness): left frontal lobe withdrawal emotions (fear, disgust): right frontal lobe Types of Emotion: Fear:  Types of Emotion: Fear learning fear: begins with biological preparedness, expanded by experience infants increasingly afraid of heights after falls and near-falls (Campos et al., 1992) Mineka (1985): Why do wild-reared monkeys fear snakes, but not lab-reared? lab-reared: watching parents, peers refuse food around snake  own fear of snakes post 9/11: tens of thousands of kids = fear of public places 4 weeks after: 27% of women, 10% of men afraid to fly Types of Emotion: Fear:  Types of Emotion: Fear crucial role of the amygdala fear conditioning ineffective if amygdala is damaged Schacter (1996): pairing blue slide with blaring noise = emotional reaction amygdala damage = remember conditioning, no emotional response hippocampus damage = emotional response, won’t remember why amygdala damage = trusting scary-looking people (Adolphs et al., 1998) Types of Emotion: Anger:  Types of Emotion: Anger Averill (1983): most people mildly angry several times a week, some several times a day maladaptiveness of anger? Williams et al. (2000): angry people 3X more likely to have heart attack Chang et al. (2002): self-described as hot tempered = 5X more likely to have heart attack by 55 post 9/11: anger response (as compared to fear) = increased intolerance for Muslims, immigrants (DeSteno et al., 2004; Skitka et al., 2004) Types of Emotion: Anger:  Types of Emotion: Anger adaptiveness of anger? often healthier than pent-up anger more likely to resolve source of anger, reducing overall upset (Averill, 1983) usefulness of catharsis? emotional release intended to relieve aggressive urges (“venting anger”) Freud’s hydraulic theory Perls: “If a person bottles up his rage, we have to find an outlet. We have to give him an opportunity for letting off steam.” Ann Landers: “Youngsters should be taught to vent their anger.” Catharsis:  Catharsis “Punch a pillow or a punching bag. Punch with all the frenzy you can. If you are angry at a particular person, imagine his or her face on the pillow or punching bag, and vent your rage physically and verbally. You will be doing violence to a pillow or punching bag so that you can stop doing violence to yourself by holding in poisonous anger.” (p. 96) Catharsis:  Catharsis ad for Wham-It toy “WHEN YOU NEED SOMETHING THAT WON’T HIT BACK. Wham-It stands 42” tall and takes abuse from kids and adults alike. When you feel like you just have to strike out, Wham-It is always on call. New clear vinyl pocket lets you insert a photo or drawing.” Catharsis:  Catharsis It does feel good, and can temporarily calm us... ...but expressing anger often leads to more anger. Problems with catharsis? retaliation, escalation of conflict Acting angry can make us angrier. Ebbesen et al. (1975): interviewed engineers laid off by aerospace company, given chance to vent venting anger = higher levels of subsequent hostility against company Catharsis:  Catharsis Bushman et al. (1999): venting anger keeps arousal levels high  increasing chance of further anger expression Bushman (2002): participants wrote essay on abortion, got feedback from other “participant” “This is one of the worst essays I have ever read!” IV: punching bag with rumination/punching bag with distraction/no punching bag DV: emotional reports; blast of noise, a la Twenge et al. (2001) results: rumination  more anger after punching bag, more aggressive blasts of noise “Venting to reduce anger is like using gasoline to put out a fire.” Handling Anger:  Handling Anger 1. wait it out physiological arousal decreases with time “It is true of the body as of arrows. What goes up must come down. Any emotional arousal will simmer down if you just wait long enough.” 2. calm yourself through distraction rumination increases anger 3. forgiveness Witvliet et al. (2001): mentally rehearse grudge against someone who hurt you, rehearse forgiveness forgiveness rehearsal: fewer negative feelings; decreased perspiration, blood pressure, heart rate, facial tension Happiness:  Happiness “Happiness is a butterfly which, when pursued, is always beyond our grasp, but which if you will sit down quietly, may alight upon you.” Nathaniel Hawthorne “Happiness is having a large, loving, caring, close-knit family in another city.” George Burns “Happiness is your dentist telling you it won’t hurt and then having him catch his hand in the drill.” Johnny Carson Happiness:  Happiness “Well,” said Pooh, “what I like best,” and then he had to stop and think. Because although eating honey was a very good thing to do, there was a moment just before you begin to eat it which was better than when you were, but he didn’t know what it was called.” A.A. Milne Predicting Happiness:  Predicting Happiness impact bias: tendency to overestimate long-term impact of emotional events, underestimate ability to adapt The good isn’t THAT good... lottery winners return to baseline happiness within 5 years ...and the bad isn’t THAT bad. “normal” levels of happiness among HIV patients, kidney dialysis patients, blind, paralyzed, professors who do not get tenure Money & Happiness:  Money & Happiness Money & Happiness:  Money & Happiness evidence for link rich countries moderately happier than poor countries (Steel & Ones, 2002) recent windfall (inheritance, lottery, economic upturn) = temporary elation (Diener & Oishi, 2000) short-term evidence... So does increasing wealth = increasing happiness? Money & Happiness:  Money & Happiness Money & Happiness:  Money & Happiness mixed evidence for long-term link Burkholder (2005): 1994-2004 = economic prosperity in China; declining rate of satisfaction urban wealthy Chinese less happy than rural poor Chinese Perkins (1991): those who prefer high income, occupational success = less happy than those preferring close friends & marriage So Where Does Happiness Come From?:  So Where Does Happiness Come From? How To Be Happier:  How To Be Happier Realize that enduring happiness doesn’t come from financial success. Take control of your time. Act happy. Seek work & leisure that engage your skills. Exercise! Develop healthy sleeping habits. Prioritize close relationships. Focus on helping others. Be grateful. Nurture & develop spiritual self. Theories of Emotion:  Theories of Emotion role of physiological component of emotions? Does emotion cause emotional behavior? Or does emotional behavior cause emotion? common sense? James-Lange Theory of Emotion:  James-Lange Theory of Emotion emotion = awareness of physiological arousal in response to emotion-arousing stimuli FEAR Physiology as Information:  Physiology as Information evidence that we infer emotion from physical info Larsen et al. (1992): furrowing brows = sadder when viewing sad photos Zajonc et al. (1989): saying ‘e’ and ‘ah’ (smiling muscles) = better mood than German ‘ü’ Strack et al. (1988): holding pencil in teeth vs. lips = funnier cartoons looking at self in mirror amplifies effect (Kleinke et al., 1998) Not Just Facial Expressions... (Flack et al., 1999):  Not Just Facial Expressions... (Flack et al., 1999) Push your eyebrows together and down. Clench your teeth tightly and push your lips together. Put your feet flat on the floor directly below your knees, and put your forearms and elbows on the arms of the chair. Now clench your fists tightly and lean your upper body slightly forward. Not Just Facial Expressions... (Flack et al., 1999):  Not Just Facial Expressions... (Flack et al., 1999) Push the corners of your mouth up and back, letting your mouth open a little. Sit up as straight as you can in your chair. Put your hands at the ends of the armrests, and make sure that your legs are straight in front of you, knees bent, and feet right below your knees. Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion:  Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion problems with James-Lange theory physiological responses too similar to produce distinct emotions responses too slow to trigger sudden emotion subjective experience of emotion  physiological responses FEAR Two-Factor Theory of Emotion:  Two-Factor Theory of Emotion middle ground between early theories of emotion like James & Lange: emotion from awareness of physiological arousal like Cannon & Bard: emotions are physiologically similar Step 1: experience physiological arousal Step 2: assign label to emotion (conscious interpretation) But we can misinterpret our physiological states... Dutton & Aron (1974):  Dutton & Aron (1974) Do people misattribute the emotional source of physiological arousal? Capilano Suspension Bridge (Vancouver, Canada) 5’ wide, 450’ long, 250’ off ground made of suspension wire & wooden planks Dutton & Aron (1974):  Dutton & Aron (1974) IVs: 18-35 year old men approached on suspension/sturdy bridge by female/male researcher with questionnaire Thematic Appercption Test (TAT) given phone number for more info DVs: how many men called phone number, amount of sexual imagery Dutton & Aron (1974) Results: % Filling Out Questionnaire:  Dutton & Aron (1974) Results: % Filling Out Questionnaire Dutton & Aron (1974) Results: % Accepting Phone Number:  Dutton & Aron (1974) Results: % Accepting Phone Number Dutton & Aron (1974) Results: % Calling Phone Number:  Dutton & Aron (1974) Results: % Calling Phone Number Dutton & Aron (1974) Results: TAT :  Dutton & Aron (1974) Results: TAT The Difficulty in Detecting Lying:  The Difficulty in Detecting Lying Ekman & O’Sullivan (1991) Lie Detection:  Lie Detection long history of lie detection attempts: West Africa: passing bird’s egg nervousness = shaky motor control China: mouthful of uncooked rice during trial anxiety = less salivation; dry rice = guilty Approaches to Detecting Deception:  Approaches to Detecting Deception Note: None that detect lying per se The Polygraph:  The Polygraph “the lie detector” machine that measures a variety of physiological responses associated with emotional arousal blood pressure, pulse, respiration rate, galvanic skin response allowed in trials in 19 US states Uses (and Abuses?) of Polygraph Tests:  Uses (and Abuses?) of Polygraph Tests Specific incident investigations criminal investigations: defendants, witnesses insurance claims investigations investigating prisoners accused of violating rules substantiation of claims made in civil suits paternity suits Screening situations pre-employment screening screening current employees child custody cases Uses (and Abuses?) of Polygraph Tests:  Uses (and Abuses?) of Polygraph Tests Employee Polygraph Protection Act (EPPA; 1998) prohibits screening tests for employment in private sector allows tests for those reasonably suspected of involvement in a workplace incident Federal, state, & local govt employers, federal contractors, & police can still use polygraph tests for screening! Is this trend spreading? National Defense Authorization Act (2000): scientists @ nuclear weapons labs must take polygraph tests to maintain security clearance Control Question Test (CQT) (Reid, 1947):  Control Question Test (CQT) (Reid, 1947) 2 types of questions 1. control questions generally address questionable behavior e.g. “In the last 20 years, have you ever taken something that didn’t belong to you?” 2. relevant questions address specific behavior under investigation e.g. “Did you take money from your register at work?” Control Question Test (CQT) (Reid, 1947):  Control Question Test (CQT) (Reid, 1947) CQT “theory” innocent: stronger reactions to control questions control content of greater concern guilty: stronger emotion to relevant questions compare magnitude of control, relevant responses Slide166:  Innocent Guilty Hypothetically.... So How Good Are Polygraphs? Anecdotal Evidence:  So How Good Are Polygraphs? Anecdotal Evidence detecting spies? FBI, CIA, Depts. of Defense, Energy: millions of dollars testing tens of thousands of employees “No spy has ever been caught [by] using the polygraph” (US National Academy of Sciences, 2002) the case of Aldrich Ames So How Good Are Polygraphs? Empirical Evidence:  So How Good Are Polygraphs? Empirical Evidence Kleinmuntz & Szucko (1984) polygraph experts study test results from: 50 guilty thieves 50 innocents 1/3 of innocents declared guilty 1/4 of guilty declared innocent Problems With The Polygraph:  Problems With The Polygraph assumption: increased physiological arousal = lie “only a thief becomes agitated when denying a theft” Problems? similarity of physiological behaviors across emotions easy to “fail” test with emotional, truthful answers Biased Polygraphy?:  Biased Polygraphy? 60 Minutes example: expectancy effects 3 polygraphers examined 4 employees accused of camera theft (no actual theft) each polygrapher told a different employee was suspected (employees didn’t know) In each instance, the suspected employee was deemed guilty (probability by chance = 1.5%) But polygraphers use: polygraphy results, examinee behaviors, case facts, examiner’s “professional” hunches and impressions Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT):  Guilty Knowledge Test (GKT) alternative to traditional CQT approach, still uses physiological measures used when info about events is available that only real culprit would know series of questions constructed, only one of which has correct critical detail answer “no” to each item, thus lying about critical item if guilty consistent peak of physiological response on critical alternative suggests guilt Assessing GKT:  Assessing GKT superior to CQT, particularly in protecting innocent utilizes recognition as guilt index, rather than ambiguous physical reaction chance of innocent person looking guilty on 10-item GKT = 1/510 met with resistance among those in polygraph community applicability in high profile cases? The Bottom Line:  The Bottom Line no unequivocal lie response traditional polygraphy: unacceptably high false positive rate assessing recognition more accurate, but potentially less widely applicable? Polygraphs are useful for eliciting confessions by generally scaring the hell out of people

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