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Published on June 26, 2007

Author: JJMiller

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Affirming the Pre-existing Plurality of Local, Democratic Voices:A Short History of US Media, Compared to the Global Independent Media Centers Phenomenon since 1999:  Mark WHITAKER UNIVERSITY OF WISCONSIN-MADISON Dissertator, Department of Sociology Media Studies Seminar Presentation mwhitake@ssc.wisc.edu June 25, 2003 Affirming the Pre-existing Plurality of Local, Democratic Voices: A Short History of US Media, Compared to the Global Independent Media Centers Phenomenon since 1999 Outline of Talk:  Outline of Talk 1. Who am I? 2. Short History of 20th century: how US Media Consolidation has interacted with the Models of Media—and how IMCs are a ‘full circle’ or ‘recovery’ issue 3. 'IMC' Phenomenon since 1999 4. 'Be the Media' methods. How do I start? Some suggestions. 1. Who am I?:  1. Who am I? Dissertator, UW-Madison, Department of Sociology; special interests: political sociology, environmental sociology, sociology of consumption, comparative historical sociology, politics of environmental degradation ‘web anchor’ activism and multiple websites 2. Short History:  2. Short History 20th century media consolidation related to Modes of Media Reporting MODE: 1900-1920: newspaper consolidation in cities, yellow journalism, partisan papers connected to political parties (comparative France, England, US, Madison to bring up), crisis of confidence, helps lead to the invention of ‘objective style’ reporting and ‘getting multiple perspectives, balance, etc. ’ Sounds nice however: MODE: However, simultaneous to this the expansion of ‘public relations industry,’ for protecting corporate interests that were being exposed by the muckraking journalists of the period. Techniques were formalized on how to 'crystallize public opinion, manage it, and even create it, manufacture public acceptance and backing of particular pre-decided goals or actions. Thus to short circuit any attempts at democratic feedback from a plurality of voices and debate. Highly equated with advertising. Edwards Bernays and Ivy Lee two exemplifiers: Edward Bernays, nephew of Sigmund Freud, application of psychology and mass psychology to creating the images and motifs for governments and corporations to manufacture consent and approval in a period where aristocratic precedence was beginning to fade. A large series of books published over his 100 year lifetime with titles like 'Crystallizing Public Opinion.' He was still alive in the 1990s. Ivy Lee: a former New York City newspaper reporter, became one of the first prominent PR men. He gained notoriety for doing damage control for the Rockefellers following the 1914 Ludlow massacre, in which striking miners and their families were shot and killed on behalf of Rockefeller mine interests in Colorado. Ivy Lee worked for Hitler and Nazi Germany in general in the 1930s. 2. Short History:  2. Short History 1940s: To top this corporate and manufactured public response, the military gets involved with it as well. This is the beginning of America’s corporate/military state elision throughout the media. State intelligence operatives either had compromised major media in the United States through financial bribery and planted story material--and actually establishing their own media organs. See Project Mockingbird. 2. Short History:  2. Short History Walt Disney meeting with the US military, 1942 2. Short History :  2. Short History Their brainchild: the Mickey Mouse Gas Mask 2. Short History:  2. Short History All this just to show the background political networks that have been working together to manage public images and information have been very statist indeed. 1940s to present: Expansion of television More andamp; more image based public discourse and 'primed desire' advertising strategies. The use of public relations strategies becomes more and more the dominant method of information dispersal in the United States. Some argue that this image issue in general begins much earlier, like the 1900s. I consider that images are far less democratic than print, because of the access issue and the creation issue. 1970s-2003: Further media consolidation in the past 25 years: 2. Short History:  2. Short History 2. Short History:  2. Short History From 2001:Military embeddedness even formalized in corporate war reporting as technical sales advertising. Son of Colin Powell, Michael Powell and the FCC consolidation. If you have yet to notice any of this happening, you can write it up to successful public relations management about the organization of your own society. You should pick up Orwell’s book 1984 and read though it this summer and compare. However, people have been getting upset about all this more and more. Over a million write-in letters of complaint: 99% against. Parties from across the political spectrum oppose it. Senate Commerce Commission has refusal to take FCC recommendations for further media consolidation. 3. “IMC Phenomenon Since 1999:  3. 'IMC Phenomenon Since 1999 Opening Quote from John Nichols (writer for Madison Capital Times and the Nation Magazine) on Indymedia. 'At a time in American history, when the media is more conglomerated and more concentrated, with fewer voices and less diversity than ever before from the founding of the nation, groups like Indymedia are absolutely essential. They are the underpinning of democracy. Because Jefferson and Madison, when they wrote that protection for freedom of the press into the Bill of Rights, did not do so because they liked the press. They did not do so because they wanted to have one big, nice-looking newspaper, or they imagined some future CNN with 'America Strikes Back' graphics. They did it because they believed America needed thousands of diverse voices communicating the news of the day to citizens who would use that news to effect change and to cause progress through their democratic structures. We have lost most of our free voices in media today, so groups like Indymedia are more necessary than ever. In fact, I would argue they're far more necessary than most of the corporate media.' 3. “IMC” Phenomenon Since 1999:  3. 'IMC' Phenomenon Since 1999 Seattle World Trade Organization (WTO) Conference in 1999, background Expansion since then to global phenomenon of affirming locality of news, multiple perspectives, and against the undemocratic uniformity of corporate media, over 60 separate groups in a global network of voluntary localist media on a similar internet news writing/posting platform; millions of hits a month Original intent of ‘open newswire’ was accidental according to its history. Other related sites using this type of software, TWiki So this combination of opposition to undemocratic, delocalizing corporate globalization policies; against media consolidation; against nation-state erosion sovereignty on local participation. This is similar to what historically was removed in the early 1900s in the USA though it is global and local. Other “IMC” like sites:  Other 'IMC' like sites News from Babylon Democratic Underground Alternet.org None however with a particular affirming of the issue of locality per se Some of the ‘alternative news’ or ‘media watchdog sites themselves funded by the people who own the corporate media, for example: The “independent alternatives?”:  The 'independent alternatives?' Funding phony ‘right’ media as much as ‘left’ media:  Funding phony ‘right’ media as much as ‘left’ media Clear Channel, since 1996 Telecomm Act that led to massive radio consolidation throughout the US in the past 7 years, less locality issues Internationalist media moguls like News Corp CEO Rupert Murdoch creating Fox News, Fox News and Weekly Standard, Irving Kristol, these people are internationalists instead of American or democratic per se. Sumner Redstone, Sydney Australia based Viacom: CBS television network, Infinity radio and billboard businesses. Anyway on the left/right issue: Research states that the majority of the population are fiscal conservatives and social progressives. Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient A highly recommended research link that summarizes the gatekeeping of democratic media, from a sociological point of view: Project Censored at Sonoma, California, University of Sonoma http://www.projectcensored.org/ How IMCs are indeed different: their ongoing Principles of Unity:  How IMCs are indeed different: their ongoing Principles of Unity The Independent Media Center Network (IMCN) is based upon principles of equality, decentralization and local autonomy. The IMCN is not derived from a centralized bureaucratic process, but from the self-organization of autonomous collectives that recognize the importance of developing a union of networks. All IMC's consider open exchange of and open access to information a prerequisite to the building of a more free and just society. All IMC's respect the right of activists who choose not to be photographed or filmed. How IMCs are indeed different: their ongoing Principles of Unity:  How IMCs are indeed different: their ongoing Principles of Unity 4. All IMC's, based upon the trust of their contributors and readers, shall utilize open web based publishing, allowing individuals, groups and organizations to express their views, anonymously if desired. 5. The IMC Network and all local IMC collectives shall be not-for-profit. 6. All IMC's recognize the importance of process to social change and are committed to the development of non-hierarchical and anti-authoritarian relationships, from interpersonal relationships to group dynamics. Therefore, IMCs shall organize themselves collectively and be committed to the principle of consensus decision making and the development of a [direct participatory democratic process] that is transparent to its membership. How IMCs are indeed different: their ongoing Principles of Unity:  How IMCs are indeed different: their ongoing Principles of Unity 7. All IMC's recognize that a prerequisite for participation in the decision making process of each local group is the contribution of an individual's labor to the group. 8. All IMC's are committed to caring for one another and our respective communities both collectively and as individuals and will promote the sharing of resources including knowledge, skills and equipment. 9. All IMC's shall be committed to the use of free source code, whenever possible, in order to develop the digital infrastructure, and to increase the independence of the network by not relying on proprietary [private] software. 10. All IMC's shall be committed to the principle of human equality, and shall not discriminate, including discrimination based upon race, gender, age, class or sexual orientation. Recognizing the vast cultural traditions within the network, we are committed to building [diversity] within our localities. IMCs useful for::  IMCs useful for: 'radical passionate, subjective tellings of truth'—left, right, green, or libertarian—or other! Immediacy of comment/analysis; Immediacy of posting, ‘open newswire’ is live immediately as soon as the database refreshes (within several minutes any story, whether video, hypertext, plain texts, photographs, art, it is posed on the front page as a link for all to see and comment upon, in same way.) Gathering many strands of other people’s worthy news stories, you will find nuggets of corporate news filtered here from the whole world as well as localized reporting Stories on media-neglected or demonized local protests internationally or locally: a place to post and view photographs, video, interviews, related website links, and related upcoming events News analysis and a place to share or ask for information, and get feedback A quick summary of nuggets you will find—from the past year only:  A quick summary of nuggets you will find—from the past year only Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient Police Snipers allowed to watch American protests in large cities 9 Pounds Of Wild Fish Used To Make 1 Pound Farm Fish Pissed-Off Republicans say Bu$h is screwing his own party US uses Nazi blitzkrieg tactics to overpower Baghdad US military calls in Hollywood set designer San Francisco paralyzed by direct action protests Elizabeth Cheney is in Jordan en route to Iraq to join with Human Shields Peter Arnett (US journalist) hired by British newspaper after being fired for seeming ‘anti-war’ One-Third Of U.S. Equipment On Ground In Iraq Ready For The Junk Yard Bush, Blair, Rumsfeld, Straw have been excommunicated from the (Orthodox) Christian church; Bush’s own Methodist Church entirely against him US obstructs UN General Assembly Meeting to stop war Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient Umm Qasr, Iraq Was Destroyed and Levelled by Americans/British U.S. cruise missiles attack 4 other mid-East countries during 'Iraq attack' Government admits DU has PLUTONIUM, 57,000x more toxic; DU in Germany, Somalia, and more Iraqi Hospitals are being looted and destroyed; Oil Ministry Building is very well protected; American/British allowing looting Who is Chalabi? Bush Administration recommend Chalabi as leadership material: international embezzler, bank fraudster, organized crime, fugitive of justice--and head of CIA created 'Iraqi National Congress' Activists Shut Down U.S. Senate to Protest War Spending Former congressman (and 100 legal experts who contacted Bush) asks court to decide if Bush committed war crimes Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient U.S. Puppet Chalabi barely escapes assassination attempt: Iraq regrouping in Actual Liberation Army CHOMSKY interview of April 2, 2003: 'Iraq should be seen as a trial run.' Hospital chaos... but UK docs are sent home Demonstrators attempt shutdown of Chevron-Texaco, 30 arrested Oil ministry an untouched building in ravaged Baghdad London Times: Who really DID save Private Jessica? Iraqis attempted to, were shot at, then a PR staged attack of known unarmed places. . . Robert Fisk: American hired arsonists? Americans removing the PR mask of 'liberation' to direct occupation, lockdown, curfew, staged arson buses moving about, destroying the culture of Iraq for occupation Mutant Plants As Toxic As GM Parent – Study Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient Project for a New American Century (PNAC), meet the Project for an Israeli Century!! Even the author below makes the connections between the two groups interests and desires, as well as documents many items in print by this 'Israeli Century' perspective. Experts: 'Looters' Had Keys to Iraqi Vaults, this makes it a Heist instead Over 200,000 Iraqis Demonstrate in Baghdad and other cities The First ever global level protests before a war attack and against Bush, making him world’s most hated person: 10-12 Million people total in city streets worldwide Independent Commission in Florida said Gore won the recount, Bush is a fraud.It is a court coup. Florida: up to 150,000 Black Florida voters were removed from the voter rolls because they were Black--to press for a Bush win of Florida’s 25 Electoral College Votes, Florida still this way two years later creating systemic fraud in the 2002 elections Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient Corporate Media Censorship: Today show goes dark on Actor/Activist Tim Robbins: A conversation about free speech and free expression was cut off mid sentence as the network went to black. Palast, Moore, Chomsy, etc. books selling wildly in America Saddam was a US CIA man in Baghdad in the 1960s. Rumsfeld is the one that sold nukes to North Korea 7 MILLION US CITIZENS expected to turn off TV: TV-Turnoff Week April 21-27, 2003 American Tank captain admits firing on 'unembedded' media hotel More Scientists Say SARS Is A BioWeapon US Companies Quietly Caught Trading with Iraqi Enemy, Risk Only a Wrist Slap NPR ignores Israeli attack on school, killing of two Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient Is Killing Journalists Part of Pentagon Official Press Policy? data for the past six years Primakov hired by US: Former KGB Head, Russian Prime Minister in 90s, friend of Saddam will Help Spy On Americans through Poindexter's OIA Bush planned Iraq 'regime change' before becoming President: Bush's cabinet intended to take military control of the Gulf region whether or not Saddam Hussein was in power. DU classified as WMD under UN; Only British troops get cancer tests. . .while American troops are ignored by the US Army and are kept from DU information videos. Mohammed Atta worked for Elite U.S--German Government Exchange Program MPEG video of GW Bush 'so long as I'm the dictator' quip Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient State of Hawaii Renounces USA Patriot Act Pope and advisors think '9-11' is an inside job 9/11 Inquiry Chair Kean has Business Ties with Osama's Brother In Law Bush hires ChoicePoint, same firm Katherine Harris hired to purge Florida voters, to get info on Mexican voters 'Baghdad Bounce' Turns Into Backlash for Blair's New Labour: lost 750 local government seats Hundreds of Radios Closed in 'leftist' Brazil. . .by the 'leftist' Lula: info on Lula as neoliberal 'Patriot Raid,' an eye witness to what Homeland Security means in practice US to Be Sued for Iraq War Crimes, particularly General Tommy Franks Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient New Mexico Legislature Stands Against the Patriot Act Murdered 'puppet Shi’a cleric' al-Kohei was given £8m by CIA (13 million dollars, it's gone missing) Bush is a military deserter: Cash awards still being offered for evidence of National Guard service by George Bush Junior between May 1972-1973, no one has claimed them. For a whole year, corporate media in US without ONE single peep or story on depleted uranium munitions Dixie Chicks Fans Stand andamp; Cheer In Support, As Maines Confronts Pro-Bush Protester A bill requiring voting machines to produce paper trail receipt, in the House Dixie Chicks awarded key to the city OF AUSTIN, TEXAS by mayor Court Allows Secret Deportation Hearings, 'Star Chambers' Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient Bush's Executive Order of Oil Protection---about Iraq!! poses that he reserves the right to seize Iraqi oil trust fund Article on the WELL OILED MEDIA: networks between Bush, oil, andamp; corporate media Ban on Irradiated Ground Beef Lifted in Public School Lunch Program: 27 million US students The US-led Empire *claims* it is battling Muslim fundamentalism; Yet the American government is in practice pushing Sharia to control Muslim populations Four Days of Actions against Bechtel Corporation at its Headquarters in San Francisco Powell: 'I'm Not Reading This. This is Bullshit.' [UN speech by him filled with plagiarized material, ghostwritten by Cheney chief of staff] Former Agent Defies CIA, publishes book, Describes Saudi Terror Ties Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient Iraqi Brit/Amer. Occupiers Institute 'Media Code of Conduct.' Plan it in secret while in Athens, Greece 80%+ of Americans think the US should reduce greenhouse gas emissions, Oregon University poll; 50%+ approval on gas guzzler tax for cars 'A Dark Storm Cloud' of media consolidation says dissenting FCC Commissioner Adelstein [official statement] Corporate assault on rights of consumers/workers rights to bring class action lawsuits comes to a head: H.R. 1115 / S. 274 , jurisdictional switch to favor corporations, revoke class action rules in each state Green Party says Bush is indictable for war crimes CBS Producer Fired For Comparing The Mood In America To That Of Germans Who Help the Nazis Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient:  Issues I would consider corporate media model very deficient Anti-Bush ABC Actress Janeane Garofalo TV Show Dumped ['Reality Bites'] Donahue’s show was cancelled for political reasons, said internal corporate memo. VIDEO: US Military Refused to Show Depleted Uranium Hazards Training Video to Its Troops in Iraq or Yugoslavia, videos made by Army in 1995 US voted out of Inter-American Commission on Human Rights, while Powell was attending Iraqi Mobile Labs Nothing to do with Germ Warfare, Official British Report Finds Bush Reich invades Californian democracy (largest Electoral College Vote) to set up 2004 election, with Issa Purge 'Operation Iraqi Freedom:' US proconsul cancels municipal elections 'Our troops suffer uranium sickness,' Australian/US troops report DU sicknesses What can we learn is the motivation of public relations oriented corporate media? Maintaining Ambivalence instead of informing: Expanding Risk and Ignorance:  What can we learn is the motivation of public relations oriented corporate media? Maintaining Ambivalence instead of informing: Expanding Risk and Ignorance Issues of consumptive risk Issue of global events Manufacturing consent Propaganda model instead of information model Supply sided verses consumer interest issues of risk Advertising gatekeeping Advertising directly into news stories: ‘the best PR appears to be news stories'. This is the 'third man' technique of public relations, creating a front group. Typically 'objectivism and balance' is the front group for biased reporting and managing public opinion. Corporate private media model:  Corporate private media model Claims of objectivity Claims of balance Claims are very different than actuality these are the legitimating factors of a private corporate media, however: they are state media, military linked, advertiser linked, international linked, firing people, public relations exercises (Rendon Group; 'Hearts and Minds' group) When ‘objectivity and balance’ works it’s great, when it fails to reach its ideals, it is misinformation even worse than partisan reporting because it is inherently designed to mislead: to declare that anything that the media does is objective and balanced simply because it is coming from the media. Nice quote from a Madison IMC volunteer member’s posting:  Nice quote from a Madison IMC volunteer member’s posting He was complaining about someone’s attitude toward the IMC for various rationales, comparing it to the objective/balance model and seeing it lacking: 'The simple fact remains, however, that you have a fundamental misunderstanding of the IMC model. There are no paid, tenured, or appointed 'Indymedia journalists.' We are all volunteers that act out of a belief that the dominant media structures are inadequate and structurally biased against persons/movements working against the status quo from a position of weakness. Some of us, myself included, work primarily and identify ourselves with the IMC network as a means of both building the institution and its credibility, but this does make us subject to your concerns or definitions regarding 'objectivity.' If you feel that coverage of a particular event or issues is deficient, the onus is on you, not any mythical person 'at Indymedia' to correct the perceived situation. You did not, however, though you had as much right and opportunity to do so as anybody. Why didn't you? Instead, we get criticisms from you about reporting when you have not even bothered to do any of it yourself , with a perspective that is entirely ignorant about the core aspects of the IMC model. http://madison.indymedia.org/newswire/display/8334 4. Rest of the class: “Be the Media” methods and playing on the IMC. How do I start? Some suggestions.:  4. Rest of the class: 'Be the Media' methods and playing on the IMC. How do I start? Some suggestions. Before we begin, go to IMC global at www.indymedia.org and read their Frequently asked questions—top left link, ‘about us’ then choose frequently asked questions. When you feel satisfied enough, go to the newswire and choose a local IMC from the left hand column Read something that strikes your interest, and pick a single topic (or a few topics of interest), then we will rejoin when everyone feels ready. If nothing strikes your interest, I have some printouts of news stories and images as well you browse, or: 4. Research your local media organizations:  4. Research your local media organizations If you would like to know who owns your local media? http://www.openairwaves.org/telecom/analysis/default.aspx Who funded your political candidates? http://www.opensecrets.org/ How gerrymandered are my local election districts? Are they actually competitive so voters can have a choice on the ground over parties? http://www.fairvote.org/ Is this a known public relations front group of some sort? http://www.prwatch.org/ http://www.disinfopedia.org/ another Twiki operation Word of Warning: Beware of the trolls!:  Word of Warning: Beware of the trolls! DEFINITION: My adapted definition of internet trolling. (Noun as ‘troll’.) As a verb, ‘trolling’ is the practice of trying to lure and divert other Internet users into sending and diverting responses towards carefully-designed incorrect statements or similar 'bait' that is: (a) inflammatory, (b) emotionally ‘hot,’ or (c) without any previous posting that would justify such madness and suddenness. Trolling comments may be cruel, insulting, have the aim of creating confusion, creating anger, creating division, or to change the subject—likely all at once. As a noun, a troll is any poster or person who is ‘trolling’ by posting such comments. The best response to a troll is to tolerate or ignore, instead of what is called 'feeding the troll,' which changes the line of the subject of posting and responses into name-calling typically and then the topic is cut off as it drives people away. This is the point of trolling of course. A troll comment should be taken as a sign of success in other words! Beware of the trolls!:  Beware of the trolls! IMCs generate many troll comments, whether this is from intentional disinformation or actual ignorance, you can be the judge. My opinion is that it a bit of both: based on the history of COINTELPRO/CIA attacks on democratic participation in the 1960s, with infiltration and subversion that is well documented, and secondly, that immediately after IMCs were taking hold there were a slew of FBI court cases against it attempting to get it to turn over server logs. None were ever maintained however, and the court cases failed. Beware of the trolls!:  Beware of the trolls! How to recognize troll comments? Example and generalities EXAMPLE: A troll like comment clipped from dc.indymedia.org, do you know people who argue this way or attempt to change the subject without having something to say? 'This fiction is typical. . .utterly devoid of truth, disgustingly anti-american, supportive of the most sickening aspects of the Ismalofascist world.' However, I think that since you are in college, you are smart and you should be exposed to many different perspectives as part of your education. This makes you capable of recognizing when this occurs to you. You may already know about this, though have been without a vocabulary to describe the phenomenon for what it is—whether to yourself or to others when you find it. Either pointing out it is a troll comment, or ignoring it are the best recommended solutions. It may be a vote that you are indeed onto something if you attract trolls so you should continue writing about it! These websites help in analyzing it: Beware of the trolls!:  Beware of the trolls! GENERALITIES: Troll comments are actually common public relations/advertising techniques: used both by ‘trolls’ or public relations corporations (for which the latter are paid very well to confuse or 'turn people off,' and the former, well, who knows). These categories of discourse or speech/rhetoric are: Word games, Name-calling, Glittering generalities, Euphemisms, False connections, Transfer, Testimonial, Special Appeals, Plain Folks, Bandwagon, Fear, Logical fallacies, Bad Logic, Unwarranted extrapolation. Two recommended links: See http://www.propagandacritic.com/ , the updated namesake to Institute for Propaganda Analysis, 1937-42; and/or Stephen’s Guide to the Logical Fallacies http://www.datanation.com/fallacies/ Intermission:  Intermission 4. Rest of the class: Got an idea for something to write? “Be the Media” methods. How do I start? :  4. Rest of the class: Got an idea for something to write? 'Be the Media' methods. How do I start? Get a perspective: Use Google news for a perspective or Google itself Begin to save news files in archives for comparison or for later, helps you begin to ponder critically how you personally organize your information: what you group with what and why. Use alternet.org Use Indymedia Many many others out there, follow the links. Perhaps write up Report quick notes found One page Report on information with links as well as your confidence in the information and why. POST IT TO A LOCAL IMC AND HEAD BACK IN A DAY OR SO AND SEE IF IT GENERATED ANY ACCOLADES OR TROLL COMMENTS! Conclusion: Independent Media model:  Conclusion: Independent Media model Claims of multiple perspectives, diversity ‘be the media’ removing the priest/laity aspect of public communication Activist oriented, contention oriented, onus of responsibility on the reader instead of some unknown journalist camaraderie Immediacy Left out perspectives from corporate media—a direct protest to corporate media of the United States and globally Lack of division between journalists and readers, embeds people in the process of news analysis and commentary instead of a distribution to receiver model—all are combination distribution receivers. Conclusion: Corporate v. democratic media: Which is your flag? Which do you adhere to most?:  Conclusion: Corporate v. democratic media: Which is your flag? Which do you adhere to most? Conclusion:  Conclusion IMCs and other pressures as the expression of what has been missing the most of the 20th century from the nascent consolidation of newspapers then television—the pressures of multiple and more geographically specific perspectives as a route towards informed accuracy and awareness—instead of uninvolved pretensions of objectivity. IMCs responding to an actual lack—a lack of already pre-existing locality voices that are without democratic voice/expression in a consolidated and state-administered media. Conclusion :  Conclusion Amongst other factors, a different organization of the media is required to move towards sustainability to be able to give citizens in particular localities a way to participate in expressing their geographically specific senses of risk and exclusion. IMCs are part of this sustainability pressure: affirming voices from areas left out (or intentionally excluded) from the debate. Hope this short sharp shock treatment has helped you search out wider horizons for yourself and seeing the IMC phenomenon as one means for a sustainability goal that is localist, democratic, and participatory. Conclusion:  Conclusion Recommended books on media consolidation and public relations history: Sharon Beder’s Global Spin. Rampton and Stauber’s books Trust Us, We’re Experts! How Industry Manipulates Science and Gambles with Your Future MadCow USA (available for free on their website at www.prwatch.org Toxic Sludge is Good for You! Lies, Damn Lies, and the Public Relations Industry

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