Implementation and Software Maintenance

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Information about Implementation and Software Maintenance

Published on March 6, 2009

Author: ankush85


Software Implementation & Maintenance : Software Implementation & Maintenance Software Implementation and Maintenance : Software Implementation and Maintenance Implementation means the process of converting a new or a revised system design into an operational one.  The other aspects are the post-implementation review and software maintenance. There are three types of implementation: Implementation of a computer system to replace a manual system. Implementation of a new computer system to replace an existing one. Implementation of a modified application to replace an existing one. Slide 3: Conversion: The objective is to put the tested system into operation. Conversion should be exciting because it is the last step before system begins to show results. If not, properly planned, then, things can go wrong? For many first-time users, this theme is familiar? What went wrong? Conversions are often fiasco? Activities for Conversion : Activities for Conversion Conversion Plan Testing System  Conversion begins with a review of project plan and system test documentation and implementation plan. The parties involved are: - User - Project team - Programmers - Data capture – form filling and checking Slide 5: Files conversion: File conversion involves capturing data and creating computerised files from existing files. Data entry staff Staff training Database is prime concern. Creating test files: programs should be checked on test data files. Slide 6: Train Personnel: Training aids User manual Screen menu Data dictionary Job aids Wall charts Slide 7: 5. Conversion of physical Facilities: Communication network Hardware  6. Conversion of Administrative procedures Slide 8: Resistance to change: People will resist changes, how they will react: Hostility: Non-co-operation, fear Withdrawal from the cause of stress-supervisor going sick Refusing to accept the computer Adverse effect on employee’s status, job satisfaction May even sabotage the system Unable to understand the new system- communication gap Slide 9: There are several ways to reduce resistance to system change Identify and discuss the defects in the present system. Convince them that changeover will improve the quality of work and also it will help them all. Establish open communication between user and project team. Invite and use employee participation in all phases of conversion process Slide 10: Different Ways of Conversion: Parallel Running: new and old system Direct conversion: Totally change-over i.e. only new system Gradual switch over: Partial conversion: step by step conversion Slide 11: Main activities: Programming Test data preparation and system testing Data collection/ data capture : i) filling of forms ii) Data entry Training of users Conversion: Change-over methods – direct, gradual, parallel. Post Implementation Review : Post Implementation Review Operational systems are quickly taken for granted. Every system requires periodic evaluation after implementation. A post-implementation review measures the system’s performance against predefined requirements. A post-implementation review determines, how well the system continues to meet performance specifications. It also provides information to determine whether major redesign is necessary. Slide 13: How well system meets the stated requirements ? Whether major redesign is necessary? Some modification (minor) is needed? Actual projects costs exceed initial estimates. Actual project benefits/initial estimates Major problems surfaced during conversion (review). Slide 14: Activities for Post-Implementation review: Request for review Review plan: formal review plan Objectives of review Type of evaluation Time schedule Slide 15: Administrative Plan: Area objectives, costs, performance, benefits Personnel requirements plan: review, performance objectives and training performance to data – personnel performance, training performance Hardware plan Documentation review Plan: Instructions for filling the forms, checking the forms, data entry/menu driven; Manuals- flow charts/charts, dos and don’ts; evaluate the accuracy and completeness of documentation compiled to data, documentation standards Slide 16: Software Maintenance: Maintenance is important part of development. Programmers spend more time maintaining program than they do writing them. Software maintainance is required because: Slide 17: Software is a product designed in an adhoc fashion with few standards Poorly documented, difficult to maintain Maintenance is not as rewarding as developing system. It is assumed that maintenance requires no skill or experience. Users are not fully aware of maintenance problems or its high cost. Few tools/techniques are available. A good test plan is lacking Standards, procedures and guidelines are poorly defined and enforced Mostly delegated to junior programmer Mostly maintain without care for structure/documentation Programmers expect they will not be there when the implementation takes place. Slide 18: Maintenance/Enhancement: Maintenance can be classified as Corrective maintenance: means repairing processing/ performance failures, making changes because of previously uncorrected problems or false assumptions. Adaptive maintenance: means changing the program functions and changes in hardware and software environment. Perfective maintenance: means enhancing the performance/modifying the program to respond to user’s additional or changing needs. Enhancement Slide 19: Of these, more time and money is spent on perfective maintenance than corrective/adaptive. Maintenance covers a wide range of activities including: Correcting coding and design errors. Updating documentation/test data. Upgrading user support. Enhancement- adding, modifying or redeveloping the code to support changes. Slide 20: It is necessary to keep up with changing user needs and operational environment. Labor-intensive nature. Reducing maintenance costs- maintenance management audit, software system audit, software modification. Proper Maintenance Plan: makes the software more reliable, improved response time in correcting errors, improved user satisfaction, higher morale among maintenance staff. Slide 21: To put maintenance in its proper perspective requires considerable skill and experience, and in an important and ongoing aspect of system development. Maintenance demands more orientation and training than any other programming activities. The environment must recognize the needs of the maintenance programmer for tools, methods and training. Slide 22: THANKS

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