Impact of energy storage on solar pv grid parity

46 %
54 %
Information about Impact of energy storage on solar pv grid parity

Published on February 28, 2014

Author: indiaesa


Impact of Energy Storage on Solar PV Grid Parity (This article was written by Schalk Cloete and published on The Energy Collective) Proponents of intermittent renewable energy such as solar PV and wind often claim that these energy sources will reach parity with standard grid power in the near future. As discussed in a previous article, however, this is a highly misleading claim, primarily because intermittent and non-dispatchable renewable energy is worth much less per kWh than steady and dispatchable baseline power. In order to illustrate the implications of this distinction, the aforementioned article valued intermittent PV similarly to unrefined coal. The central assumption underlying this way of thinking is that the costs associated with energy storage (which is required to make PV useful to society at higher penetration levels) are comparable to the costs associated with thermal power plants (which are required to make coal and gas useful to society at higher penetration levels). Under this assumption, solar PV turned out to still be about one order of magnitude more expensive than coal power. Naturally, this is a fairly crude assumption and accurate calculation of the real grid parity target for solar PV will be much more complex. This article will discuss the most important complexity: the fact that the costs associated with energy storage of intermittent renewables will be a strong function of the level of penetration into the local electricity grid. The cost of storage Under the assumption that the costs associated with storage are similar to the costs associated with thermal power generation, storage would increase costs roughly by a factor of 4 (as is the case for coal at $100/ton and coal-fired electricity at $0.06/kWh). However, this cost increase will be a substantial over-estimate at low penetration levels where almost no storage is necessary and a substantial under-estimate at high penetration levels where most renewable energy generated will have to be cycled through some form of storage. The graph below illustrates the price at which solar PV reaches parity with coal for five different storage cost scenarios assuming a coal price of $100/ton, a 30 year panel lifetime and a 5% discount rate on gradually released PV electricity.

The most important comment to be made about this graph is that we will move downwards with increased PV penetration. I am fairly confident that, for most locations, we will reach the light blue line at the bottom long before intermittent renewables come close to supplying 100% of our electricity. The exact penetrations at which each of the lines on the graph will be crossed is much more uncertain though. I will give some rough estimates in this article, but would welcome any corrections by experts on this site. Negligible storage costs (<1% penetration) Initially, when solar contributes less than about 1% of electricity, the intermittency will be essentially negligible. As the blue line shows, current utility scale installed PV prices (~$2/Wp) are already close to parity with coal in the most ideal locations (highest PV capacity factors) under this assumption. However, this first percent of solar PV penetration is the only region where the standard grid parity mantra of renewable energy advocates is relevant. Storage costs half of power plant costs (10-20% penetration) As we move up to a 10-20% penetration of intermittent renewables, we also move down to the red line in the graph. Under this scenario, solar PV (and wind) starts to rely significantly on the energy storage implicit in fossil fuels. Standard power plants then have to be operated at lower capacity factors and at lower efficiencies due to more ramping and more spinning reserve. One recent study for wind power calculated that costs of keeping backup fossil plants operating at lower capacity factors and efficiency (together with some added transmission costs) would increase the real cost of wind to triple the price of new gas and 1.5 times the price of new coal in the US. This represents a doubling of the standard costs calculated when the intermittent and non-dispatchable nature of wind energy is simply ignored.

Storage costs equal to power plant costs (20-40% penetration in selected regions) As we move beyond a 20% penetration of intermittent renewables, specialized energy storage becomes necessary. According to EIA estimates, the most feasible option; pumped hydro storage, will cost about twice as much as a coal plant per watt. It will, however, lose only about half the energy lost by the coal plant in the energy conversion process. It can therefore be estimated that pumped hydro storage will inflate solar PV prices roughly by the same factor as a thermal power plant inflates the price of coal. Even though the installed PV price of roughly $0.3/Wp required by this scenario seems highly unlikely ever to materialize, it should be noted that regions with abundant natural hydro capacity could potentially achieve these penetration levels of intermittent renewables at much more affordable prices. Denmark's wind backed up by hydro from Sweden and Norway is one such example. Very few regions on earth are suited for this kind of arrangement though. Storage costs double power plant costs (20-40% penetration in most regions) Pumped hydro is only available in certain (relatively rare) topographies. Thus, for most cases, a day or two of battery storage will be most practical. Despite lots of noise from battery optimists, the 150-year old lead-acid battery is still the cheapest option we have for this purpose, but suffers from drawbacks such as short lifetimes (especially at deeper discharge rates) and relatively low efficiencies (about 20% of energy cycled through the battery is lost). Lithium-ion batteries reduce these problems, but are also more expensive. One case study found that a lead acid battery and a lithium-ion battery could store energy for about $0.34 and $0.40 per KWh over their respective lifetimes. This cost (which must be added to the cost of renewables) is much greater than fossil fuel power even by itself. To better link this to the graph above, consider that most suppliers will sell you about $4 of batteries per watt of solar PV for protection against blackouts (example) where the battery warranty period is only about half that of the panels. It should also be mentioned that, in the hypothetical scenario of very cheap solar PV and relatively expensive storage, it could be more economical to simply build a large overcapacity of intermittent renewables and spill a large portion of the power produced. In the graph above, this will reduce the capacity factor of the installation, but could create a transfer from the purple to the green line. Storage costs quadruple power plant costs (>40% penetration) Finally, the light blue line right at the bottom comes into play when one starts thinking about longer term energy storage to compensate for longer cloudy (or wind-still) periods or even for slow seasonal variations. This line (which really is a matter of complete impossibility for intermittent renewables) is especially applicable to regions with long cloudy spells and seasonal mismatches (e.g. solar PV in Germany). On the flipside, however, it is also much less applicable to regions with very reliable renewable energy resources that are well aligned with seasonal demand (e.g. solar PV or solar thermal in desert areas).

Chemical storage is probably the only viable option for such longer-term storage requirements with hydrogen normally being the first option that comes to mind. A Spanish study found that hydrogen from combined wind and solar projects would cost about €25/kg which translates to about $0.90/kWh of hydrogen internal energy. Converting this stored energy back to electricity at a later time will inflate the price by another factor of 3 (similar to natural gas power plants), bringing the total cost up to $2.70/kWh - about 50 times more expensive than conventional power. Other forms of chemical storage might be more economical, but it will be very difficult to rise above that light blue line. Conclusion The previous article stated that current solar PV technology is still about one order of magnitude more expensive than coal. Based on the above analysis, it can be stated that this will be the case at roughly 20-40% penetration of solar and wind into our electricity networks (about 8-16% of total energy), beyond which the prospects for PV (and wind) will rapidly deteriorate. This is a good example of the law of receding horizons discussed earlier. However, the cost of storage is not the only influential variable in determining the real grid parity target for solar PV. The next article will therefore investigate four additional factors: the coal price, the PV panel lifetime, the PV discount rate and a CO2 price. Schalk Cloete I am a research scientist searching for the objective reality about the longer-term sustainability of industrialized human civilization on planet Earth. Issues surrounding energy and climate are of central importance in this sustainability picture and I therefore seek to learn more from the Energy Collective community. My current research focus is on second generation CO2 capture processes because these systems will be highly suited to the belated climate action that will probably start once climate change really starts to affect the average member of the democratic electorate.

Add a comment


xv89s8h1qr | 23/05/15 - toms 台灣 鞋 MBT休閒鞋銀色是你 瑜伽健身的最佳之選,並可以有效地解決運動者的疲憊及膝關節的問題。 然而,隨著時間的逐漸過渡,該鞋的穿用者將用於它與相應行走的速度可以提高。 MBT瑞士鞋黑色搭配模倣柔軟的沙灘上散步把我們走進不均勻的軟地 形的平地。 MBT設計了鞋,讓一個人的步幅會模仿這一點。 良好的姿勢,從而達到幫助在肌肉,小腿,腳,以及底部的色調。 - toms鞋專櫃 - timberland換鞋底 因為穿上MBT後上半身姿勢自然會比較挺直,除了身體的角度改變也會增加腰椎肌肉組織的活動,所以剛穿的前幾天,肌肉會產生酸痛感,但是慢慢去適應後就能發現MBT降低膝蓋的使用率且讓走路變得輕鬆.以前總以為買楦頭寬或有氣墊的鞋子就會好穿,但穿了這雙鞋以後才顛覆了我的觀念,MBT建體鞋跟氣墊鞋一穿就能感覺出的舒適不同,必需要先學習正確且對身體有益的姿勢,才能享受到穿著後的雙腳輕盈且改善腰酸背痛的好處.。 那麼,這是否現在離開MBT利基?毫無疑問,很多人已經幫助與使用這些鞋子和證言證實。 有不同類型的MBT鞋的結構。 - toms shoes台灣 - toms shoes台灣 根據誰曾住在一起,並研究了馬賽人的人類學家,他們沒有穿鞋。 一些積極的健身鞋是因為搖擺風格,他們實際上可以舒展你出腳防止跟腱炎或足底筋膜炎。 以及聞名的設計師為產品提供獨特的設計創意,使產品與品牌完美融合,唯一無二。 - toms shoes 台灣 - skechers門市 - fitflop門市 - mcm台灣哪裡買
pv00s2x5qd | 10/08/15
 绫崇殑闉嬪付 浣犳渻鏀撅紝濡傛灉浣犳湁涓€鍊嬪倷鐢ㄧ殑瑭曡珫鎴戠涓嶄綇 鐪嬬湅鍚?澶х嫍鎷夊竷鎷夊鐙€鎱?鍦ㄦ暣鍊嬪鍔涗笁鍊嬭吉瀛愪笉澶犲锛?   瀹?瀵﹂殯鐪嬶紝鎴戝幓浼戞伅鐭虫澘娴锋媺 瑁欏瓙寰堝闉嬪湪浠栧€戣嚜宸辩殑楂樼鎶€   灏囬€变竴灏囨湁蹇冭嚐鏅ㄧ反 鍦ㄥ獟楂旀柟闈㈢殑鎳夌敤寰屾敾閬庢棆 鐩稿皪鐨勫ぉ鎵嶅垎閻?  
ge42a8v3cb | 10/08/15
 杩埦鐗归浄鐖炬墦鏁椾綘璁?S姣旇純閲嶈鐨勬槸鐗瑰垾 鍦ㄤ换浣曚汉鐨勮叧鏄甯稿舰鐙€鐐簓瑷疆鑵宠毒 鍦ㄦ垜鐨勫ぇ璩i粸榛為€欒! 寰炲仛鑹遍洠Mudder姣旇辰鎵€浠ユ暣鍊?   鎵€浠ユ垜瑕哄緱瓒呯礆鐔?婊胯冻鍜屽叏鍦嬬磤閷?36 741杌嶆搴閷?鍦ㄦ鍎€椁紝浣?   寰堥洠鍘婚櫎 S鐩″彲鑳介潬杩慖 闉嬬殑閬撹矾娓│鐨勭洰鐨勫氨鍙槸鎯冲牨鍛婂洖浣犲€?  
kw91b8u1ki | 16/08/15
 鐒跺緦閬婃埐寰炵背娲涙柉绂忕埦鏇兼垜绱愬反鍊咕鍊嬪偄浼?INEGI婊戝泭鐐?閫插叆浼戞伅锛屼粬鍊戝彲浠ユ湁鍏ч儴缍叉湁閫欏€嬪够璞$殑鍑哄児鎴?璁撲綘鐣欎笅渚嗗洖鍒颁綘鐨勮叧寰岃窡闈炲父濂戒篃瑷辨槸鏈€閲嶈鐨?姣忎竴鍊嬩汉锛屽畠   璧蜂締浜嗭紝鎴慡EEE鎴戣兘澶犺窇涓婅窇涓嬫〒姊?鎶婂畠闄嶄綆涓€榛為兘缍撴閬庣殑鏃ュ瓙瑾版槸鏈締鐨勪綘 棰ㄦ牸娣卞彈鍞愪汉琛楄锛屼綘鐭ラ亾閫欓杭   S鍦ㄤ换浣曡〃绀烘墍鏈夋剰瑕?宸茬稉寰楀埌澶ч儴鍒嗘彯鐏戝湪閫欒!榫愭墭鎵樺厠鍦∕ID骞虫澘 鐣剁劧锛岃畝鏇哥偤浠€楹兼槸鍚堥仼鐨勶紝鍥犵偤瀹冨尮閰嶅叾椁樼瘎鍦?  
sy72e8l8sg | 16/08/15
 鐒跺緦鍙槸娌?浠栧€戞渻绲︿綘鍦ㄥ摢瑁★紝鎴戝€戯紗锛?9閭勬尯涓€鍊嬫洿濂界殑瑙掑害;鍐嶅緸鏈締 鎶婂畠鍖呰捣渚嗭紝濡傛灉浣?宸茬稉绱浜嗭紝浣犵⒑瀵︽湁 瓒呯礆澶у簳鐨勯瀷   S 鍗佸咕浜虹墰鍒€ 澶у鏁镐汉鍙g殑鍩庡競鐕堝厜鍚勫湴鐨勪笉澶滃煄   鍏噷鍜屽咕鍊嬮亷婵€鐨勮儗寰?鍣告摂蹇冨畠 鍓涙€?  

Related presentations

Related pages

Impact of Energy Storage on Solar PV Grid Parity

Proponents of intermittent renewable energy such as solar PV and wind often claim that these energy sources will reach parity with standard grid power in ...
Read more

The impact of energy storage on solar PV grid parity | One ...

Proponents of intermittent renewable energy such as solar PV and wind often claim that these energy sources will reach parity with standard grid power in ...
Read more

Impact of Energy Storage on Solar PV Grid Parity--China ESCN

Impact of Energy Storage on Solar PV Grid Parity Author:Schalk Cloete Source:The Energy Collective Click:123 Publish ...
Read more

The renewable energy grid parity reality check | One in a ...

The renewable energy grid parity reality check; The impact of energy storage on solar PV grid parity; ... energy from solar PV is currently about one ...
Read more

Solar at grid parity in most of world by 2017 : Renew Economy

Deutsche Bank says solar could be at grid parity in ... impact on solar ... turn to solar and from the adoption of energy storage. ...
Read more

Technology Roadmap Solar Photovoltaic Energy - 2014 edition

Technology Roadmap Solar Photovoltaic Energy 2014 ... Grid parity underpins PV self ... Solar PV Consumption To storage From storage To the ...
Read more

When Will Battery Storage Attain Grid Parity?

When Will Battery Storage Attain Grid Parity? ... if we take a PV solar installation that produces ... solar energy, wind energy, & energy storage.
Read more

US Solar To Hit Grid Parity 2014--2017 (+ More Solar PV ...

US Solar To Hit Grid Parity ... that solar PV power should hit grid parity in ... as a solar energy, electric car, energy storage, ...
Read more

» Solar PV plus Energy Storage Nanogrids Navigant Research

Countries at Grid Parity, LCOE of Solar PV Compared to Grid Prices, ... Solar PV plus Energy Storage Residential Nanogrid Capacity and Revenue by Region, ...
Read more