IMechE 19th May

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Published on October 15, 2007

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Slide1:  Sex, Lies and Nanotechnology: What Tomorrow May Bring…. Presentation to the IMechE and IElecE Dunchurch 19th May 2005 - Jon A Preece - School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham j.a.preece@bham.ac.uk www.nanochem.bham.ac.uk www.crnnt.bham.ac.uk Slide2:  Nanotechnology is becoming part of popular culture Mentioned in the movies Spider Man Terminator 3! Slide3:  Outline of Lecture Nanotechnology is a broad catch all, and impossible to capture in this lecture. Here I’ll look from a top-down approach how miniaturisation has led to smaller and smaller transistors, Which has led to new approaches to make smaller and smaller structures, Which has led to the idea of using (bio)molecules as devices, by borrowing ideas from nature, and Finally, leaving you with some thoughts on the future nanotechnologies. Slide4:  How far off is nanotechnology from use in every day life? [a] Present already [b] 1 Year [c] 2 Years [d] 5 Years [e] 10 Years or more Slide5:  Nano is Greek for Dwarf Thus, we are concerned with small things And the prefix nano in a scientific length scale setting means 10-9m 1 billionth of a meter 1 nm. The diameter of the hair on the back of your hand is 0.1 mm 100 mm (m = micron, 10-6m, 1 millionth of a meter) 100 000 nm Imagine cutting up a hair into 100 000 equal parts! But nanotechnology is concerned with materials and processes from 1-100 nm. Slide6:  ~ 1.000000000 m ~ 0.100000000 m ~0.010000000 m ~ 0.001000000 m ~0.000100000 m Length Scales: How Small is a Nanometre!!? Arm Hand Finger Nail Thickness of a Finger Nail Diameter of a Hair on a Hand 1 m 1 cm 1 mm Individual Cells that Make up the Hair Bacteria ~ 0.000010000 m ~ 0.000001000 m Virus Diameter of DNA Length of a Aspirin Molecule ~ 0.000000100 m ~ 0.000000010 m ~ 0.000000001 m 1 nm 1 mm 10-3 m 10-9 m 10-6 m Thousandth of a metre Millionth of a metre Billionth of a metre Slide7:  …A Journey from Big to Small… Slide8:  Some Big Mechanical Structures Slide9:  Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) is the integration of mechanical elements, sensors, actuators, and electronics on a common silicon substrate through microfabrication technology. While the electronics are fabricated using integrated circuit (IC) process sequences (e.g., CMOS, Bipolar, or BICMOS processes), the micromechanical components are fabricated using compatible "micromachining" processes that selectively etch away parts of the silicon wafer or add new structural layers to form the mechanical and electromechanical devices. Stepping Down in Size to Microns. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) Slide10:  Some MEMs Structures We need to go 3000 times smaller to get to the edge of the nanotechnology regime! Slide11:  Electric field assisted component assembly by sequential / parallel addressing. (50 and 80 mm diameter GaAs LEDs.) How to Move Such Small Components Gareth Redmond, Alan O’Riordan, Nanotechnology Group. Tyndall Institute, Cork, www.tyndall.ie Slide12:  ~ 1.000000000 m ~ 0.100000000 m ~0.010000000 m ~ 0.001000000 m ~0.000100000 m Length Scales: How Small is a Nanometre!!? Arm Hand Finger Nail Thickness of a Finger Nail Diameter of a Hair on a Hand 1 m 1 cm 1 mm Individual Cells that Make up the Hair Bacteria ~ 0.000010000 m ~ 0.000001000 m Virus Diameter of DNA Length of Aspirin ~ 0.000000100 m ~ 0.000000010 m ~ 0.000000001 m 1 nm 1 mm 10-3 m 10-9 m 10-6 m Thousandth of a metre Millionth of a metre Billionth of a metre Still a long way to go to get to the nanoscale! Slide13:  How Have We Got to the Nanoscale? The Simple Electronic Transistor Slide14:  Let us consider the computer revolution and why it has lead to massive wealth creation…. Slide15:  ftp://download.intel.com/labs/eml/download/EML_opportunity.pdf The Computer Revolution and the Price of a Transistor Why has the price dropped…? Slide16:  What has Driven this Colossal Price Reduction? See the paper: Cramming more components onto integrated circuits ftp://download.intel.com/research/silicon/moorespaper.pdf ftp://download.intel.com/labs/eml/download/EML_opportunity.pdf Moore’s Law Electronics: Volume 38, number 8, April 19 1965 Asked to gauge the future of electronics, Dr Gordon Moore predicted that transistors on a chip could double yearly through 1975. Slide17:  Ever the visionary, Moore also said integrated circuits ‘will lead to such wonders as home computers automated controls for automobiles, and personal portable communications equipment.’ A Look into the Future… …From a 1965 Perspective Slide18:  http://nobelprize.org/physics/laureates/1956/index.html William Bradford Shockley John Bardeen Walter Houser Brattain In 1958 and 1959, Jack Kilby at Texas Instruments and Robert Noyce at Fairchild Camera, came up with a solution to the problem of large numbers of components, and the integrated circuit was developed. Instead of making transistors one-by-one, several transistors could be made at the same time, on the same piece of semiconductor. Not only transistors, but other electric components such as resistors, capacitors and diodes could be made by the same process with the same materials. A Brief History of the Transistor? Slide19:  Source Electrode Gate Electrode Drain Electrode +++++ What is a Modern Transistor? Simplicity itself… …but it has revolutionised the modern world …because it has continually been miniaturised? The gate can be opened or closed to allow the charges to flow… The basis of information flow p-type doped silicon p for positive + _ + _ + + + _ + + + _ + _ + _ + n-type doped silicon n for negative + + Slide20:  So how small is transistor….? See Gordon Moores Biography at http://www.intel.com/pressroom/kits/bios/moore.htm http://www.intel.com/research/silicon/mooreslaw.htm Phenomenal Scientific & Technological Achievement Slide21:  The Smallest Transistor in Commercial Production Slide22:  ~ 1.000000000 m ~ 0.100000000 m ~0.010000000 m ~ 0.001000000 m ~0.000100000 m Length Scales: How Small is a Nanometre!!? Arm Hand Finger Nail Thickness of a Finger Nail Diameter of a Hair on a Hand 1 m 1 cm 1 mm Individual Cells that Make up the Hair Bacteria ~ 0.000010000 m ~ 0.000001000 m Virus Diameter of DNA Length of Aspirin ~ 0.000000100 m ~ 0.000000010 m ~ 0.000000001 m 1 nm 1 mm 10-3 m 10-9 m 10-6 m Thousandth of a metre Millionth of a metre Billionth of a metre Slide23:  How is Something So Small Created?: Photolithography The limitation of this approach is the wavelength of UV light. Presently 157 nm light is used to make 90nm structures. Energy of light: damage Diffraction Effects Thus, several other processes are being developed However, it will be hugely expensive to swap to a new technology for chip production Slide24:  A Human Hair is 0.1 mm (~100 mm) How Many Transitors Can You Get Across a Human Hair? [a] 1 [b] 10 [c] 100 [d] 1 000 [e] 10 000 Slide25:  50 molecules of Aspirin Between the Source and Drain A Human Hair ~100 mm (0.1 mm) (100 000 nm) 1111 Transistors across a human hair Microelectronics is now Nanoelectronics! And the length scales of this device is (bio)molecular Slide26:  Classical Fabrication and Electronics This transistor is fabricated in pretty much the same way as a transistor of 20 microns was fabricated some 15 years ago – photolithography. Furthermore, it operates in exactly the same was as a transistor did 15 years ago by many electrons flowing from the source to the drain. So why all the fuss…! Slide27:  Single Electron Transistors At a certain point the miniaturisation of the transistor will hit a point where the classical many electrons flowing from source to drain will break down. This is to do with the mean free path of an electron being bigger than the size of the components it is trying to flow through…some nasty physics! However, this opens up an entirely new way to do computing, based on single electrons, so called quantum computing. e e Slide28:  Nanoparticles As a material becomes more and more finely divided it reaches a point whereby the physical properties that the bulk material possess begin to differ significantly. This, of course, happens on the nanoscale. Gold for example changes colour from gold to blue to red and is soluble in orgnaic solvents. As well as going from being a conductor to a semiconductor. Band Gap Slide29:  T. Sato and H. Ahmed 'Observation of a Coulomb staircase in electron transport through a molecularly linked chain of gold colloidal particles' Appl. Phys. Letts., 70, 2759-2760 Coulomb Blockade: Single Electron Transistor These nanoparticles can be used to hold single and multiple electrons, or quanta of electrons…quantum computing. Slide30:  ~ 1.000000000 m ~ 0.100000000 m ~0.010000000 m ~ 0.001000000 m ~0.000100000 m Length Scales: How Small is a Nanometre!!? Arm Hand Finger Nail Thickness of a Finger Nail Diameter of a Hair on a Hand 1 m 1 cm 1 mm Individual Cells that Make up the Hair Bacteria ~ 0.000010000 m ~ 0.000001000 m Virus Diameter of DNA Length of Aspirin ~ 0.000000100 m ~ 0.000000010 m ~ 0.000000001 m 1 nm 1 mm 10-3 m 10-9 m 10-6 m Thousandth of a metre Millionth of a metre Billionth of a metre Slide31:  Now We Will Leave The Familiar And Look At Extreme Nanotechnology. Slide32:  The Nobel Prize in Physics 1986 "for their design of the scanning tunneling microscope" A Revolution in the Nanoworld: Scanning Tunnelling Microscope Slide33:  Scanning Tunnelling Microscope Atomic Braille!! Slide34:  1 nm The Surface of Platinium (STM) http://www.almaden.ibm.com/vis/stm/gallery.html Slide35:  Not only has the STM imaged, it also moved the Xe atoms into positon… It took several days! Xe on Ni (STM) Slide36:  Fe Atom Ring on Copper The ripples are the signature of the wave-like nature of a trapped electron! Quantum Coral Slide37:  CO on Platinum Surface 10 nm Carbon Monoxide Man Slide38:  The Atomic Force Microscope Set-Up Slide39:  The AFM Cantilever and Tip Tip The Tip is an Atom!! Atomic Resolution Slide40:  http://www.chem.northwestern.edu/~mkngrp/ A Nano-Paint Brush Dip-Pen Nanolithography Slide41:  Scientific American 2001 Slide43:  A Nano-Electrochemical Cell Slide44:  http://www.stanford.edu/group/quate_group/index.html A Nano-Graphite Pen! Slide45:  ~ 1.000000000 m ~ 0.100000000 m ~0.010000000 m ~ 0.001000000 m ~0.000100000 m Length Scales: How Small is a Nanometre!!? Arm Hand Finger Nail Thickness of a Finger Nail Diameter of a Hair on a Hand 1 m 1 cm 1 mm Individual Cells that Make up the Hair Bacteria ~ 0.000010000 m ~ 0.000001000 m Virus Diameter of DNA Length of Aspirin ~ 0.000000100 m ~ 0.000000010 m ~ 0.000000001 m 1 nm 1 mm 10-3 m 10-9 m 10-6 m Thousandth of a metre Millionth of a metre Billionth of a metre Slide46:  (Bio)Molecular Nanotechnology Bottom-up Approach Slide47:  A biological system can be exceedingly small. Many of the cells are very tiny, but they are very active; they manufacture various substances; they walk around; they wiggle; and they do all kinds of marvellous things – all on a very small scale. Also, they store information. Consider the possibility that we too can make a thing very small which does what we want – that we can manufacture an object that manoeuvres at that level! Richard Feynman (Nobel Laureate) There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom (1960) http://nano.xerox.com/nanotech/feynman.html What Nature’s Molecules Do? Slide48:  The cell's contact with the outer world  The wall that separates a cell from its surroundings - the membrane - is not an impermeable shell. It is pierced through by various sorts of protein channels. Proteins in Cell Membranes http://www.nobel.se/chemistry/laureates/2003/index.html The channels consist of proteins, each with its own function. Slide49:  Biological Nanotechnology Proteins Phospholipids Sugars Extreme Nanotechnology! And Extremely Old! And Here’s the Sex: The Egg and Sperm recognise each other by nanoreceptors on the surface of the two cells Slide50:  Photosynthesis: A Biological Nano-Antenna Slide51:  20 nm Size not only brings complex nanoarchitectures but also function. Photosynthesis Chemical Energy Slide52:  Input Processing Output Vision Mechanism Slide53:  20 nm A Virus (adenovirus) 50 nm 252 proteins A Virus: A Nano-Robot [1] Uses a host to infect another host [2] Seeks out cells in the host [3] Recognises host cells [4] Docks onto the host cells [5] Ruptures the cell [6] Delivers its DNA into the cell [7] Replicates itself [8] Back to [1] Slide54:  The Molecular Length Scale and Function Slide55:  A Molecular Machine ‘Photochemical and Electrochemical Control of Molecular and Supramolecular Switches’ P.R. Ashton, S.E. Boyd, R. Ballardini, V. Balzani, A. Credi, M.T. Gandolfi, M. Gomez, S. Iqbal, D. Philp, J.A. Preece, H.G. Ricketts, J.F. Stoddart, M.S. Tolley, M. Venturi, D.J. Williams, and A.J.P. White, Chem. Eur. J., 1997, 3, 152-170. +2e -2e Purple Solution Colourless Solution ON State OFF State Binary Logic Slide56:  A Molecular Machine R.A. Bissell, E. Córdova, A.E. Kaifer and J.F. Stoddart, Nature, 1994, 369, 133-137. State 1 State 2 5 nm -1e Slide57:  Logic Operations With Molecules Prof AP de Silva An AND operator no no no no yes no yes no no yes yes yes Light Absorbed Na+ Added Light Emitted Input 1 Input 2 Output 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 0 0 1 1 1 Slide58:  Problem These molecular machines and molecular logic gates are all solution based. i.e. they are moving about with millions of other molecules in solution. Therefore, it is not possible to write information to an individual molecule(s). And then read the information back from the same molecule(s) later. Solution The molecules need to be fixed in space. Attach the molecules to a surface and wire them up…simple! Slide59:  Electron Beam Lithography can create structuresof less than 10 nm. Bottom-up is meeting Top-Down Length Scales for Top-D and B-Up Scales Compared The molecular world has met the engineered world Slide60:  Surely It Is Possible! The length scales are almost converged… http://stoddart.chem.ucla.edu/ Slide61:  ~ 1.000000000 m ~ 0.100000000 m ~0.010000000 m ~ 0.001000000 m ~0.000100000 m Length Scales: How Small is a Nanometre!!? Arm Hand Finger Nail Thickness of a Finger Nail Diameter of a Hair on a Hand 1 m 1 cm 1 mm Individual Cells that Make up the Hair Bacteria ~ 0.000010000 m ~ 0.000001000 m Virus Diameter of DNA Length of Aspirin ~ 0.000000100 m ~ 0.000000010 m ~ 0.000000001 m 1 nm 1 mm 10-3 m 10-9 m 10-6 m Thousandth of a metre Millionth of a metre Billionth of a metre Slide62:  Nanotech? The integration of the self-assembly of nanomaterials and lithography will have a large part to play. Slide63:  Nanotechnology will be big business Projected market worth of optoelectronics based on nanotechnology Slide64:  Concluding Cautionary Remarks about Technology and Science… They should not be confused Slide65:  Definition of Technology TECHNOLOGY DEFINITION The application of science, especially to industrial or commercial objectives, That fulfils a human need. Slide66:  Definition of Nanotechnology Thus,… NANOTECHNOLOGY DEFINITION The application of NANOscience, especially to industrial or commercial objectives, That fulfils a human need. Slide67:  A Public Perception Problem Many of the reports about nanotechnology are really about nanoscience. Nanoscience is carried out in the lab trying to understand fundamental aspects of a process or a material. Not until the fundamentals are understood will a technology evolve. The adoption of a technology has to consider the socio-economic impact, as well as the environmental impact. The fundamental science will help guide this consideration, But requires a debate that involves the public, politicians and scientists… Slide68:  Thus, these report about ‘nanotechnology’ give the impression that it is just around the corner, And some of the stories are a little scary because they are not put in context. A proper context would make the article too long and less newsworthy and exciting! Slide69:  Buckyballs cause brain damage in fish 13:31 29 March 2004 NewScientist.com news service Nanoparticles cause brain damage in fish, according to a study of the toxicity of synthetic carbon molecules called "buckyballs". For Example And worsened by…. Science Nanotechnology Grey Goo!:  Nanotechnology Grey Goo! Unfortunate! Slide71:  Tiny terrors 05 July 2003 Robert L. Park Magazine issue 2402 Nano-robots have been striking fear into royalty and governments. Robert L. Park wonders what all the fuss is about IS NANO-PHOBIA infectious? It certainly seems to be spreading. In Britain, Prince Charles gave it a helping hand by speaking out about his fears over nanotechnology earlier this year. Last month, green campaigners and others met in Brussels for the world's first summit on the dangers of nanotechnology. The British government is so worried about nano-phobia it has asked the Royal Society to look into the issue. How seriously should we be taking it? Appropriate Slide72:  'Smart bombs' to deliver fatal blast to tumours 10:14 07 January 2005 Exclusive from New Scientist Print Edition Rachel Nowak, Melbourne Nanoscale polymer capsules could one day be used to deliver chemotherapy direct to tumours, leaving adjacent tissue unscathed. The capsules would be designed to rupture when heated by a low-energy laser pulse, delivering their payload right where it is needed. Let’s hope so, but it may take sometime… Slide73:  'Bio-barcoding' promises early Alzheimer's diagnosis 22:00 31 January 2005 NewScientist.com news service Anna Gosline Combining magnetic and gold nanoparticles with strands of DNA could allow the early detection of Alzheimer's disease. If successful, future treatments could then be used to prevent symptoms from ever appearing. Slide74:  The Times, Monday April 18 2005 Spies Hunt for Real-Life Q to Create New Gadgets Now pay attention 007. A search has been launched to fnd a real life counterpart to Q to fit MI5 and MI^ agents with the gadgets James Bond could ever desire. A further area likely to be investigated by the new Q is use of nanotechnology for spying, as the art of miniaturisation gets down to molecular level. It could be used in bizarre gadgets such as the remote controlled spy rat. Nanotechnology could create electrodes to connect to rats’ brains to control their movement. This could provide agents with an unrivalled ally, once fitted with tiny cameras or chemical sensors, in getting into heavily guarded installations I’ve Applied!! Slide75:  Thank you www.nanochem.bham.ac.uk www.crnnt.bham.ac.uk Slide76:  Photolithography: The Basis of the Microelectronics Industry Slide78:  Nanoscience is often referred to as “horizontal”, “key” or “enabling” since it can pervade virtually all technological sectors. It often brings together different areas of science and benefits from an interdisciplinary or “converging” approach and is expected to lead to innovations that can contribute towards addressing many of the problems facing today’s society: Slide79:  medical applications including e.g. miniaturised diagnostics that could be implanted for early diagnosis of illness. Nanotechnology-based coatings can improve the bioactivity and biocompatibility of implants. Self-organising scaffolds pave the way for new generations of tissue engineering and biomimetic materials, with the long-term potential of synthesising organ replacements. Novel systems for targeted drug delivery are under development and recently nanoparticles could be channelled into tumour cells in order to treat them e.g. through heating Slide80:  information technologies including data storage media with very high recording densities (e.g. 1 Terabit/inch2) and new flexible plastic display technologies. In the long-term, the realisation of molecular or biomolecular nanoelectronics, spintronics and quantum computing could open up newavenues beyond current computer technology; Slide81:  energy production and storage can benefit from, for example, novel fuel cells or lightweight nanostructured solids that have the potential for efficient hydrogen storage. Efficient low-cost photovoltaic solar cells (e.g. solar “paint”) are also under development. Energy savings are anticipated via nanotechnological developments that lead to improved insulation, transport and efficient lighting; Slide82:  materials science developments using nanotechnology are far-reaching and are expected to impact upon virtually all sectors. Nanoparticles are already used for reinforcing materials or functionalising cosmetics. Surfaces can be modified using nanostructures to be, for example, scratch-proof, unwettable, clean or sterile. Selective grafting of organic molecules through surface nanostructuring is expected to impact upon the fabrication of biosensors and molecular electronics devices. The performance of materials under extreme conditions can be significantly improved and advance e.g. the aeronautics and space industries; Slide83:  manufacturing at the nanoscale requires a new interdisciplinary approach to both research and fabrication processes. Conceptually, there are two main routes: the first starts from micro-systems and miniaturises them (“top-down”) and the second mimics nature by building structures starting at atomic and molecular level (“bottom-up”). The former can be associated with assembly, the latter to synthesis. The bottom-up approach is in an early development phase but its potential impact is far reaching with a disruptive potential for current production routes; Slide84:  instrumentation for the study of the properties of matter at the nano-scale is already having an important direct and indirect impact that is stimulating progress across a wide range of sectors. The invention of the Scanning Tunnelling Microscope was a landmark in the birth of nanotechnology. Instrumentation also plays an essential role for developing the “top down” and “bottom up” manufacturing processes; Slide85:  food, water and environmental research can advance via nanotechnology based developments including tools to detect and neutralise the presence of micro organisms or pesticides. The origin of imported foods could be traced via novel miniaturised nano-labelling. The development of nanotechnology based remediation methods (e.g. photo-catalytic techniques) can repair and clean–up environmental damage and pollution (e.g. oil in water or soil); Slide86:  security is expected to be enhanced via e.g. novel detection systems with a high specificity that provide early warning against biological or chemical agents, ultimately down to the level of single molecules. Improved protection of property, such as banknotes, could be achieved by nano-tagging. The development of new cryptographic techniques for data communication is also underway. Slide87:  Several nanotechnology-based products have been marketed including: medical products (e.g. bandages, heart valves, etc); electronic components; scratch-free paint; sports equipment; wrinkle and stain resistant fabrics; and sun creams. Analysts estimate that the market for such products is currently around 2.5 billion € but could rise to hundreds of billions of € by 2010 and one trillion thereafter3. Slide88:  With the prospect of obtaining greater performance with fewer raw materials, in particular via the realization of “bottom-up” manufacturing, nanotechnology has the potential to reduce waste across the whole life-cycle of products. Nanotechnology can contribute towards realising sustainable development4 and to the goals addressed in the “Agenda 21”5 and the Environmental Technology Action Plan6. Slide89:  Over the last decade there has been an explosion of interest with public investment rising rapidly from around 400 million € in 1997 to over 3 billion € today. Slide90:  ethical, social, health, environmental, safety and regulatory implications these developments may have. Slide91:  http://www.e-drexler.com/p/04/03/0323bearingDesigns.html http://www.e-drexler.com/p/04/04/0410stiffAnim.html Our Concept: Field Configurable Assembly:  Our Concept: Field Configurable Assembly

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