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IL IOF Compressed Air

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Information about IL IOF Compressed Air
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Published on February 11, 2008

Author: Melissa1

Source: authorstream.com

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Compressed Air:  Compressed Air Technology – Concept Compressed Air Background:  Compressed Air Background Important industrial energy source Inherently inefficient Consumes up to 20% of industrial electrical usage Great energy & cost savings potential! $$$ Lifetime Operation vs. First Cost:  Lifetime Operation vs. First Cost Typical Lifetime Compressed Air Costs Over 10 years Assumptions include a 75-hp compressor operated two shifts, 5 days a week at an aggregate electric rate o $0.05/kWh over 10 years of equipment life. Source: US Dept of Energy, Office of Industrial Technologies: Compressed Air Tip sheet #1. http://www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/pdfs/compressed_air1.pdf Compressed Air Energy:  Compressed Air Energy Inefficient power source even if well maintained Eight compressor horsepower Compressed Air Energy:  Compressed Air Energy Ratio: 8:1 Compressed Air System:  Compressed Air System Supply Compressor System Controls Air Dryer Aftercoolers Air Filters Primary Storage Flow controls Distribution Air piping Filters, lubricators, regulators End Uses Pneumatic tools Mechanical drive Blowers Vacuum generators Etc . . . Supply – compressor types:  Supply – compressor types Supply – compressors:  Supply – compressors Reciprocating Very efficient Requires frequent maintenance Can be equipped for very efficient part loading Can be multistaged Supply – compressors:  Supply – compressors Rotary Screw Easy to install Enables modulation control Easy to maintain Can be single or double staged Source: Gardner Denver Supply – control types:  Supply – control types Variable Speed Drive Compressors:  Variable Speed Drive Compressors Allows precise matching of supply and demand Extremely efficient at low load Less efficient that standard compressors at full load Retrofitting standard compressors is problematic Not ideal for every application Best for precise constant pressure applications Supply – dryers:  Supply – dryers Refrigerated dryers Utilized mechanical cooling Air dew point limited by water freezing point (35º -40º F) Relatively inexpensive Generates condensate Source: Smargon Supply – dryers:  Supply – dryers Regenerative desiccant Water vapor is adsorbed by desiccant fill Low air dew points (-40ºF to -100ºF Heated or unheated Requires 3-15% purge air No condensate generated Source: Palatek Efficient compressed air systems:  Efficient compressed air systems Proper performance yields Low operating costs Minimal downtime Clean, dry, dependable air Effective process control Why make a change?:  Why make a change? Great energy & cost savings potential! Technology - Common System Improvements :  Technology - Common System Improvements Benchmarking:  Benchmarking Determine average power draw (kW) Determine total energy costs Determine marginal generation efficiency (kW/scfm) Calculate energy savings potential for system improvements Worksheet “Estimate Your Compressed Air Cost” Common problem areas :  Common problem areas Air Leaks No heat recovery High pressure drop Insufficient air storage Ineffective control strategy Multiple compressor operation not optimized Base load vs. trim compressor Inappropriate end uses Poor record keeping Electric usage Air production Air leaks:  Air leaks When was your last leak survey? Poorly maintained systems Up to 40% leak rate Pressure problems “We need to install another compressor.” Leak surveys should be conducted quarterly! Heat recovery:  } 8 compressor horsepower yields 1 horsepower of compressed air . . . Heat recovery Where does the other 7 horsepower go???? HEAT. Heat recovery:  80% of compressor input power may be recoverable Possible uses Space heating Hot water heating Drying/curing room heating Heat source for desiccant dryer 100 hp @ full load  300,000 Btu/hr Heat recovery Heat recovery:  Heat recovery Heat recovery:  Heat recovery Pressure drop – compressor room:  Pressure drop – compressor room Pressure drop (continued):  Pressure drop (continued) Distribution Worksheet “Calculating the Cost of High Pressure Drop” GOAL: 0 – 4 psig pressure drop in compressor room Air storage:  Air storage Rule of Thumb – 4 gallons of storage per compressor cfm Remote storage for high periodic demands Wet vs. dry storage Piping rule In at the bottom – Out at the top! Air Storage – Compressor Loading:  Air Storage – Compressor Loading Unloaded Blow down Loaded Unloaded 100 hp compressor with load/unload controls Air Storage – Compressor Loading:  Air Storage – Compressor Loading Inadequate Storage (1 gal/cfm) Compressor is fully loaded (delivering air) for 130 seconds Air Storage – Compressor Loading:  Air Storage – Compressor Loading Improved Storage (3 gal/cfm) Compressor is fully loaded (delivering air) for 130 seconds Air Storage:  Air Storage Generalized energy savings for increased storage in load/unload compressors Compressor controls:  Compressor controls Control strategies impact compressor energy consumption Compressor controls:  Compressor controls “Using the Most Efficient Control Strategy” worksheet Inappropriate End Uses :  Inappropriate End Uses Anything that can be done… More effectively by another method More efficiently by another method Inappropriate End Uses - Examples :  Inappropriate End Uses - Examples Open blowing - Cooling, drying, clean-up Sparging - Aerating, agitating, oxygenating, percolating Aspirating - Inducing flow in another gas (e.g., flue gases) Atomizing - Dispersing or delivering a liquid to a process as an aerosol Dilute phase transport - Transporting solids such as powders Dense phase transport - Transporting solids in batches continued… Inappropriate End Uses - Examples :  Inappropriate End Uses - Examples Vacuum generation - used with a venturi to generate negative pressure mass flow Personnel cooling Open blowguns or lances Diaphragm pumps Cabinet cooling Application of new technologies/concepts :  Application of new technologies/concepts Variable speed compressors Zero loss drains Air amplifying nozzles Solenoid shut off valves Demand Controller Zero Loss Drains:  Zero Loss Drains Timer drains either: Waste air Fail to remove all liquid Zero loss drains remove liquid with no air loss Air Amplifiers:  Air Amplifiers Amplifiers entrain still air to increase air flow from blowing components Advantages Increase blowing force Significantly reduced compressed air usage Reduced noise Fully adjustable Applications Source: ARTX Electric Solenoid Valves:  Electric Solenoid Valves Reduce leaks in piping to equipment that is shut off Timer control Machine panel control Manual control Demand Controllers:  Demand Controllers Isolate supply side from demand side of system Appropriate only with adequate storage Help reduce air usage by minimizing pressure delivered to end users Source: Zeks Compressed Air Solutions Technology – Next Steps :  Technology – Next Steps How do I optimize the performance of my compressed air system?:  How do I optimize the performance of my compressed air system? Implementation requires participation Production Maintenance Management Improving system performance Assessing the entire system Identifying opportunities Quantifying benefits and costs Implementing most feasible projects Systems approach (supply and demand) IAC implementation trends and analysis :  IAC implementation trends and analysis How to start :  How to start Steps in evaluating your system Monitoring needs Best Practices Pitfalls Treat compressed air like a fourth utility. Steps to Evaluate Your System:  Steps to Evaluate Your System Determine the cost of your air Check for air leaks Replace all dirty filters with high efficiency filters Set efficient control strategies Base loaded compressors – modulating control Trim compressors – Load/unload control Pressure issues Check that all end use pressures are regulated Check for excessive generation pressure (<10 psi drop between compressor and highest end user) Address inappropriate end uses Check for adequate storage (>3 gal/cfm) Shut down idle compressors Check for moisture in storage tanks and drip legs Monitoring:  Monitoring Air Pressure Problems Compressor Loading Power consumption Air Consumption Track using MS Excel or similar program Pitfalls:  Pitfalls Running at too high a pressure Considering compressed air as a free utility Higher pressure = more air Adding compressor horsepower to combat pressure problems Always have a compressed air audit completed before adding additional compressors. Inadequate storage/piping ISO 14000:  ISO 14000 Formalized method for identifying and documenting process improvements Can be used for benchmarking Proper use can lead to significantly reduced energy costs All program goals are set by company Benchmarking Benchmarking revisited:  Benchmarking revisited Benchmarking should be part of a larger plan Commit to Continuous Improvement Assess Performance Set Goals Create Action Plan Implement Action Plan Evaluate Progress Assessing Resources:  Assessing Resources Equipment manufacturers  GO TO Compressed Air Resource List Assessment Resources:  Assessment Resources Energy Resources Center @ UIC www.erc.uic.edu - can provide expertise in industrial compressed air systems, also will perform energy assessments for industrial clients. Industrial Assessment Centers http://www.oit.doe.gov/iac/ - will provide energy assessments (including compressed air systems) free of charge to qualified industrial clients. US DOE Compressed Air Challenge Program http://www.compressedairchallenge.org/ - provides a wide range of technical assistance materials, tools, and services to the industrial market. National Association of Energy Service Companies http://www.naesco.org/ - trade organization of companies that will perform energy audits and finance improvements. Rutgers IAC “Self Assessment Guide” http://iac.rutgers.edu/manuals/selfassessment.pdf - guide to assessing industrial plants for energy efficiency. Hyperlinked Slides:  Hyperlinked Slides Assessment Resources:  Assessment Resources Energy Resources Center @ UIC www.erc.uic.edu - can provide expertise in industrial steam systems, also will perform energy assessments for industrial clients. Industrial Assessment Centers http://www.oit.doe.gov/iac/ - will provide energy assessments (including steam systems) free of charge to qualified industrial clients. US DOE Steam Challenge Program http://www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/steam/ - provides a wide range of technical assistance materials, tools, and services to the industrial market. National Association of Energy Service Companies http://www.naesco.org/ - trade organization of companies that will perform energy audits and finance improvements. “Steam System Survey Guide” http://www.oit.doe.gov/bestpractices/steam/pdfs/steam_survey_guide.pdf - guide to assessing industrial steam systems. Rutgers IAC “Self Assessment Guide” http://iac.rutgers.edu/manuals/selfassessment.pdf - guide to assessing industrial plants for energy efficiency. BACK TO Presentation

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