Published on August 7, 2013
The Condi*on of OpenStreetMap and NeoGeography in Japan Yuichiro Nishimura*, Nara Women's University Toshikazu Seto, University of Tokyo Taichi Furuhashi, University of Tokyo Haruyuki Seki, Georepublic Japan session: GS162-‐3 OpenStreetMap and Geographical Knowledge Tuesday 06 August 16:00-‐17:30 Room555A
OpenStreetMap and NeoGeography •OpenStreetMap(OSM:hHp:// www.openstreetmap.org) is well known ‘wiki’ like mapping project making open geospaPal data •Such collaboraPve mapping is performed by NeoGeographers who is not professional but with voluntary cooperaPon (Goodchild, 2007)
OpenStreetMap and NeoGeography • The project was founded by Steve Coast in 2004. OpenStreetMap reached 1 million registered users on January, 2013. (hHp:// wiki.openstreetmap.org/wiki/Stats)
OpenStreetMap in Japan •In recent years such pracPces also became popular in Japan. People comes to recognize the problems of proprietary based geospaPal data when they using map as the disaster situaPon, mapping for the disability and the community. SotM Tokyo 2012: September, 2012
OpenStreetMap and Japanese Geography • The authors discuss the relaPonship between OpenStreetMap and Japanese Geography from several viewpoints. •1. The socio-‐poliPcal geography of OSM in Japan. •2. The limitaPon and the situatedness of OSM •3. OSM and geographic educaPon in school and university
1. the socio-‐poliPcal geography of OSM in Japan • OSM is the boHom-‐up, alternaPve-‐mapping project. OSM o[en related to the counter-‐ mapping acPvity. • Counter-‐mapping is designed to increase the power of people living in a mapped area to control the representaPons of themselves (Peluso, 1995). • Local, boHom-‐up type of mapping by OSM can be seen to one type of counter-‐mapping (Elwood, Goodchild and Sui 2011).
Japanese users • Japanese registered user is about 2,700 in March 2013 (Seto 2013) • The limited number of core users make mach data. http://pushpinosm.org/stats/
Japanese users (Seto 2013) The number of active user editing way data by prefecture • The active user and data are concentrated to metropolitan areas and disaster area in tohoku-region.
Heavy rainfall disaster oin the mountainous area of Nara (Totsukawa, September 2011 • It takes more than 4.5 hours between Totsukawa village (Nara Pref.) and Nara city by public transport (the distance is about 125km). Totsukawa Nara City © OpenStreetMap contributors, CC-BY-SA
maps of Japanese mountainous area • relaPvely low quality by Google Maps – Google Japan uses zoomed map data by Zenrin residenPal map mainly focused on the urban area. 10
crisis mapping 11 • Yahoo! Japan/Alps: way data (imported in 20th, Aug. 2011) • Bing satellite image (trace) – mainly Coastal area (Shingu to Kushimoto) – no good resoluPon data in Totsukawa • GSI base map 1:25,000(WMS trace) – for drawing buildings by heavy mappers outside of the local community
• most of Japanese mappers: male, middle age, "IT lovers" • few proportion of female mappers • few proportion of elderly/ student mappers • few proportion of disability • OSM can helps diverse needs and maps for each users gender/age/ability biases of mappers in Japan
Japanese Neo-‐liberalism and OSM •OSM could be related to Japanese Neo-‐liberalism. Recent Japanese ‘New Public Commons’ could be associated with such NeoGeographical pracPces. The openness, transparency and parPcipatory natures of OSM aHract aHenPon by the local/ naPonal government. •However, the public parPcipaPon by using OSM has limited in Japanese poliPcal situaPon. The diverse needs expression by maps rarely adopted to the poliPcal decision.
2. the limitaPon and the situatedness of OSM •The diﬀerence between local mappers and global mappers should be the problems in OSM. •For example, OSM itself involve the Eurocentrism such as the place naming method or the classiﬁcaPon and tagging method of the geographic features, which is not ﬁt to most of Asian ciPes.
developing Japanese rendering server http://osm.jp/map •rendering server ﬁt to Japanese situaPon •more detailed scale •Icons of convenience store, GS and other POI(Point of Interests)s. •They are helpful for the spaPal recogniPon and navigaPon
3: OSM and geographic educaPon in school and university •Most of the geographic educaPon in university and the school is sPll old-‐ fashioned and for educaPng professionals, the new type of mapping pracPces like NeoGeography are dissociated from it (Dodge and Perkins, 2007) at SotM Tokyo 2012
Japanese GIScience BoK(Body of Knowledge) • mention about NeoGeography • chapter: GIS and society • PPGIS：Public Participation GIS • internet GIS • chapter of GISc education • no mention related to NeoGeography http://curricula.csis.u-tokyo.ac.jp
OSM training in Nara Women's University
OSM and geographic education • OSM mapping is quite meaningful for geographic education • how to make map • how to use GPS • how to see the place and geographic features by ﬁeldwork • The student also learn the possibility and the limitation of NeoGeographical mapping
OSM in the university • The researchers and lecturers in university often say to the students "not to use wikipedia, because of the no references or the illigal copy. • However, most of them are careless to the license and the legal problems of maps. • University stuff need to use open data like OSM. http://igugender2013nara.blogspot.jp/p/ accommodation.html