IGCSE Geography: Natural Environments: Plate Tectonics

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Information about IGCSE Geography: Natural Environments: Plate Tectonics

Published on February 6, 2008

Author: geographyalltheway

Source: slideshare.net

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http://www.geographyalltheway.com/igcse_geography/natural_environments/plate_tectonics/igcse_plate_tectonics.htm

Plate Tectonics

Global Distribution of Volcanoes

Global Distribution of Earthquakes

Tectonic Plates > Plate Boundaries

If we can provide proof that Pangaea existed – what else can we prove?

The Future ...

What is the evidence that Pangaea existed? 1. Geological Evidence 2. Biological Evidence 3. Climate Evidence

1. Geological Evidence

Fit of South America and Africa

The continents of South America and Africa look like they should fit together like a jig- saw puzzle. There are patterns in the structure of the mountains in North East USA and North West Europe that would suggest they should join together.

2. Biological Evidence

Could Mesosaurus have swum from South America to Africa? Researchers say no.

The fossils of Mesosaurus has been found in both South America and Africa. Looking at the skeleton of Mesosaurus tells us that it could not have swam from one continent to the other therefore the continents, at one time, must have been closer.

3. Climate Evidence

Coal Think about the climate in which coal forming vegetation grows.

Limestone > Coral

Limestone is found France and the UK > Must have been located in a warmer region of the world.

So what are the mechanisms that makes this happen? Sea Floor Spreading

Plates are like rafts ‘floating’ onto top of the mantle.

We know about the structure of the earth from the study of the behavior of waves as they pass through the earth.

Exploring the Ocean Floor

Ranges of submarine mountains in the middle of the Atlantic.

The crust gets older with distance from the Mid-Oceanic Ridge. There are strips of crust that show alternating polarity.

Convection currents.

Convection currents in the mantle.

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