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Published on March 27, 2008

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Bishkek Conference on Information Society and Regional Cooperation in Information and Communication Technology for Development 16-18 November 2004 Bishkek Mr Guennadi Fedorov Chief, ICT Policy Section UNESCAP:  Bishkek Conference on Information Society and Regional Cooperation in Information and Communication Technology for Development 16-18 November 2004 Bishkek Mr Guennadi Fedorov Chief, ICT Policy Section UNESCAP INTERNET GOVERNANCE:  INTERNET GOVERNANCE CONTENTS: 1. Internet Growth 2. World Summit on Information Society 3. Working Group on Internet Governance 4. Current Internet Administration 5. Issues for Consideration 6. Works in Support of WGIG 7. What can we do during this Conference? BEFORE THE INTERNET:  BEFORE THE INTERNET More than a decade ago there was no Internet, as we know it. There were only about 200-300 computers connected through what was then called the ARPAnet, a high end system connecting research and government computers for the purpose of sharing information and research It was designed exclusively for the academe, researchers, and the defense establishment TCP IP:  TCP IP The development of TCP IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol), a set of protocols to allow cooperating computers to share resources across a network transformed ARPAnet into a system more accessible to the everyday user Slide5:  It is network technology which provides a link between and among mostly computers of users and producers of information worldwide. It is short for “internetwork”: - In its physical form it includes the internet infrastructure and devices (Wires, routers, communication links, information exchanges, telephone lines, PCs etc.) - Human resources for building, servicing, maintaining and using the Internet - Global and national organizational setting - Content and information available on Internet What is the Internet? How does the Internet Operate?:  How does the Internet Operate? IP numbers - The Internet relies for its operation on a numbering scheme called "IP numbers". IP numbers are somewhat like telephone numbers. They identify devices attached to the Internet. Any device connected to the Internet can establish a connection to any other device connected to the Internet by "dialing" its IP number Data Packets - Communications sent over the Internet (eg. software) are divided into "packets" for their journey over networks from point A to point B. The following diagram shows a typical data packet sent over an IP network Data Packet:  Data Packet INTERNET GROWTH:  INTERNET GROWTH Each and every day the Internet and World Wide Web, a multimedia database within the Internet, grow exponentially. New sites (pages) and information are being added and modified constantly and simultaneously by users - information providers - around the globe The estimated total number of persons online now range from 580 million (Nielsen//NetRatings) to 649 million (Global Reach/ITU). By 2004, it is projected that some 709 million (eMarketer) to 945 million (Computer Industry Almanac) people will be online Top 10 Internet Users:  Top 10 Internet Users United States - 179,854,855 users, 61.7% population penetration China - 68,000,000 users, 5.2 % population penetration Japan - 59,203,896 users, 46.4 % population penetration Germany - 44,139,062 users, 53.9 % population penetration United Kingdom - 34,387,216 users, 58.2 % population penetration South Korea - 26,270,000 users, 56.1% population penetration France - 21,309,352 users, 35.9 % population penetration Italy - 19,250,000 users, 34.2% population penetration Canada - 16,841,811 users, 53.1 % population penetration India - 16,580,000 users, 1.6 % population penetration Subregional Internet users (per 10,000 in hub):  Subregional Internet users (per 10,000 in hub) Subregional Internet users (per 10,000 in hub) (cont’d):  Subregional Internet users (per 10,000 in hub) (cont’d) Source: International Telecommunication Union (ITU) Critical Issues for Internet Growth:  Critical Issues for Internet Growth 1. Government Policy and Programme 2. Public – Private Partnership 3. Educational level 4. Cost of Internet 5. Infrastructure: - Global Connection - National Internet infrastructure (National Internet Exchange - Last mile - Satellite 6. Content and Languages Internet users (Per cent of Population) as vs ISP access charges (Per cent of Gross Income per capita):  Internet users (Per cent of Population) as vs ISP access charges (Per cent of Gross Income per capita) 13 World Summit on Information Society:  World Summit on Information Society The UN General Assembly Resolution 56/183 (21 December 2001) endorsed the holding of the World Summit on the Information Society (WSIS) in two phases. The first phase took place in Geneva hosted by the Government of Switzerland from 10 to 12 December 2003 and the second phase will take place in Tunis hosted by the Government of Tunisia, from 16 to 18 November 2005 The objective of the first phase was to develop and foster a clear statement of political will and take concrete steps to establish the foundations for an Information Society for all, reflecting all the different interests at stake World Summit on Information Society (cont’d):  World Summit on Information Society (cont’d) The Geneva Summit adopted the Plan of Action and the Declaration of Principles The road to Tunis entails a process of monitoring and evaluation of the progress of feasible actions laid out in the Geneva Plan and a concrete set of deliverables that must be achieved by the time the Summit meets again in Tunis in November 2005 World Summit on Information Society (cont’d):  World Summit on Information Society (cont’d) Prepcom 1: focus of the Tunis Phase: - Implementation of the Geneva outcomes - Internet Governance - Financial Mechanisms for ICT Key Principles of the WSIS Declaration Related to the Internet:  Key Principles of the WSIS Declaration Related to the Internet The Internet has evolved into a global facility The international management of the Internet must be multilateral, transparent and democratic, with the full involvement of governments, the private sector, civil society, and international organizations WORKING GROUP ON INTERNET GOVERNANCE (WGIG):  WORKING GROUP ON INTERNET GOVERNANCE (WGIG) Established by the UN Sec Gen as mandated by the WSIS Tasked to do the following: - Develop a working definition of Internet governance - Identify the public policy issues that are relevant to Internet governance - Develop a common understanding of the respective roles and responsibilities of governments, existing intergovernmental and international organizations and other forums as well as the private sector and civil society from both developing and developed countries WGIG Timeline:  WGIG Timeline 20-21 September 2004 - Open-ended consultations on the establishment of WGIG, its structure and working methods as well as scope of its work 23-25 November 2004 - First meeting of the WGIG 24 November 2004 – Consultations with Governments, Civil Society and the Private Sector December 2004- January 2005 - Online consultations 15-16 February 2005 - Open-ended consultations with governments and all stakeholders 17-18 February 2005 - Second meeting of WGIG (drafting of preliminary report) WGIG Timeline (cont’d):  WGIG Timeline (cont’d) 21-26 February 2005 - Presentation of preliminary report to PrepCom-II March 2005 - Online consultations April 2005 - Third meeting of WGIG April or May 2005 - Open-ended consultations with governments and all stakeholders June 2005 - Fourth meeting of WGIG (final drafting of Report) July 2005 - Submission of Report to the UN Secretary-General Definition of Internet Governance:  Definition of Internet Governance Views presented during WSIS discussions: - Narrow definition or restricted form of definition, i.e. technical coordination issues such as those being undertaken by ICANN: - Broad or extensive definition: anything that is related to ICT Both views do not provide an answer: Governing the Internet is more than allocating domain names and setting technical standards on one hand, but on the other hand, cannot and should not include all aspects of ICT. Giving a limited definition is arbitrary while a very broad definition may lead to inaction ITU Workshop on Internet Governance 19 February 2004:  ITU Workshop on Internet Governance 19 February 2004 - The task of defining IG is daunting but needs to be addressed expeditiously - There could be a broad definition of IG which would include policy issues and a narrow definition confined only to technical issues - There was a broader acceptance for some form of regulation including options of self-regulation, coordination and cooperation - The need for regulation is more apparent in areas of public policy like spam, spyware, e-security, cybercrime including content related social issues - Governments could play a significant role - The form of governance should be inclusive and decentralized since Internet architecture is distributive CURRENT INTERNET ADMINISTRATION:  CURRENT INTERNET ADMINISTRATION Several private-sector-led organizations play a critical role in the technical coordination of the Internet, including technical security and stability. These organizations include: - the Internet Architecture Board (IAB) Committee of IETF and advisory body of the Internet Society - the Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESC) Technical Management of IETE and Internet Standards Current Internet Administration (cont’d):  Current Internet Administration (cont’d) - the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) Community of Network Designers, Operators, Vendors and Researchers - the Regional Addressing Registries (e.g. RIPE, ARIN, APNIC, LANIC and AFRINIC) - the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) - Internet Society (ISOC) Professional membership organization of experts - the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Current Internet Administration (cont’d):  Current Internet Administration (cont’d) The technical coordination of the Internet includes: - the development of Internet protocol (IP) standards - the administration, coordination and allocation of IP addresses - the delegation of domain names - the coordination of the root server system - the coordination of procedures related to the technical coordination of the Internet Current Internet Administration (cont’d):  Current Internet Administration (cont’d) The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) : - is to exercise technical coordination function, and in particular to coordinate the management of the technical elements of the domain name system (DNS) - created by U.S. Department of Commerce in 1998 and provides a global forum of stakeholders Current Internet Administration (cont’d):  Current Internet Administration (cont’d) - International Chamber of Commerce: ICANN functions. In an open and transparent manner and ensures the technical stability of Internet - Some developing countries: ICANN is not clearly accountable to the global community; an UN body should assume a key role of IG; full internationalization of Internet domain and last names; larger involvement in the above processes by country registries and stakeholders Types of Actors in Internet Governance:  Types of Actors in Internet Governance State-based Institutions with Universal Membership: The traditional building block of global governance, these are international organizations open to all recognized governments. They include the United Nations system (e.g. ITU, WIPO and the WTO) State-based Institutions with Non-universal Membership: Composed of select groups of States, these may be regional in nature or based on economic interests. Examples include the OECD, ASEAN and the Council of Europe Formal Non-state Organizations: These are legally incorporated, private sector entities (e.g. Internet Systems Consortium, ICANN) Types of Actors in Internet Governance (cont’d):  Types of Actors in Internet Governance (cont’d) Informal Non-State Organizations: Some private sector actors involved in Internet governance are not incorporated. The most notable example of this is the IETF. State Actors: In a few cases, national governments could also be considered “multilateral actors” because their decisions can affect the operation of the entire Internet. For example, United States government entities like the Department of Commerce, the Federal Communications Commission, the Justice Department and the Department of Homeland Security can make decisions that may have extraterritorial effects ISSUES FOR CONSIDERATION:  ISSUES FOR CONSIDERATION Fundamental Issues Access Capability/Capacity Building Technical Issues Domain Name and International Domain Names Standardization Regional Internet Registries Network Security Policy Issues Cybercrimes E-commerce IPR Content Regulation and Freedom of Expression Privacy Fundamental Issues:  Fundamental Issues Access – varying levels of Internet penetration come as a result of “high” costs of connection and of the software that enables one to surf the Internet Capacity/capability building – it has been argued that the failure to participate by developing nations comes not because of their unwillingness to be involved but rather, by their lack of sufficient know how and resources Technical Issues:  Technical Issues Domain Names/IDNs - While the Internet can deliver text in email or by web pages in most of the world's languages and scripts, email addresses and web page addresses must be typed in English language "ASCII" characters Technical Issues (cont’d):  Technical Issues (cont’d) Standardization must follow these core principles: - Standards must be open and nonproprietary - The end-to-end principle is considered a critical norm - Standards should be simple, scalable, and extensible, and multiple implementations possible - Standards documentation should be open, public and freely available - Participation is open and participants act as individuals, not as formal representatives of corporations, governments or organizations Technical Issues (cont’d):  Technical Issues (cont’d) Regional Internet Registries – there are now four RIRs: ARIN (encompassing North America, parts of the Caribbean and parts of Africa); RIPE-NCC (Western and Eastern Europe, parts of Africa, parts of the Middle East); APNIC (Asia, Far East); and LACNIC (Latin America). Efforts are underway to create an African RIR (AfriNIC) Network Security – at present, private corporations are being allowed to device or implement measures to secure networks, oftentimes, through encryption technologies. The strength of the encryption technology used has some implications on cost and to some extent, on national interest Policy Issues:  Policy Issues Cybercrimes – the borderless nature of the Internet makes it more difficult to track down and stop illicit activities. Cooperation between and among nations now become even more paramount in order to address problems like spam, cyberterrorism, hacking and cracking, etc. E-commerce – e-Commerce has suffered tremendously as a result of insecure online communications. The increase in the use of online transactions and commerce has been particularly visible on business-to-business levels rather than business-to-customer levels indicating the fact that network security and credentials play important role in promotion of e-commerce in the society. Besides the losses suffered by firms on discredited online transactions, weak governance of the Internet has also resulted in an insecure, in-house working environment Policy Issues Cyber (E-Commerce) Law:  Policy Issues Cyber (E-Commerce) Law Bird’s eye View of the Issues Source: European Commission Policy Issues:  Policy Issues Intellectual Property Rights – Consumer protection through proper regulations is either lacking or when in place, its implementation is weak. Important issues on IPR such as piracy will need to be seriously tackled in order to address critical and sensitive issues of global Internet Governance Content Regulation and Freedom of Expression – there is a need to balance the desire to protect citizens from possible harmful Internet content and the universally recognized principle of freedom of speech and of expression Privacy – Privacy protection is an important issue in the discussion of Internet Governance as this can encourage or discourage people from taking advantage of what the Internet has to offer WORKS IN SUPPORT OF WGIG:  WORKS IN SUPPORT OF WGIG ITU Workshop on Internet Governance - provided a forum for exchange of views and analytical studies on the definitions, viewpoints and visions on IG from several aspects: legal, technological, administration and commercial issues. UNDP-Asia Pacific Development Information Programme’s (APDIP) Open Regional Dialogue on Internet Governance is a series of meetings convened to work towards providing input from the Asia-Pacific region to the WGIG. The dialogue also seeks to raise awareness and capacities of countries in the Asia Pacific region so that they can make more meaningful participation in the discussions Works in Support of WGIG (cont’d):  Works in Support of WGIG (cont’d) UN-ICT Task Force’s Global Forum on Internet Governance was held last March to bring together various stakeholders interested in IG issues. Participants tried to distinguish “What is and isn’t Internet Governance” UNESCAP ICSTD meeting on Internet Governance – done in response to WSIS and the WGIG UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance:  UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance First regional conference on follow-up to the Geneva Phase and preparation to the Tunis Phase (11-13 October 2004, Bangkok) Expert Group Meeting on Internet Governance and Financial Mechanisms (11-13 October 2004, Bangkok) Subcommittee on Information, Communication and Space Technology (13-15 October 2004, Bangkok) Subregional Conferences (Kyrgyzstan, Fiji, Nepal, Indonesia) High-level regional preparatory conference (June 2005) UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d):  UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d) The conference was attended by 46 representatives from 24 countries of the ESCAP region, plus 16 representatives from 12 UN bodies, specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations, other entities and the private sectors. The Expert Group Meeting was attended by 28 representatives from 12 countries of the ESCAP region, plus 31 representatives from UN bodies, specialized agencies, intergovernmental organizations, other entities and the private sectors UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d):  UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d) Summary of Discussions and Recommendations 1. Internet governance is difficult to define, and may have narrow and broad definitions. The term “Internet governance” is probably a vague term covering many broad perspectives on the Internet infrastructure, engineering, operation, management and administration, name registration and all kinds of applications. At this stage, it is useful to have a focus of work and identify priority areas or a list of problems for our region to work on; UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d):  UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d) 2. One suggestion was made to break down the relevant public policy issues into two categories: first, how the Internet is deployed, including standards making, domain name system, allocation of IP addresses, investment in upgrading of current networks and in new networks and associated protocols, and charging for Internet traffic, in connection with global telecommunication regulations and management on international, national and network operators/service providers levels; second, how the Internet is used, including network security, fraud, cyber squatting and other cybercrime activities, spam, content, intellectual property rights protection, consumer safeguards and privacy; UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d):  UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d) 3. A view was expressed, especially from the technical community, that a cautious and evolutionary process should be adopted towards changes taken place in Internet governance; 4. Significant consultations with all stakeholders will need to occur in order to reach a common understanding. UNESCAP should start collection of views and information of the member countries to promote understanding in a systematic manner. The meeting welcomed the APDIP launching of its initiative Open Dialogue on Internet Governance and hoped it would carry out the work in cooperation with other regional organizations. 5. A suggestion was made to contribute to the global dimension of the discussions on the topic through the web or the digital participation where and when feasible, especially for the Asia-Pacific countries constrained in travel budget; UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d):  UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d) 6. Before embarking into the process of drawing a framework for designing the new Internet governance framework, the Asia-Pacific countries should raise the awareness and understanding of the current problems and set course within the country to avoid the foreseeable problems. It was highly recommended that UNESCAP launch the following actions for the member countries if appropriate: - Set up a programme to develop human resources and capacity-building in each country with an objective to understand the current key issues for Internet management including Internet-related laws . UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d):  UNESCAP Meetings on Internet Governance (cont’d) - Create a network of communities of practice and learn from the best practice of member countries in the current issues such as privacy, anti-spam, computer security, domestic Internet exchange, and country code domain name services. - Share experiences, new knowledge regarding the content-level management such as issues of the intellectual property-related disputes, frauds, on the Internet. WHAT CAN WE DO DURING THIS CONFERENCE?:  WHAT CAN WE DO DURING THIS CONFERENCE? Your view would be appreciated on the following: - What your country understanding of Internet Governance; Do you think there is a need in charges in Internet Governance? and what changes should be done? What assistance would be required to your country in capacity-building and public policies related to Internet Governance from UNESCAP and other organizations; What roles can regional and subregional cooperation play in improving Internet Governance. Slide48:  We will be pleased to summarize your view and report to the Working Group and initiate relevant activities THANK YOU

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