Published on January 9, 2016
1. IFRSin India - Key Aspects
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3. PREFACE IFRS in India - Key Aspects Background: India has set a roadmap for convergence with International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) commencing from 1 April, 2011. The convergence with IFRS standards is set to change the landscape for financial reporting in India. IFRS represents the most commonly accepted global accounting framework as it has beenadoptedbymorethan100countries. With the growth of Indian Economy and increasing integration with the global economies, Indian corporates are raising capital globally. Under the circumstances, it would be imperative for Indian corporates to adopt IFRS for their financial reporting. While the Core Group of Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) has recommended convergence to IFRS in a phased manner from 1 April, 2011 Indian corporates having global aspirations should consider earlier voluntary adoption. While there are several similarities between Indian GAAP and IFRS, still there are differences which can have significant impact on the financial statements. This publication is aimed to bring out such aspects and a comparative analysis on Indian Generally AcceptedAccountingPrinciples(IndianGAAP)vis-à-visIFRS. ScopeandLimitations: RSM Astute has prepared this publication “IFRS in India – Key Aspects” to provide its readers a broad understanding of IFRS requirements in India, some key differences between IFRS and Indian Accounting Standards and IFRS requirements at the time of first time adoption. The preparation of financial statements complying with IFRS is the responsibility of the management and accordingly this publication does not replace the need for professional judgment havingregardtorelevantstandardsandotherrequirements. Although the publication has been compiled by RSM Astute, the views, if any, expressedarethatofRSMAstute-IFRSChampions.
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5. CONTENTS IFRS in India - Key Aspects Page 1. INTRODUCTION 1 2. OVERVIEW OF IFRS 3 What is IFRS? 3 Why IFRS? 4 IFRS in India 5 Benefits of adopting IFRS 6 IFRS challenges 7 Underlying assumptions 8 Qualitative characteristics of IFRS financial statements 8 Constraints on relevant and reliable information 9 True and fair view/fair presentation 10 Content of an IFRS financial statements 10 3. IFRS Vs INDIAN GAAP - SOME KEY DIFFERENCES 19 4. FIRST-TIME ADOPTION OF IFRS 70 Scope of IFRS 1 70 Presentation and disclosure 71 Opening IFRS Balance Sheet and accounting policies 72 Exemptions from the requirements of certain IFRS 72 Explanation of transition to IFRS 78 Use of fair value as deemed cost 79 Mandatory exceptions to retrospective application of IFRS 80 Interim financial reports 83 5. FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS (FAQs) BY FIRST TIME ADOPTOR OF IFRS 84 6. ABBREVATIONS 90 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
6. * Companies to prepare opening IFRS Balance Sheet as on the respective date. st When the accounting year ends on a date other than 31 March, the conversion of the opening Balance Sheet will be made in relation to the first Balance Sheet which st ismadeonadateafter31 March. Companies which fall in the following categories will not be required to follow the notified accounting standards which are converged with the IFRS (though they may voluntarilyopttodoso).Thesecompaniesare:- (a) Non- listed companies which have a net worth of Rs. 500 crores or less and whose shares or other securities are not listed on Stock Exchanges outside India. (b) Small and Medium Companies (SMCs). IFRS in India Timelines for Convergence Phase I 1 April 2011* a) Companies which are Part of NSE - Nifty50. b) Companies which are part of BSE - Sensex30. c) Companies whose shares or other securities are listed on stock exchanges outsideIndia. d) Companies, whether listed or not, which have a net worth in excess of Rs. 1,000 crores. Phase II 1 April 2013* The companies, whether listed or not, having a net worth exceeding Rs. 500 crores but not exceeding Rs. 1,000 crores. Phase III 1 April 2014* Listed companies which have a net worth of Rs. 500 crores or less. IFRS in India - Key Aspects
7. 1. INTRODUCTION TheAccounting Standards Board of the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India ('ICAI') was constituted on 21 April, 1977, to formulate Accounting Standards applicable to Indian enterprises. Initially, the Accounting Standards were recommendatory in nature and gradually the Accounting Standards were made mandatory. The legal recognition to the Accounting Standards was accorded for the companies in the CompaniesAct, 1956, by introduction of Section 211(3C) through the Companies (Amendment)Act, 1999, whereby it is required that the companies shall follow the Accounting Standards notified by the Central Government on a recommendation made by the National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards (NACAS) constituted under section 210AofthesaidAct. The Government of India, Ministry of Company Affairs (now Ministry of Corporate Affairs) notified Accounting Standards in Companies (Accounting Standards) Rules, 2006 by Notification No. G.S.R. 739(E), dated 7 December, 2006, prescribingAccounting Standards 1 to 7 and 9 to 29 as issued by ICAI. It also issued Companies (Accounting Standards) Amendment Rules, 2008 by notification no. G.S.R. No. 212 (E), dated 27 March, 2008 making some modification in existing rules so as to harmonize them with accounting standards issued by ICAI. These standards are applicable to preparation of general purpose financial statements for accountingperiodscommencingonorafter7December,2006.Itmaybementioned thattheAccountingStandardsnotifiedbytheGovernmentarevirtuallyidenticalwith the Accounting Standards, read with the Accounting Standards Interpretations, issuedbyICAI. The Reserve Bank of India ('RBI') in case of banks, the Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) in case of insurance companies and the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) in case of all listed companies, requires compliancewiththeAccountingStandardsissuedbyICAI. ICAI, being a full-fledged member of the International Federation of Accountants 1 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
8. (IFAC), while formulating the Accounting Standards (ASs), the ASB gives due consideration to International Accounting Standards (IASs) issued by the InternationalAccounting Standards Committee or International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs) issued by the IASB, as the case may be, and try to integrate them, to the extent possible. However, where departure from IFRS is warranted keepinginviewtheIndianconditions,theASshavebeenmodifiedtothatextent. Further, the endeavor of the ICAI is not only to bridge the gap between ASs and IFRSs by issuance of newAS but also to ensure that the existingASs are in line with the changes in international thinking on various accounting issues. The National Committee on Accounting Standards (NACAS) constituted by the Central Government for recommending accounting standards to the Government, while reviewing theAS issued by the ICAI, considers the deviations in theAS, if any, from the IFRSs and recommends to the ICAI to revise the AS wherever it considers that thedeviationsarenotappropriate. ThetermInternationalFinancialReportingStandards(IFRSs)includesIFRSs,IASs and interpretations originated by the IFRIC or its predecessor, the former Standing InterpretationsCommittee(SIC). IFRSareincreasinglybeingrecognisedasGlobal Reporting Standards for financial statements. 'National GAAP' is becoming rare.As global capital markets become increasingly integrated, many countries are moving to IFRS. More than 100 countries such as European Union,Australia, New Zealand and Russia currently permit the use of IFRS in their countries. ICAI / MCA has also expressed their view that IFRSs should be adopted in India for the public interest entities such as listed entities, banks and insurance entities and large-sized entities from the accounting periods beginning on or after 1 April, 2011. As a consequence the Indian entities will need to start preparing for convergence to IFRS, preferable much earlier. The next few years will be exciting, but challenging at the same time. We at Astute Group are committed to help you converge to IFRS as smoothly as possible,andlookforwardtoteamingwithyouonthislandmark. 2 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
9. 2. OVERVIEW OF IFRS What is IFRS? §IFRSs are developed and approved by IASB (International Accounting StandardBoard). §These are standards for reporting financial results and are applicable to general purpose financial statements and other financial reporting of all profit- §IFRS stands for “International Financial Reporting Standards” and includes International Accounting Standards (IASs) until they are replacedbyanyIFRSandinterpretationsoriginated by the IFRIC or its predecessor, the former StandingInterpretationsCommittee(SIC). 3 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
10. oriented entities. Profit-oriented entities includes those engaged in commercial, industrial, financial and similar activities, whether organized in corporate or in other forms also includes mutual insurance companies, other mutualco-operativeentities,etc. §Upon its inception the IASB adopted the body of International Accounting Standards (IASs) issued by its predecessor and as such IFRS includes IAS untiltheyarereplacedbyanyIFRSs. §One of the basic features of IFRS is that it is a principle-based standard rather thanrulebased. §Statusasat30November2009 §A separate set of IFRS for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises has been issuedbytheIASBinJuly2009. §The IFRS for SME represents a simplified set of standards with disclosure requirements reduced, methods for recognition and measurement simplified andtopicsnotrelevanttoSME'seliminated. Particulars Issued Effective IFRS 9 8 IAS 41 29 IFRIC* 19 18 SIC* 32 11 * These are guidance notes on some interpretation issues arising form IAS & IFRS Why IFRS? §IFRS are increasingly being recognised as Global Reporting Standards for financial statements. §'NationalGAAP'isbecomingrare. §As global capital markets become increasinglyintegrated,manycountriesare 4 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
11. movingtoIFRS. §More than 100 countries such as European Union,Australia, New Zealand and RussiacurrentlypermittheuseofIFRSintheircountries. §The SEC has allowed the use of IFRS without reconciliation to US GAAP in the financial reports filed by foreign private issuers, thereby, giving foreign private issuers a choice between IFRS and US GAAP. SEC is proposing that the US issuers begin reporting under IFRS from 2014 (actually from 2012, if requirementsforthreeyearcomparableareconsidered),withfullconversionto occur by 2016 depending on size of the entity.This is a milestone proposal that will bring almost the entire world on one single, uniform accounting platform i.e. IFRS. IFRS in India §At its 269 meeting the Council of ICAI has decided that public interest entities such as listed companies, banks, insurance companies and large-sized organizations to converge with IFRS for accounting period commencing on or after1April,2011. §For Small and Medium size Entities i.e. other than public interest entities, ICAI had proposed that a separate standard may be formulated based on the IFRS for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises issued by the IASB after modifications,ifnecessary. §Even MCA had expressed the view that India should converge to IFRS w.e.f 1 April,2011. §With an objective to ensure smooth transition to IFRS from 1April, 2011, ICAI is taking up the matter of convergence with IFRS with National Advisory Committee on Accounting Standards (NACAS) established by the Ministry of CorporateAffairs, Government of India and other regulators including Reserve Bank of India (RBI), Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority (IRDA) andtheSecuritiesandExchangeBoardofIndia(SEBI). §Recent news article highlights that Core Group for IFRS convergence formed byMCAhasrecommendedconvergencetoIFRSasunder: -PhaseI(openingbalancesheetasat1April,2011)*:- 1. CompanieswhicharepartofBSE-Sensex30andNSE-Nifty50; 5 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
12. foreigncapitalinflowsintothecountry. §Investors want the information that is more relevant, reliable, timely and comparable across the jurisdictions. I F R S w o u l d e n h a n c e t h e comparability between financial statements of various companies acrosstheglobe. §Better understanding of financial statements would benefit investors who wish toinvestoutsidetheirowncountry. 2. CompanieswhosesharesorothersecuritiesarelistedoutsideIndia; 3. Companies whether listed or not, having net worth of more than Rs. 1,000 crores. -PhaseII(openingbalancesheetasat1April,2013)*:- Companies not covered in Phase 1 and having net worth exceeding Rs. 500 crores. -PhaseIII(openingbalancesheetasat1April,2014)*:- Listedcompaniesnotcoveredinearlierphases. *If the financial year of a company commences at a date other than 1April, then itshallprepareitsopeningbalancesheetatthecommencementofimmediately followingfinancialyear. - Separate Road Map would be prepared for banking and insurance companies. §The issue of convergence with IFRS has gained significant momentum in India recently. Benefits of adopting IFRS 6 §It would benefit the economy by increasing growth of international business. §It would encourage international investing and thereby lead to more IFRS in India - Key Aspects
13. IFRS challenges §Increase in cost initially due to dual reporting requirement which entity might have tomeet till full convergence isachieved. §Unlike several other countries, the accounting framework in India is deeply affected by laws and regulations. Changes may be required to various regulatory requirements under The Companies Act, 1956, Income Tax Act, 1961, SEBI, RBI, etc. so that IFRS financial statements are acceptedgenerally. §If IFRS has to be uniformly understood and consistently applied, all stakeholders, employees, auditors, regulators, tax authorities, etc would need tobetrained. §The industry would be able to raise capital from foreign markets at lower cost if it can create confidence in the minds of foreign investors that their financial statementscomplywithgloballyacceptedaccountingstandards. §It would provide professional opportunities to serve international clients. §It would increase their mobility to work in different parts of the world either in industryorpractice. §It would reduce different accounting requirements prevailing in various countries there by enabling enterprises to reducecostofcompliances. 7 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
14. §Entity would need to incur additional cost for modifying their IT systems and procedures to enable it to collate data necessary for meeting the new disclosuresandreportingrequirements. §Differences between Indian GAAP and IFRS may impact business decision / financialperformanceofanentity. §Limited pool of trained resource and persons having expert knowledge on IFRSs. a) Accrualbasis: Under this basis, the effects of transactions and other events are recognised when they occur (and not as cash or its equivalent is received or paid) and they arerecordedintheaccountingrecordsandreportedinthefinancialstatements oftheperiodstowhichtheyrelate. b) Goingconcern: The financial statements are normally prepared on the assumption that an entity is a going concern and will continue in operation for the foreseeable future. Hence, it is assumed that the entity has neither the intention nor the needtoliquidateorcurtailmateriallythescaleofitsoperations. If such intention or need exists, the financial statements may have to be preparedonadifferentbasisand,ifso,thebasisusedisdisclosed. These are the attributes that make the information in financial statements useful to theirusers.Thefourprincipalqualitativecharacteristicsare: a) Understandability: An essential quality of the information provided in financial statements is that it is readily understandable by users with reasonable knowledge of the business and economic activities. However, information about complex matters that should be included in the financial statements because of its relevance to the economic decision-making needs of users should not be excluded merely on thegroundsthatitmaybetoodifficultforcertainuserstounderstand. Underlying assumptions QualitativecharacteristicsofIFRSfinancialstatements 8 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
15. b) Relevance: Theusersshouldfindtheinformationcontainedinthefinancialstatementsasa useful relevant tool in taking important economic decisions on the basis of past evaluations and projecting future predictions on past basis. Information about financial position and past performance is frequently used as the basis for predicting future financial position and performance and other matters in which usersaredirectlyinterested. The ability to make predictions from financial statements is enhanced, however, by the manner in which information on past transactions and events is displayed. For example, the predictive value of the income statement is enhanced if unusual, abnormal and infrequent items of income or expense are separatelydisclosed. Therelevanceofinformationisaffectedbyitsnatureandmateriality. c) Reliability: Information in financial statements is reliable if it is free from material error and bias and can be depended upon by users to represent events and transaction faithfully. Information is not reliable if it is purposely designed to influence users'decisioninaparticulardirection. The reliability of information depends upon faithful representation, substance overform,neutrality,prudenceandcompleteness. d) Comparability: Users must be able to compare the financial statements of an enterprise over time so that they can identify trends in its financial position and performance. Users must also be able to compare the financial statements of different enterprises.Disclosuresofaccountingpoliciesareessentialforcomparability. Followingaretheconstraintsonrelevantandreliableinformation: i) Timeliness: To have the reporting information relevant it is important that the reporting information should be on time, undue delay in the reporting information may lose its relevance. Management may need to balance the relative merits of Constraintsonrelevantandreliableinformation 9 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
16. timely reporting and the provision of reliable information. In achieving a balance between relevance and reliability, the overriding consideration is how besttosatisfytheeconomicdecision-makingneedsofusers. ii) Balancebetweenbenefitandcost: The benefits derived from information should exceed the cost of providing it. The balance between benefit and cost is a pervasive constraint rather than a qualitative characteristic. Furthermore, the costs do not necessarily fall on those users who enjoy the benefits. Benefits may also be enjoyed by users otherthanthoseforwhomtheinformationisprepared. iii) Balancebetweenqualitativecharacteristics: Generally the aim is to achieve an appropriate balance among the characteristics in order to meet the objective of financial statements. The relative importance of the characteristics in different cases is a matter of professionaljudgement. Application of the principal characteristics and of appropriate accounting standards normally results in financial statements that convey a true and fair view of, or as presenting fairly such information. Financial statements are frequently described as showing a true and fair view of, or as presenting fairly, the financial position, performanceandchangesinfinancialpositionofanentity. CompletesetofIFRSFinancialStatementscomprisesof: a) a statement of financial position as at the end of the period (generally termedas“BalanceSheet”); b) a statement of comprehensive income for the period (generally termed as “IncomeStatement”); c) astatementofchangesinequityfortheperiod; d) astatementofcashflowsfortheperiod; e) notes, comprising a summary of significant accounting policies, and other explanatoryinformation; and Trueandfairview/fairpresentation ContentsofIFRSfinancialstatements 10 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
17. f) a statement of financial position as at the beginning of the earliest comparative period when an entity applies an accounting policy retrospectivelyormakesaretrospectiverestatementofitemsinitsfinancial statements,orwhenitclassifiesitemsinitsfinancialstatements. Anentitymayusetitlesforthestatementsotherthanthoseusedinthisstandard. Statement of Financial Position (generally termed as “BalanceSheet”) §NospecificformatprescribedforStatementofFinancialPosition. §Minimum line of items to be presented in the statement of financial position that areprescribedunderIFRSare: - Property, plant and equipment (PPE); - Investment property; - Intangible assets; - Financial assets such as investments; - Investments accounted for using the equity method; - Biological assets; - Inventories; - Trade and other receivables; - Cash and cash equivalents; - The total of assets classified as held for sale and assets included in disposal groups classified as held for sale in accordance with IFRS 5 Non-current Assets Held for Sale and Discontinued Operations; - Trade and other payables; - Provisions; - Financial liabilities; - Tax liabilities or advance tax ( to be disclosed net of liabilities or advance tax as the case may be); - Deferred tax liabilities and assets (to be disclosed net of liabilities or assets as the case may be); - Non-controlling interest presented within equity; and 11 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
18. - Issued capital and reserves attributable to owners of the parent. §An entity shall present additional line items, headings and subtotals in the statement of financial position when such presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity's financial position. §An entity shall present current and non-current assets and current and non- current liabilities as separate classification in its statement of financial position except when a presentation based on liquidity provides information that is reliable and more relevant. When that exception applies, an entity shall present allassetsandliabilitiesinorderofliquidity. §An entity shall disclose the amount expected to be recovered or settled after more than twelve months for each asset and liability line item that combines amountexpectedtoberecoveredorsettled: - nomorethantwelvemonthsafterthereportingperiod,and - morethantwelvemonthsafterthereportingperiod. §An entity shall classify an asset or a liability as current asset or current liability when it expects to realise the asset, or intends to sell or consume the asset or it expectstopayliabilitywithintwelvemonthsafterthereportingperiod. §Anentityshallclassifyallotherassetsorliabilitiesasnon-current. Statement of comprehensive Income (generally termed as “IncomeStatement”) §Anentityshallpresentallitemsofincomeandexpenserecognisedinaperiod: - in a single statement of comprehensive income, or - in two statements: a statement displaying components of profit or loss (separate income statement) and a second statement beginning with profit or loss and displaying components of other comprehensive income (statement of comprehensive income). §No specific format prescribed for Statement of comprehensive income statement §Minimum line of items to be presented in the statement of financial position is prescribed: i) Revenue 12 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
19. ii) Financecosts iii) Share of profit or loss of associates and joint venture accounted for using theequitymethod iv) Taxexpenses v) Asingleamountcomprisingthetotalof: - theposttaxprofitorlossofdiscontinuedoperationsand - the post-tax gain or loss recognised on the measurement to fair value less costs to sell or on the disposal of the assets or disposal group(s) constitutingthediscontinuedoperation vi) Profitorloss; vii) Eachcomponentofothercomprehensiveincomeclassifiedbynature viii) Share of the other comprehensive income of associates and joint venturesaccountedforusingtheequitymethod;and ix) Totalcomprehensiveincome. §An entity shall disclose the following items in the statement of comprehensive incomeasallocationsfortheperiod: - profitorlossfortheperiodattributableto: i) non-controllinginterests,and ii) ownersoftheparent - totalcomprehensiveincomefortheperiodattributableto: i) non-controllinginterests,and ii) ownersoftheparent §An entity shall present additional line items, headings and subtotals in the statement of comprehensive income and the separate income statement (if presented), when such presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity'sfinancialperformance. §An entity shall not present any items of income or expense as extraordinary items, in the statement of comprehensive income or the separate income statement(ifpresented),orinthenotes. §An entity shall recognise all items of income and expense in a period in profit or lossunlessanIFRSrequiresorpermitsotherwise. 13 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
20. Revenue X Other income X Changes in inventories of finished goods and work in progress X Raw materials and consumables used X Employee benefits expense X Depreciation and amortization expense X Other expenses X Total expenses (X) Profit before tax X §As regards the other comprehensive income for the period an entity shall disclose the amount of income tax relating to each component of other comprehensive income, including reclassification adjustments, either in the statementofcomprehensiveincomeorinthenotes. §Components of other comprehensive income can be presented either net of related tax effects or before related tax effects with one amount shown for the aggregateamountofincometaxrelatingtothosecomponents. §An entity shall disclose reclassification adjustments relating to components of othercomprehensiveincome. §When items of income or expense are material, an entity shall disclose their nature and amount separately e.g. write-downs of inventories to net realisable value or of property, plant and equipment to recoverable amount, as well as reversals of such write-downs, discontinued operations, other reversals of provisions,etc. §An entity shall present an analysis of expenses recognised in profit or loss using a classification based on either their nature or their function within the entity,whicheverprovidesinformationthatisreliableandmorerelevant. §If analyzed by nature of expense method an entity aggregates expenses within profit or loss according to their nature e.g. depreciation, purchases of materials,employeebenefits,etc.Anexampleofclassificationusingthenature ofexpensemethodisasfollows: 14 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
21. §If analyzed by function of expenses or cost of sales method an entity classifies expenses according to their function. An example of classification using the functionofexpensemethodisasfollows: X Cost of sales (X) Gross profit X Other income X Distribution costs X Administrative expenses (X) Other expenses (X) Profit before tax X Revenue §If expenses are disclosed by function, disclose additional information on the nature of expenses which should include depreciation and amortization expenseandemployeebenefitcosts. StatementofChangesinEquity §An entity shall present a statement of changes in equity showing in the statement: i) total comprehensive income for the period, showing separately the total amounts attributable to owners of the parent and to non-controlling interests; ii) for each component of equity, the effects of retrospective application or retrospectiverestatementrecognisedinaccordancewithIAS8;and iii) for each component of equity, a reconciliation between the carrying amount at the beginning and the end of the period, separately disclosing changesresultingfrom: - Profitorloss; - Eachitemofothercomprehensiveincomeand; - Each item of income or expense directly recognized in equity such as 15 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
22. revaluation of non-current assets, fair value adjustment of hedging instruments,currencytranslationreserves,revaluationofavailableforsale investments; - Effectofchangeinaccountingpolicydirectlyrecognizedinequityandother correctingerrorsaspermittedunderIAS8; - All movements in equity such as additional shares issued, buy back or reductionofcapital; - Changes in ownership interests in subsidiaries that do not result in a loss of control. §An entity should disclose either in the statement of changes in equity or in the notes, the amount of dividend recognised as distribution to the owners during theperiodandrelatedamountpershare. StatementofCashFlows The statement of cash flows shows how changes in statement of financial position and income accounts affect cash and cash equivalents, and breaks the analysis downtooperating,investing,andfinancingactivities. All enterprises that prepare financial statements in conformity with IFRSs are required to present a statement of cash flows.The statement of cash flows analyses changesincashandcashequivalentsduringaperiod. Anentityshallprepareacashflowstatementinaccordancewiththerequirementsof IAS 7 “Statement of Cash Flows” and shall present it as an integral part of its financial statements for each period for which financial statements are presented. Information about the cash flows of an entity is useful in providing users of financial statements with a basis to assess the ability of the entity to generate and utilise cash andcashequivalents. Anentityshallreportcashflowsfromoperatingactivitiesusingeither: a) the direct method, whereby major class of gross cash receipts and cash paymentsaredisclosed;or b) the indirect method, whereby profit or loss is adjusted for the effects of transactions of a non-cash nature, any deferrals or accruals of past or future operating cash receipts and payments, and items of income or expenseassociatedwithinvestingorfinancingcashflows. 16 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
23. Notes: §Notes shall present information about the basis of preparation of the financial statementsandspecificaccountingpoliciesused. §Disclose the information required by IFRSs that is not presented elsewhere in thefinancialstatementsand §Provide information that is not presented elsewhere in the financial statements butisrelevanttounderstandinganyofthem. §An entity shall present notes in the systematic manner. An entity shall cross referenceeachiteminthestatementoffinancialpositionandofcomprehensive income and in the statements of changes in equity and of cash flows to any relatedinformationinthenotes. §Anentityshalldisclose: - thedomicileandlegalformoftheentity,itscountryofincorporationandthe address of its registered office (or principal place of business, if different fromtheregisteredoffice); - a description of the nature of the entity's operations and its principal activities; - thenameoftheparentandtheultimateparentofthegroup;and - ifitisalimitedlifeentity,informationregardingthelengthofitslife. §An entity may present notes providing information about the basis of preparation of the financial statements and specific accounting policies as a separatesectionofthefinancialstatements. §Anentitynormallypresentsnotesinfollowingorder: - statementofcompliancewithIFRSs - summaryofsignificantaccountingpoliciesapplied - supporting information for items presented in the statements of financial position and of comprehensive income, in the separate income statement in the order (if presented), and in the statements of changes in equity and ofcashflows,inwhicheachstatementandeachlineitemispresented;and - otherdisclosures,including: - contingent liabilities (see IAS 37) and unrecognised contractual commitments,and 17 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
24. - non-financial disclosures e.g. the entity's financial risk management objectivesandpolicies. §Anentityshalldiscloseinthesummaryofsignificantaccountingpolicies: i) the measurement basis (or bases) used in preparing the financial statements,and ii) the other accounting policies used that are relevant to the understanding of thefinancialstatements. §An entity shall disclose the judgements that management has made in the processofapplyingtheentity'saccountingpoliciesandthathavethesignificant effectontheamountsrecognizedinthefinancialstatements. §An entity shall disclose information about the assumptions it makes about the future and other major sources of estimation of uncertainty at the end of the reporting period, that have a significant risk of resulting in a material adjustments to the carrying amount of those assets and liabilities. The notes shallincludethedetailsof: - theirnature; - theircarryingamountasattheendofthereportingperiod. §The standard does not require an entity to disclose budget information or forecastsinmakingthedisclosure. §Anentityshalldiscloseinthenotes: - the amount of dividends proposed or declared before the financial statements were authorized for issue but not recognized as a distribution toownersduringtheperiodandtherelevantamountpershare. - theamountofanycumulativepreferencedividendsnotrecognized. 18 IFRS in India - Key Aspects
25. 19 3. IFRS Vs INDIAN GAAP: SOME KEY DIFFERENCES IFRS in India - Key Aspects
26. ?Entities should make an explicit and unreserved statement in the notes that the financial statements comply with IFRS. ?An entity can not describe financial statements as complying with IFRSs unless they comply with all the requirements of each applicable standardandinterpretation. General Disclosure ?There is a presumption that financial statements should be prepared in compliance with accountingstandardtogiveatrue andfairview. ?Non-compliance with any of the applicable accounting standard needs to be disclosed in the financialstatements. ?True and fair override is generally not permitted under Indian GAAP. Further in terms of hierarchy local legislationsaremoresuperior. ?The Accounting Standards by their very nature cannot and do not override the local regulations which govern the preparation and presentation of financial ?I n t h e e x t r e m e l y r a r e circumstances in which management concludes that compliance with a requirement in an IFRS would be so misleading that it would conflict with the objective of financial statements, the entity shall depart from that requirement if the relevant regulatory frameworkrequires, or General Disclosure Compliance with GAAP True and fair view Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 20 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
27. otherwise does not prohibit, such a departure, and disclosure is required. ?The override does not apply where there is a conflict between local company law and IFRS; in such a situation, the IFRS must beapplied. statementsinthecountry. Preparation and presentation General Presentation and disclosure ? statements on a consolidated basis unless it meets the exemption criteria prescribed underIAS27para10 ?On a voluntary basis, an entity may present separate financial statements, which need not be appended to, or accompany c o n s o l i d a t e d f i n a n c i a l statements. An entity has to present financial ? statements on a standalone basis. Accounting Standard does not require an entity to prepare / present consolidated financial statements. ?However, public listed companies in India are required to present consolidated financial statements along with the standalone financial statements as per listing agreement. An entity has to present financial Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 21 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
28. First time adoption IFRS 1 ?IFRS 1 specifically deals with how to apply IFRS for the first time. ?Full retrospective application of IFRSs effective at the reporting date for an entity's first IFRS financial statements with certain optional exemptions and mandatoryexceptions. ?An entity shall explain how the transition from previous GAAPto IFRSs affected its reported financial position, financial performanceandcashflow. ?Indian Accounting Standards does not give specific guidance on first time adoption of the standardsbyanentity. Components of Financial statements IAS 1 Presentation and Disclosure ?Statement of financial position (Balancesheet) ?Statement of comprehensive income(Incomestatement) ? ?ProfitandLossAccount, ?Cash flow statement, (not mandatoryfor'SMC') Balancesheet, Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 22 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
29. ?Statementofchangesinequity, ?Cashflowstatement, ?Notes comprising a summary of significant accounting policies a n d o t h e r e x p l a n a t o r y information. An entity may use title for the statements other than those used in theIFRS. ?Accounting policies and Notes to financialstatements. Balance sheet format IAS 1 Presentation and Disclosure ?There is no prescribed rigid format, minimum lines item to be presented on the face of the balance sheet is prescribed. IFRS requires presentation of additional line items, headings and sub totals in the statement of financial position when such presentation is relevant to an ?IndianAccounting Standards also does not prescribe any standard format of balance sheet except presentation of certain items on thefaceofthebalancesheet. ?The Companies Act, 1956 prescribes a format of balance sheet (Schedule VI). Other Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 23 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
30. Statement of Comprehensive income format IAS 1 Presentation and Disclosure ? format, minimum lines item to be presented is prescribed. IFRS requires presentation of additional line items, headings and sub totals in the statement of comprehensive income and the separate income statement (if There is no prescribed rigid ? prescribedforIncomeStatement. ?The Accounting Standard and The Companies Act, 1956 prescribes disclosure norms for certainitems. There is no specific format understanding of the entity's financialposition. ?An entity shall present separate classification of current and non- current assets and liabilities in its statement of financial position except when a presentation based on liquidity provides information that is reliable and more relevant. When that exception applies, an entity shall presentallassetsandliabilitiesin orderofliquidity. industry regulations prescribe industry specific format of balancesheet. ?No strict classification in current and non-current assets and liabilities required under Schedule VI of The Companies Act,1956. Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 24 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
31. presented), when such presentation is relevant to an understanding of the entity's financialperformance. ?IFRS requires to present expenses either their nature or their function within the entity. Additional information on the nature of expenses, including depreciation and amortisation expenses and employee benefit expenses is required to be disclosed if functional classificationisusedbyanentity. Extraordinary items IAS 1 Disclosure ? items of income or expenses as extraordinary items either on the face of the statement of comprehensive income or the separate income statement in thenotes. An entity shall not present any ? statement of profit and loss any income or expenses that arise from events or transactions that are clearly distinct from the ordinary activities of the enterprise and, therefore, are not An entity should disclose in Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 25 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
32. expected to recur frequently or regularlyasextraordinaryitems. ?The nature and the amount of each extraordinary item should be separately disclosed in the profit and loss account in a manner that its impact on current profitorlosscanbeperceived. Comparatives IAS 1 Disclosure ? comparative information in respect of previous period for all amounts reported in current period'sfinancialstatements. ?An entity shall include comparative information for narrative and descriptive information when it is relevant to an understanding of the current period'sfinancialstatements. An entity shall disclose ? of comparatives for all numerical information in the financial statements. An entity shall disclose one year Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 26 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
33. ?IAS 1 requires an entity to include a statement of financial position as at the beginning of the earliest comparative period in a complete set of financial statements whenever the entity applies an accounting policy retrospectively or makes a retrospective restatement as defined in IAS 8 or when the entity reclassifies itemsinthefinancialstatements. ?An entity needs to present statement of financial position as at: i) Theendofthecurrentperiod; ii) The end of the previous period (which is the same as the beginning of the current period)and iii) The beginning of the earliest comparativeperiod. Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 27 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
34. Critical judgements and estimates IAS 1 Disclosure ? information about the critical judgements and estimates made inapplyingaccountingpolicies. An entity shall disclose ? Standards nor Schedule VI to the Companies Act, 1956 specifically requiressuchdisclosure. Neither Indian Accounting Reporting currency for presentation of financial statements IAS 1 and IAS 21 Presentation and disclosure ? present its financial statements in any currency (or currencies). The standard also requires an entity to determine its functional currency and its results and financial position in that currency. ?If an entity selects a presentation (reporting) currency which is different from the functional currency, the standard requires the financial statement to be translated from functional currency to presentation currency. The standard permits an entity to ? does not require determination of functional currency. However Schedule VI requires disclosure tobemadeinIndianrupees. Indian Accounting Standards Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 28 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
35. Offsetting IAS 1 General ? liabilities or income and expenses only when the same is requiredorpermittedbyIFRS. An entity shall offset assets and ? available under IndianAccounting Standards. There is no specific guidance Inventories IAS 2 Valuation ? formulae for all inventories that have a similar nature and use to theentity. An entity shall use the same cost ? that same cost formulae should be used for all inventories that have a similar nature and use to theentity. AS 2 is not expressly mandated Inventories acquired on deferred settlement terms IAS 2 Valuation ? financing elements, IAS 2 specifically requires that where inventoryisacquiredondeferred settlement terms, a difference between the purchase price for normal credit terms and the amount paid is recognised as interest expense over the period ofthefinancing. When arrangement contains ? for the treatment of inventories acquired on deferred settlement terms. ?Recently ICAI has issued AS 30 and a limited revision to AS 2 which requires that where inventory is acquired on deferred settlement terms, the excess over the normal price is to be accounted as interest over the There is no guidance under AS 2 Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 29 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
36. period of financing. The limited revision is recommendatory from accounting periods beginning on or after 1 April, 2009 and mandatory from1April,2011. Inventories of a service provider IAS 2 Valuation ? to the work-in-progress of a service provider. Service providers generally accumulate costinrespectofeachservicefor whichaseparateselling pricewill be charged. Therefore, each such service is treated as a separateitem. IAS2includesprovisionsrelating ? arising in the ordinary course of businessofserviceproviders. AS 2 excludes work in progress Cash flow statements IAS 7 Presentation and disclosure ? component of complete set of financial statements, it is mandatoryforallentities. ?Under IFRS, Cash Flow Cash Flow Statement is a ? mandatoryforSMC's. ?Under clause 32 of listing Cash Flow Statement is not Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 30 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
37. Statements can be prepared usingDirect/Indirectmethod. ?Bank borrowings are normally part of financing activities. Nonetheless, bank overdrafts that are repayable on demand and that form an integral part of an entity's cash management are includedincashequivalents. ?Under IFRS, an entity shall not present extra-ordinary items either on the face of the statement of comprehensive income or the separate income statement in the notes, hence disclosure of the same in cash flowstatementisprohibited. agreement only indirect method is prescribed for listed companies and direct method is prescribed forinsurancecompanies. ?There is no stipulation in AS 3 for classificationofbankoverdrafts. ?The cash flows associated with extra-ordinary items should be classified as arising from operating, investing or financing activities as appropriate and separatelydisclosed. Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 31 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
38. ?Interest paid or received is disclosed as operating in case of financing entity. For other entities, the interest paid can be disclosed as operating or financing cash flow and interest received is usually disclosed as investingcashflow. ?Dividend paid can be disclosed asoperatingorfinancing. ?Dividendreceivedisdisclosedas operating in case of financing entity. For other entities, the same can be disclosed as operatingorinvesting. ?Interest paid or received is disclosed as operating in case of financing entity. For other entities, the interest paid should be disclosed as financing cash flow and interest received is usually disclosedasinvestingcashflow. ?Disclosure of dividend paid as financing. ?Dividend received is disclosed as operating in case of financing entity. For other entities, the same isdisclosedasinvesting. Contingencies and Events Occurring After the Balance Sheet Date Recognition and Measurement ? amounts recognized in the financial statements for events that provide additional evidence of conditions that existed at the An entity shall adjust the ?UnderAS 4, non-adjusting events are required to be disclosed in the report of the approving authority, forexample,theboardreport. IAS 10 Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 32 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
39. Change in accounting policy IAS 8 Recognition and Measurement • change in accounting policy retrospectively. •Comparative information to be restated and the amount of the adjustments relating to prior An entity shall account for a • accounting policy to be adjusted against current periods profit and lossaccount. •Policy changes made on the adoption of a new standard must The impact of change in an balance sheet date and should not be adjusted for events that provide evidence of conditions that did not exist at the balance sheetdate. ?Nevertheless where these events are of such nature that disclosure of them is required to prevent the financial statements from being misleading, the entity should disclose nature of event and estimate of its financial effect. Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 33 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
40. Prior period items (Correction of errors) IAS 8 Scope • items is much broader under IAS 8 as compared to AS 5. Prior period errors covers all the items in the financial statements includingassetsandliabilities. •The reporting requirements are similar to changes in accounting policy. The definition of prior period • is restricted to income and expenses in current period occurring as a result of errors and omission in the preparations of financial statements of prior period(s). •All prior period adjustments are disclosed separately in current The definition of prior period items periods is adjusted against the opening balance of retained earnings of the earliest year presented.An exemption applies when it is impracticable to changecomparativeinformation. •Effect of retrospective adjustments on equity items is presented separately in the StatementofChangesinEquity. be accounted for in accordance with that standard's transitional provisions. Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 34 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
41. year profit and loss account in a manner that its impact on the resultscanbeperceived. Disclosure of non-application of new IFRSs IAS 8 Disclosure • not applied new IFRS that has been issued but is not yet effectiveshalldisclose: - thisfact;and - known or reasonably estimable information relevant to assessing the p o s s i b l e i m p a c t t h a t application of new IFRS will have on the entity's financial statements in the period of initialapplication IAS8requireswhenanentityhas •Nosuchdisclosuresrequired. Depreciation Accounting- Component Approach IAS 16 Measurement • depreciate separately the significant parts of PPE if they have different useful life (ComponentApproach). An entity is required to • not required or followed for depreciation. Generally component approach is Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 35 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
42. Depreciation Accounting- Change in method of Depreciation IAS 16 Recognition and Measurement • depreciation is treated as change in accounting estimates, reflected in the depreciation charge for the current and prospectiveyears. C h a n g e i n m e t h o d o f • treated as change in accounting policies and impact is determined by retrospectively computing depreciation under new method and the impact is recorded in the periodofchange. Change in depreciation method is Depreciation on revalued PPE IAS 16 Valuation • cannot be recouped out of revaluationreserve. Depreciation on revalued portion • is recouped out of revaluation reserve. Depreciation on revalued portion Residual value and useful life of an asset IAS 16 Measurement • valueandusefullifeofanassetat leastateachfinancialyearend. Anentityneedstoreviewresidual • Standards, periodic review of residual value and useful life of an assetnotspecificallyrequired. Under Indian Accounting Accounting for PPE - Purchase cost IAS 16 Valuation • - purchase price (less any discountsandrebates); - import duties, non-refundable taxes;and PurchasecostofPPEincludes: • g u i d a n c e i s g i v e n f o r capitalization of dismantling and siterestorationcost.However,the Guidance note on Accounting for Oil and Gas Producing Activities Similar to IFRS except no Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 36 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
43. Revaluation of PPE IAS 16 Valuation and measurement • choose either cost model or revaluation model as its accountingpolicy. •If an item of PPE is revalued, the entire class of PPE to which that assetbelongsshallberevalued. •When entity applies revaluation model it requires regular revaluations of all PPE. Management must consider at each year end whether fair value IAS 16 requires an entity to - any directly attributable costs of bringing the asset to its workingcondition; - the initial estimate of the costs of dismantling and removing the item and restoring the site onwhichitislocated. • carried at cost less accumulated d e p r e c i a t i o n . H o w e v e r revaluation of fixed assets is not required. •When revaluation do not covers all assets of the given class, it is appropriate that the selection of the asset to be revalued be made on systematic basis, e.g. an entity may revalue a class of assets within one unit and ignore assets of the same class at anotherunit. As per AS 10 fixed assets are states that entities involved in those should capitalize the dismantling and site restoration cost. Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 37 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
44. •There is no requirement to perform revaluations at regular intervals. is materially different from carryingvalue. Revenue Recognition- Fair value of consideration IAS 18 Measurement • the fair value of the consideration received or receivable. Where the inflow of the cash or cash equivalent is deferred, discounting to a present value is requiredtobedone. Revenue should be measured at •Revenue is measured by the charges made to the customers or clients for goods supplied or services rendered to them and by the charges and rewards arising from the use of resources by them. In case of installment sales, discountingwouldberequired. •When the consideration is receivable in installments, revenue attributable to the sales price exclusive of interest should be recognised at the date of sale. The interest element should be recognised as revenue, proportionately to the unpaid balanceduetotheseller. Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 38 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
45. Revenue Recognition- Rendering of services IAS 18 Measurement • transaction involving the rendering of services can be estimated reliably, revenue associated with the transaction shall be recognised by reference to the stage of completion of the transaction at the balance sheet date. •When the outcome of the transaction involving the rendering of services cannot be estimated reliably, revenue shall be recognised only to the extent of the expenses recognised that are recoverable. If loss is anticipated on the contract the entirelossisrecognisedupfront. When the outcome of a • transactions as perAS 9 is usually recognised as the service is performed, either by the proportionate completion method or by the completed service contractmethod. R e v e n u e f r o m s e r v i c e Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 39 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
46. Revenue Recognition- Multiple element arrangements IAS 18 Recognition • are usually applied separately to each transaction. However, in certain circumstances, it is necessary to apply the recognition criteria to the s e p a r a t e l y i d e n t i f i a b l e components of a single transaction in order to reflect the substanceofthetransaction. •Conversely, the recognition criteria are applied to two or more transactions together when they are linked in such a way that the commercial effect cannot be understood without reference to the series of transactions as a whole. The recognition criteria in IAS 18 • availableunderIndianGAAP. There is no specific guidance Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 40 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
47. Revenue Recognition- Customer loyalty programme IAS 18/ IFRIC 13 Recognition • and account for award credits as a separately identifiable component of the sales transaction(s) in which they are granted (the 'initial sale').The fair value of the consideration received or receivable in respect of the initial sale shall be allocated between the award c r e d i t s a n d t h e o t h e r componentsofthesale. •The consideration allocated to the award credits shall be measured by reference to their fair value, i.e. the amount for which the award credits could be soldseparately. An entity shall apply IFRIC 13 • availableunderIndianGAAP. There is no specific guidance Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 41 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
48. Revenue Recognition- Barter Transactions IAS 18 Recognition • exchanged are of dissimilar nature, the same is measured at the fair value of the goods or services received, adjusted by the amount of any cash or cash equivalenttransferred. •If the fair value of the goods or services received cannot be measured reliably, the revenue is measured at the fair value of the goods or services given up, adjusted by the amount of any cash or cash equivalent transferred. •An entity shall disclose the amount of revenue arising from exchange of goods or services included in each significant categoryofrevenue. When the goods or services • availableunderIndianGAAP. There is no specific guidance Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 42 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
49. Accounting for Investment - Investment Property IAS 40 Scope • (land or a building or part of a building or both) held (by the owner or by the lessee under a finance lease) to earn rentals or for capital appreciation or both, ratherthanfor: i) use in the production or supply of goods or services or for administrative purposes; or ii) sale in the ordinary course of business Investment property is property • investment in land or buildings that are not intended to be occupied substantially for use by, or in the operations of, the investingenterprise. An investment property is an Accounting for Investment - Investment Property IAS 40 Measurement • measured initially at its cost. Transaction costs shall be included in the initial measurement. •For subsequent measurement An investment property shall be • properties should account for them as long-term investments. Long-term investments are valued at cost less diminution in value wherever the decline is otherthanatemporarydecline. An enterprise holding investment Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 43 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
50. an entity shall choose as its accounting policy either the fair value model or cost model and shall apply that policy to all its investmentproperty. Financial assets IAS 32,39 Classification • fourcategories: - financial asset at fair value throughprofitorloss, - heldtomaturity, - loansandreceivables,and - availableforsale •IFRS 9 on Financial instruments which is mandatory for accounting period commencing on or after 1 January, 2013, classifies measurement category of financial assets in Financial assets are classified in • investments into long-term and currentinvestments. •AS 30, 31, 32 which are recommendatory upto 31 March, 2011 provide for classification of financial assets which are similar toIFRS. AS 13 requires classification of Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 44 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
51. followingcategories: - Amortisedcost - Fairvalue Impairment of financial asset IAS 32,39 Valuation • balancesheetdatewhetherthere is any objective evidence, that a financial asset or group of financialassetsisimpaired. An entity shall assess at each • at lower of cost or market price. Long-term investments are valued at cost less diminution in value wherever the decline is otherthanatemporarydecline. Current investments are recorded Employee benefits- Actuarial gains or losses IAS 19 Recognition IAS 19 provides options to recognise actuarialgainsorlossesasfollows: •All actuarial gains or losses can be recognised immediately in profitorlossfortheperiod, •All actuarial gains or losses can be recognised immediately in Other Comprehensive Income, Statementor • be recognised immediately in the Profit and Loss account underAS 15. Actuarial gains or losses should Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 45 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
52. •An actuarial gain or loss that exceed the greater of 10% of the present value of the defined benefit obligation (before deducting plan assets) and 10% of the fair value of any plan assets at the beginning of the year is amortised over expected remaining working lives of participating employees (the 'Corridorapproach'). Borrowing costs IAS 23 Scope • IAS 23 to borrowing costs directly attributable to the acquisition, construction or production of a qualifying asset, measured at fair value. An entity is not required to apply • AS16. There is no such exclusion under Disclosure • IAS 23 require the entity to disclose separately the capitalization rate used to determine the amount of borrowingcosts. The disclosure requirements of • disclosurerequiredunderAS16. There is no such separate Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 46 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
53. Borrowing costs- Qualifying Assets IAS 23 Scope • requires a substantial period of time to get ready for their intended use or sale are not routinely produced in large quantities or on a repetitive basis over a short period of time and are not ready for their intended useorsalewhenacquired. Qualifying assets are those that • except substantial period of time has been interpreted to generally meanmorethan12months. Indian GAAP is similar to IFRS Accounting for Leases - Initial direct cost IAS 17 Measurement • cost incurred by lessor to be included in lease receivable amount in case of finance lease and in the carrying amount of the asset in case of operating lease recognised as an expense over theleasetermonthesamebasis astheleaseincome. IAS 17 prescribes initial direct • i.e. commission and legal fees incurred by lessor with respect to financeleasetobeeithercharged off at the time of incurrence or to be amortised over the lease period. •Initial direct costs incurred specifically to earn revenues from an operating lease are either deferred and allocated to income AS 19 requires initial direct cost Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 47 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
54. over the lease term in proportion to the recognition of rent income, or are recognised as an expense in the statement of profit and loss in the period in which they are incurred. •AS 19 requires disclosure for accounting policy relating thereto in the financial statements of the lessor. •IAS 17 does not mandate any accounting policy related disclosure. Sale and leaseback IAS 17 Recognition • which results in a finance lease, any excess of sales proceeds over the carrying amount shall not be immediately recognised as income by a seller-lessee. Instead, it shall be deferred and amortisedovertheleaseterm. Sale and leaseback transaction • which results in a finance lease, AS 19 requires excess/deficiency both to be deferred and amortised over the lease term in proportion to the depreciation of the leased asset. Sale and leaseback transaction Disclosure Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 48 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
55. • classified as operating or finance leases in the same way as leases ofotherassets. •However, a characteristic of land is that it normally has an indefinite economic life and, if title is not expected to pass to the lessee by the end of the lease term, the lessee normally does not receive substantially all of the risks and rewards incidental to ownership, inwhichcasetheleaseoflandwill beanoperatinglease. As per IAS 17, leases of land are Segment Reporting IFRS 8 Scope • whose shares or potential ordinary shares are traded in a public market or in the process of issuing such shares in a public market. IFRS 8 is applicable to entities •AS17isnotapplicabletoSMCs. Lease of land IAS 17 Scope • itsscope. AS19excludesleaseoflandfrom Topic IFRS/ IAS Category Requirements as per IFRS Requirements as per Indian GAAP 49 IFRSinIndia-KeyAspects
56. Segment Reporting- Change in accounting policies IFRS 8 Presentation and disclosure • of its internal organisation in a manner that causes the composition of its reportable segments to change, the corresponding information for earlier periods, including interim periods, shall be restated unless the information is not available and the cost to develop it would beexcessive. If an entity changes the structure • adopted for segment reporting
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